Treasurer of New South Wales
The Treasurer of New South Wales, known from 1856 to 1959 as the Colonial Treasurer of New South Wales, is the minister in the Government of New South Wales responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising and is the head of the New South Wales Treasury. The Treasurer plays a key role in the economic policy of the government; the current Treasurer, since 30 January 2017, is The Honourable Dominic Perrottet. The Treasurer is assisted in his portfolio by the Deputy Premier, Minister for Regional New South Wales and Trade The Hon. John Barilaro; each year, the Treasurer presents the NSW Budget to the Parliament. In some other countries the equivalent role is the Minister for Finance, although NSW has had a separate office of that name responsible for regulating government spending. For 103 years the Treasurer was known as the'Colonial Treasurer', however the'Colonial' word was removed with the passing of the Ministers of the Crown Act 1959 from 1 April 1959. Treasurers Forster, Dibbs, Reid, Waddell, Carruthers, McGowen, Fuller, Bavin, Mair, McKell, McGirr, Heffron, Askin, Willis, Greiner and Iemma were Premier during some or all of their period as Treasurer.
By convention, the Treasurer is a member of the New South Wales Parliament with a seat in the Legislative Assembly. The exception to this were Treasurers Egan and Roozendaal, who were members of the Legislative Council during their tenure as Treasurer; the Treasurer administers his portfolio responsibilities through The Treasury cluster, in particular The Treasury and a range of other government agencies. The Assistant Treasurer, when in use and along with the Minister for Finance acted as Deputy to the Treasurer. In January 1914, Henry Hoyle was appointed as an Honorary Minister in Holman ministry, charged with the duties of Colonial Treasurer, held by Premier Holman, but Hoyle was referred to as the "Assistant Treasurer". From 1925–1929 there existed the office of "Assistant Colonial Treasurer"; however this office was abolished and when it returned in 1933, it was titled as "Assistant Treasurer". The Assistant Treasurer is not an essential cabinet post being appointed on an on-off basis, there is no Assistant Treasurer at the present.
The role exists only when in use. The last Assistant Treasurer was John Della Bosca from 1999 to 2006; the title Minister for Finance is used within New South Wales governments but that role is made responsible for the Revenue collection and administration side of Governance
Royal Agricultural Society of England
The Royal Agricultural Society of England promotes the scientific development of English agriculture. It was established in 1838 with the motto "Practice with Science" and received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria in 1840; the RASE today is based in Warwickshire. From its early days the society has held regular exhibitions around the country; the show was held in Stoneleigh Park near Stoneleigh in Warwickshire. An early venue for the show was in north-west London; the last Royal Show took place in 2009. Since the Society has concentrated on transfer of scientific knowledge to agricultural practitioners; the first editor of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, founded in 1854, was Philip Pusey, prominent in founding the society. After his death in 1855, the editing passed to H. S. Thompson, Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 11th Baronet and Chandos Wren-Hoskyns, it has been published electronically since 2003. The society makes a number of regular awards. Bledisloe Gold Medal for Landowners, instituted in 1958 by Viscount Bledisloe, is awarded for showing outstanding achievement in the successful land management and development of an English agricultural estate.
Some recipients: The National Agricultural Award established in 1964 as the Massey Ferguson National Agricultural Award and adopted by the society in 1999, is presented to recognise outstanding contributions to the advancement of agriculture in the United Kingdom. The Research Medal for Research Work of Benefit to Agriculture, introduced in 1954, recognises research work of outstanding merit, carried out in the United Kingdom of benefit to agriculture; the award is offered annually to people engaged in active research and is accompanied by a prize of 300 guineas. The Technology Award recognises groups working in a commercial environment, which have applied scientific advance into technology through the development of a product or process; the medal is accompanied by a prize of 300 guineas. Nicholas Goddard. Harvests of Change: The Royal Agricultural Society of England, 1838-1988. Quiller Press, Limited. ISBN 978-0-907621-96-6. RASE
Yester Grange is an historic house and estate situated in the village of Wentworth Falls, in the Blue Mountains 95 kilometres west of Sydney, Australia. The house has a state heritage listing, it is not known when Yester Grange was built, but the land came into the ownership of prominent Sydney importer and builder John Charles Smith in 1888 and the main residence was most constructed before 1891. The house is built of kauri wood from New Zealand and is surrounded by an estate measuring eight hectares directly above the main waterfall at Wentworth Falls; the house offers stunning views over the Jamison Valley. In 1902 the estate was purchased by NSW Premier Sir John See. See hosted large formal gatherings at the property. After his death in 1907, Yester Grange was retained as a holiday house by his family until 1938, when it was abandoned; the Grange remained vacant until 1944 when it was taken over by local council alderman Margery Anderson and her husband James. James Anderson sold the Grange in 1975 following the death of his wife two years previously.
