John Kunkel Small
John Kunkel Small was an American botanist. Born on January 31, 1869 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania, Kunkel studied botany at Franklin & Marshall College and Columbia University, he was the first Curator of Museums at The New York Botanical Garden, a post in which he served from 1898 until 1906. From 1906 to 1934 he was Head Curator and from 1934 until his death he was Chief Research Associate and Curator. Small's doctoral dissertation, published as Flora of the Southeastern United States in 1903, revised in 1913 and 1933, remains the best floristic reference for much of the South. Assisted by the patronage of Charles Deering, Small traveled extensively around Florida recording plants and land formations. Small was an early botanist explorer of Florida, documenting many things for the first time, although the flora and fauna were well known to the local Seminole Indians, his first trip to the region was in 1901. Over the next 37 years, Small visited many times "to collect specimens, to study the natural history of the region, to photograph natural landscapes, tropical plants and other local folk".
Small explored by both car and boat bringing along his wife Elizabeth, their two boys and two girls. "Small's botanical research was recorded in 450 published works articles, numerous unpublished typescripts. Among his most well-known publications is the book From Eden to Sahara: Florida's Tragedy, which received acclaim in 1929 for documenting the severe deterioration of south Florida's botanical resources that he had observed up to that time." Notes John K. Small Collection: 2,135 images of South Florida 1901-1938Bibliography
John Small (cricketer)
John Small was an English professional cricketer who played from about 1756 to 1798, one of the longest careers on record. Born at Empshott, Hampshire, he is regarded as the greatest batsman of the 18th century and acknowledged as having been the first to master the use of the modern straight bat, introduced in the 1760s, he scored the earliest known century in important cricket. He died at Petersfield, where he was in residence for most of his life and where he established businesses. Small was a influential player, involved in the creation of two significant permanent additions to the Laws of Cricket: the maximum width of the bat and the introduction of the middle stump in the wicket. Acclaimed as the greatest player associated with the famous Hambledon Club, Small is the first person known to have been described in literature in terms that attest him to have been a "superstar". In 1997, he was named by The Times as one of its 100 Greatest Cricketers of All Time. Small was a playing member of Hambledon during its years of greatness and it was because of him that Hambledon was such a famous club.
He was playing for Hambledon in 1764 and his name is found in the club's scorecards right up to 1798 when he was over 60. Knowledge of the early years of his career are sketchy due to the lack of detailed records before scorecards became common from 1772, but it is believed he began playing in top-class cricket during the 1750s and may well have taken part in the earliest known Hambledon matches, a tri-series against Dartford in 1756; the earliest definite mention of Small dates from the 1764 season when Hambledon played three matches against Chertsey. In August 1768, Small scored more than 140 runs for Hambledon against Kent at Broadhalfpenny Down; this was a feat unheard of at that time but it is not quite clear from the original source if it was in one innings or his match total. Only a week playing for Hambledon against Sussex at Broadhalfpenny Down, Small scored "about four-score notches... and was not out when the game was finished", Hambledon winning by 7 wickets. On 31 July and 1 August 1769, Hambledon won by 4 wickets.
A contemporary report in the Reading Mercury states that "the utmost activity and skill in the game was displayed by each individual through the whole course of this match, but the batting of Messrs Small and John Bayton on the Hambledon side". Small was involved in one of the most controversial incidents in early cricket history when Hambledon played Chertsey at Laleham Burway on 23 & 24 September 1771. Hambledon won the match by 1 wicket, it was in this game that Chertsey's Thomas White used a bat, as wide as the wicket in an attempt to force an issue about the width of the new straight bats that had replaced the old curved sticks. Whether, White's intention is unclear but his action ensured that a new rule was passed which limited the width to 4.25 inches. This rule supported a written motion presented by Hambledon bowler Thomas Brett, counter-signed by club captain Richard Nyren and senior batsman Small; the original of Brett's memorandum, bearing Small's signature, is maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in its museum at Lord's.
The production of match scorecards became common from the 1772 season and three 1772 cards have survived. Small played in all three matches and was the season's highest runscorer with 213 in his six innings; the only other player to exceed 100 was William Yalden who made 136 in six innings. In the first match of the season, Small scored 78 for Hampshire against All-England out of a team total of 146. In the second innings, he scored 34 out of 79 and his team won by 53 runs, an illustration of his enormous value to Hampshire, his innings of 78 was the highest individual score recorded to that time. Although higher scores such as Richard Newland's 88 in 1745 and Small's own 140-plus in 1768 have been mentioned in the sources, it is not clear if those were made in one innings or if they were match totals. Small's 78 is therefore the startpoint of the progressive world record for the highest individual innings in senior cricket. Small's 1772 aggregate of 213 runs from six innings would give him an average of 35.50 if all his innings were completed.
This may seem low by modern standards but it has to be remembered that prevailing pitch conditions were such that "the scoring potential of the 18th century batsman was only about 30% of the 20th or 21st century batsman". 18th century pitches were exposed to the elements, underwent rudimentary preparation and were not flat: Lumpy Stevens in particular was a master at selecting one in which there was a distinctive brow or ridge that would enable him to bowl "shooters". Small has been recorded in a number of single wicket matches but he seems to have been less successful in this form of cricket than in the eleven-a-side version, he did have one single wicket innings, of enormous significance in the evolution of the sport because it led directly to the introduction of the third stump to what had always been a two-stump wicket. The match in question took place at the Artillery Ground on 22 & 23 May 1775 between Five of Kent and Five of Hambledon. Kent batted first and made 37 to which Hambledon replied with 92, including 75 by Small, that being his highest known score in a single wicket match.
In their second innings, Kent scored 102. Small needed 14 more to win when he went in, he duly scored the runs and Hambledon won by 1 wicket b
John Small (British Army medical officer)
Deputy Surgeon-General John Small was a British Army officer and early advocate for the use of large doses of quinine to treat malaria. Small was born in Edinburgh, the oldest son of Patrick Small and Mary Brown Small, his father was a silversmith and auctioneer on Edinburgh's Advocate's Close. Small and his family were members of the Smalls of Dirnanean. Small began his medical career as an apprentice under J. F. MacFarlan in the North Bridge section of Edinburgh, he attended the University of Edinburgh and the extra-academical school. He received his medical licence from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1843. After two years in private practice he entered the army in 1845, his first assignment was with the 12th Regiment of Foot at Mauritius. He was reassigned to Africa to fight in the Cape Frontier Wars, for which he received a medal, he afterwards served as surgeon for the Cape Mounted Riflemen before returning to Mauritius as staff surgeon. He was promoted to surgeon-major on 30 December 1865.
In 1867 Small co-authored the Report on the Malarial Epidemic Fever of Mauritius of 1866–67, in which large doses of quinine were advocated to treat malaria fever. Small was promoted to deputy surgeon-general in 1875 and placed in charge of medical services in the