By now the house and grounds had fallen into disrepair and the new owners and Elizabeth Clarke, set about restoring the Grange to some element of its former glory. The Clarkes had owned a gallery in Sydney and established Yester Grange as a Victorian-period museum, opening the estate to tourism for the first time; until 1999, the place was a popular destination for visitors. Since 1999 the property has been owned by hotel developer Crockett Group. Yester Grange was closed to the general public; as of 2012, the house and grounds were used as a function centre. List of historic houses List of Blue Mountains subjects Yester Grange website
Parliament of New South Wales
The Parliament of New South Wales, located in Parliament House on Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the main legislative body in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a bicameral parliament elected by the people of the state in general elections; the parliament shares law making powers with the Australian Federal Parliament. It is Australia's oldest legislature; the New South Wales Parliament follows the Westminster parliamentary traditions of dress, Green–Red chamber colours and protocol. The Parliament derives its authority from the Queen of Australia, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, who chairs the Executive Council of New South Wales, it consists of a lower house, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, an upper house, the New South Wales Legislative Council. Each house is directly elected by the people of New South Wales at elections held every four years; the Parliament of New South Wales is Australia's oldest legislature. It had its beginnings.
A small, appointed Legislative Council began meeting in 1824 to advise the Governor on legislative matters. By 1843, this had been enlarged with two-thirds of its members elected by adult males who met certain property requirements. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and an appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor; the right to vote was extended to all adult males in 1858. In 1850 the Australian Colonies Government Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament; this expanded the New South Wales Legislative Council so that by 1851 there were 54 members – again, with two-thirds elected. In 1853, a select committee chaired by William Wentworth began drawing up a Constitution for responsible self-government; the Committee’s proposed Constitution was placed before the Legislative Council in August that year and, for the most part, accepted. The Constitution, with an upper house whose members were appointed for life, was sent to the Imperial Parliament and was passed into law on 16 July 1855.
The new Parliament of New South Wales was to be a bicameral legislature, similar to that of the United Kingdom. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. With the new 54-member Legislative Assembly taking over the council chamber, a second meeting chamber for the 21 member upper house had to be added to the Parliament building in Macquarie Street. In 1859 Queensland was made a colony separate from New South Wales; the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 80 to 72 members by the loss of the Queensland seats. In 1901, New South Wales became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia and many government functions were transferred to the new Commonwealth government; the current Constitution of New South Wales was adopted in 1902: the Constitution Act 1902. Women gained the right to vote in Commonwealth elections in April 1902 and in New South Wales state elections in August 1902. In 1918, reforms permitted women to be Members of Parliament, although no woman was elected until 1925 when Millicent Preston-Stanley was elected to represent Eastern Suburbs.
That same year, a proportional representation system was introduced for the Legislative Assembly with multiple representatives from each electorate. Women were not able to be appointed to the Legislative Council until 1926; the first two women appointed to the Legislative Council were both ALP members proposed on 23 November 1931: Catherine Green, who took her seat the following day, Ellen Webster, who joined her two days later. In 1925, 1926 and 1929, Premier Jack Lang made attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, following the example of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922, but all were unsuccessful; the debate did, result in another round of reforms, in 1933, the law was changed so that a quarter of the Legislative Council was elected every three years by members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, rather than being appointed by the Governor. In 1962 Indigenous Australians gained the right to vote in all state elections. In 1978, the Council became a directly elected body in a program of electoral reform introduced by the Wran Labor government.
The number of members was reduced to 45, although transitional arrangements meant that there were 43 members from 1978 to 1981, 44 from 1981 to 1984. Further reform in 1991 by the Greiner Liberal-National government saw the size of the Legislative Council cut to 42 members, with half being elected every 4 years. In 1991, the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 109 to 99 Members and to 93 members in 1999; the Parliament building was built on the orders of Governor Lachlan Macquarie to be Sydney's second major hospital because, when he arrived in Sydney, he recognised the need for a new hospital. In 1810, he awarded the contract to Alexander Riley and Dr. D'Arcy Wentworth; the contract gave the builders the right to import 45,000 gallons of rum, for which they paid a duty of 3 shillings a gallon. They were able to sell it for a huge profit and in turn the government refunded them the duty as a payment for their work, thereby gaining for their construction the title of the'Rum Hospital'. Consisting of three buildings, the central main building was demolished in 1879 to make way for the new Sydney Hospital, completed in 1885.
The first building, now known as the Sydney Mint, was given to the Royal Mint in 1851 to become the
Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England. The town was chartered by King John in 1205, it is the traditional county town of Huntingdonshire and the seat of the Huntingdonshire district council. It is well known as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, born in 1599 and was the Member of Parliament for the town in the 17th century; the former Conservative Prime Minister John Major served as the MP for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001. Huntingdon was founded by the Danes. Mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, it seems that it was a staging post for Danish raids outside of East Anglia until 917, when the Danes moved to Tempsford, before being crushed by Edward the Elder, it prospered successively as a bridging point of the River Great Ouse, as a market town, in the 18th and 19th centuries as a coaching centre, most notably the George Hotel. The town has a well-preserved medieval bridge that used to serve as the main route of Ermine Street over the river; the bridge only ceased to be the sole crossing point to Godmanchester in 1975, with the advent of what is now the A14 bypass.
Its valuable trading position was secured by the now vanished Huntingdon Castle. The site is now a Scheduled Ancient Monument, is home to a beacon used to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Spanish Armada. In 1746, the botanists Wood and Ingram of nearby Brampton developed a cultivar species of elm tree, Ulmus × hollandica'Vegeta', named the "Huntingdon Elm" after the town. Original documents relating to Huntingdon's history, including the borough charter of 1205, are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office, Huntingdon. Parts of Huntingdon, including the town centre, were struck by an F1/T3 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. Moderate damage resulted in Huntingdon town centre. Between the railway station and the old hospital building, stands a replica cannon. In the 1990s the replica was installed to replace an original Crimean War one, that stood there until the Second World War, being scrapped for the war effort.
When the replica was installed it was placed in the opposite direction to the original. The St Mary's Street drill hall was built in the late 19th century; the George Hotel on the corner of High Street and George Street was once a posting house, named after St George in 1574 and was bought some 25 years by Henry Cromwell, grandfather of Oliver Cromwell. Charles I made the George Hotel his headquarters in 1645; the highwayman Dick Turpin is reputed to have been a visitor, when it was a coaching inn on the Great North Road. The mid-19th century saw two wings of the inn burnt down, but two were saved, including the one with the balcony overlooking the yard. Since 1959 the courtyard and its balcony have been used for performances of Shakespeare plays produced by the Shakespeare at the George Trust. Huntingdon has a town council consisting of 19 councillors; as elsewhere, local elections are held every four years. Two of the town councillors serve as mayor and deputy mayor. Council meetings are held once a month at the town hall.
Huntingdonshire District Council has three wards: Huntingdon North, Huntingdon East and Huntingdon West. The ward of Huntingdon East is represented by the other two wards each by two; the main offices for Huntingdonshire District Council are in Huntingdon itself. The highest tier of local government is Cambridgeshire County Council based in Cambridge; this provides county-wide services such as major road infrastructure and rescue, social services and heritage protection. Huntingdon is one of 60 electoral divisions, represented by two county councillors. Huntingdon lies in the parliamentary constituency of Huntingdon, it has been represented by Jonathan Djanogly MP since 2001. The previous member was the former prime minister John Major, who held the seat in 1979–2001. For the European Parliament Huntingdon is part of the East of England constituency, which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation; the town lies on the north bank of the River Great Ouse, opposite Godmanchester and close to the market town of St Ives in the east and the village of Brampton in the west.
Huntingdon now incorporates the village of Hartford to the east, the developing areas of Oxmoor, Stukeley Meadows and Hinchingbrooke to the north and west. Between Godmanchester and Brampton lies Portholme Meadow, England's largest. About 257 acres in area, it contains many rare species of grass and dragonfly, it is the only known British habitat of the marsh dandelion. It acts as a natural reservoir for water in times of flood, enabling the river to run off so helping to preclude flooding in nearby towns, it has served as a horse racecourse and once was a centre for aviation. Huntingdon is home including Huntingdon Racecourse. Hinchingbrooke Business Park has many warehouses located in it; the nearest weather station for which long-term weather data is available is RAF Wyton, 3 mi north-east of the town centre, although more Monks Wood, 5 mi to the north-west, has provided data. Like most of Britain, Huntingdon has a temperate maritime-based climate free from temperature extremes, with rainfall spread evenly over the year.
The absolute maximum recorded at Wyton was 35.4 °C in August 1990. The warmest day of the year averages 29.7 °C. and 16.0 days a year will rise to 25.1 °C or above. 43.2 nights of the year report an air frost. The absolute mini
Broken Hill is an inland mining city in the far west of outback New South Wales, Australia. It is near the border with South Australia on the crossing of the Barrier Highway and the Silver City Highway, in the Barrier Range, it is 315 m above sea level, with a hot desert climate, an average rainfall of 235 mm. The closest major city is Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, more than 500 km to the southwest and linked via route A32; the town has a high historical importance in Australia's mining and economic history after the discovery of silver ore led to the opening of various mines, thus establishing Broken Hill's recognition as a prosperous mining town well into the 1990s. Despite experiencing a slowing economic situation into the late 1990s and 2000s, Broken Hill itself was listed on the National Heritage List in 2015 and remains Australia's longest running mining town. Broken Hill has been referred to as "The Silver City", less as the "Oasis of the West", the "Capital of the Outback".
Although over 1,100 km west of Sydney and surrounded by semi-desert, the town has prominent park and garden displays and offers a number of attractions, such as the Living Desert Sculptures. The town has a high potential for solar power, given its extensive daylight hours of sunshine; the Broken Hill Solar Plant, completed in 2015, is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. Unlike the rest of New South Wales, Broken Hill observes Australian Central Standard Time, the same time zone used in South Australia and the Northern Territory; this is because at the time the Australian dominions adopted standard time, Broken Hill's only direct rail link was with Adelaide, not Sydney. Broken Hill is regarded as part of South Australia for the purposes of postal parcels rates, telephone charges. Broken Hill used to be a break of gauge station where the state railway systems of South Australia and New South Wales met. Broken Hill is Australia's longest-lived mining city. In 1844, the explorer Charles Sturt saw and named the Barrier Range, at the time referred to a "Broken Hill" in his diary.
Silver ore was discovered on this broken hill in 1883 by a boundary rider named Charles Rasp. The "broken hill" that gave its name to Broken Hill comprised a number of hills that appeared to have a break in them; the broken hill no longer exists. The area was known as Willyama. Prior to Sturt's naming, the surrounding area was referred to by the local Aboriginal population as the "Leaping Crest". Broken Hill's massive orebody, which formed about 1,800 million years ago, has proved to be among the world's largest silver–lead–zinc mineral deposits; the orebody is shaped like a boomerang plunging into the earth at its ends and outcropping in the centre. The protruding tip of the orebody stood out as a jagged rocky ridge amongst undulating plain country on either side; this was known as the broken hill by early pastoralists. Miners called the ore body the Line of Lode. A unique mineral identified from Broken Hill has been named Nyholmite after Ron Nyholm. Lead with the isotope signature of the Broken Hill deposits has been found across the entire continent of Antarctica in ice cores dating back to the late nineteenth century.
The earliest human settlers in the area around Broken Hill are thought to have been the Wiljakali Indigenous Australians, once thought to have only intermittently lived in the area because of the lack of permanent water sources, but it has since been found that the Indigenous Clans of the area were able to survive on underground water holes and wells that were unknown to the European settlers. Many of these waterholes are still kept secret from non-Indigenous people; as in much of Australia, a combination of white settler disease and aggression drove them from their lands. The first whites to visit the area was Surveyor General of New South Wales, Major Thomas Mitchell, in 1841. Three years in 1844, the explorer Charles Sturt saw and named the Barrier Range while searching for an inland sea. Burke and Wills passed through the area on their famous 1860–61 expedition, setting up a base camp at nearby Menindee. Pastoralists first began settling the area in the 1850s, the main trade route to the area was along the Darling River.
Broken Hill was founded in 1883 by boundary rider Charles Rasp, who patrolled the Mount Gipps fences. In 1883 he discovered what he thought was tin; the orebody they came from proved to be the richest of its kind in the world. Rasp and six associates founded the Broken Hill Proprietary Company BHP Billiton, now BHP again, in 1885 as the Syndicate of Seven. By 1915 BHP had realised that its ore reserves were limited and begun to diversify into steel production. Mining at the BHP mines at Broken Hill ceased 28 February 1939. BHP was not the only mining operation at Broken Hill though, mining continued at the southern and northern ends of the Line of Lode; the southern and northern operations are run by Perilya Limited, who plan to open further mines along the Line of Lode. The Battle of Broken Hill took place on New Year's Day 1915 when two Afghan men fired upon a trainload of people who were headed to a New Years Day picnic. Since Australia was at war at the time with the Ottoman Empire, the men were first thought to be Turkish, but were identified as being from the British colony of India.
They killed wounded six, before they were killed by a group of policemen and soldiers. In 1918, the Italian Ambassador to Australia, Emilio Eles, with the help of the Australian p
Clarence River (New South Wales)
The Clarence River, a mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, is situated in the Northern Rivers district of New South Wales, Australia. The river rises on the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, in the Border Ranges west of Bonalbo, near Rivertree at the junction of Koreelah Creek and Maryland River, on the watershed that marks the border between New South Wales and Queensland; the river flows south, south east and north east, joined by twenty-four tributaries including the Tooloom Creek and the Mann, Cataract, Coldstream and Esk rivers. The river reaches its mouth at its confluence with the Coral Sea in the South Pacific Ocean, between Iluka and Yamba. On its journey it passes through the towns of Tabulam and Copmanhurst, the city of Grafton, the towns of Ulmarra, Maclean; the river features many large river islands, including Woodford, Ashby and Harwood islands. The river supports a large prawn fishing industry; the Clarence River system is an extensive east coast drainage with many tributaries of differing size.
Apart from the Murray River, it is the largest river in mainland Australia south of the Tropic of Capricorn, though its flow for comparison is only half that of the Potomac. Its basin is, together with the similarly-sized Hawkesbury, Australia's largest Pacific watershed south of Bundaberg; the intense rainfalls that typify the North Coast mean, that major floods can temporarily raise the flow of the Clarence to 24 feet, as happened in 1890. The climate of most of the basin is subtropical, though the highest areas with cooler weather are of the temperate Cfb type. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,600 millimetres on the coast at Yamba down to 1,080 millimetres in the shielded valley at Grafton. At higher altitudes, rainfall may reach 2,000 millimetres on exposed slopes but data are poor. Most of the high areas receive no more rain than Grafton though variability from year to year is less. Temperatures are very warm, with maxima in lower area ranging from 27 °C in January to 19 °C in July. In the highlands, temperatures are much cooler and in July range from lows of around 2 °C to maxima around 13 °C - though in January days remain warm at around 25 °C.
Rainfall per month on the coast ranges from around 220 millimetres in February and March to around 70 millimetres in September. During Cyclone Oswald, the Clarence was subject to minor flooding, brought about due to the storm's residual effects and associated monsoon trough that passed over parts of Queensland and New South Wales. At Grafton, the river peaked at a new record height of 8.1 metres. Two years earlier, the river peaked 7.6 metres, forcing the evacuation of 3000 people from their homes. On both occasions, the city's levee was credited with preventing more severe flooding; the local historical society has published an account of newspaper reports documenting flooding of the river from the late 1800s to 2011. Tourism is a significant industry in the Clarence Valley generating around A$457million per annum and employing around 2500 people. Most of the Clarence basin is forested, with important areas of remnant subtropical and temperate rainforest occurring all along the course. Only in alluvial areas where soils are less leached is there major agricultural development: in these areas the chief industries are cattle rearing and the growing of sugar cane in lower-lying areas.
Of particular interest is the small island town of Harwood, where a Sperry New Holland factory and a quaint Bush Pub overlook the Clarence delta. Harwood is the location of the local sugar mill, the Harwood Sugar Mill built in 1873 and is the oldest Australian mill still operational; the sugar mill is situated on the river due to its importance in transporting sugar cane from farms in the surrounding area in previous times. Harwood is just after the Harwood Bridge on part of Australia's National Highway from Sydney, Port Macquarie, Coffs Harbour to Brisbane; the freshwater reaches of the Clarence River support important populations of native freshwater fish including Eastern freshwater cod, an endangered fish species unique to the Clarence River system, Australian bass. The Indigenous Bundjalung people call the river Boorimbah, while the coastal Yaygir people call it the Ngunitiji; the Aboriginal people from the Tenterfield district used the word neyand, meaning "top" as the name for the headwaters of the river.
The river remained unknown to British authorities until the mid 1830s when escaped convict Richard Craig, living with Aboriginals in the area, reported its existence. It was called the Big River, but this caused confusion as the Gwydir River in northern New South Wales was colloquially known by this name. In November of 1839 the Governor of New South Wales, George Gipps changed the name to the Clarence River in honour of the previous King of the British Empire, William IV, 1st Duke of Clarence and St Andrews; the local government area of the Clarence Valley Council draws its name from the river and covers the lower half of the river valley. There are few fixed crossings of the Clarence River. Going downstream, these include: Bridge over Hootens Rd Bonalbo Bridge at Tabulam, on the Bruxner Highway Bridge at Lilydale near Copmanhurst Rogan Bridge, a bridge th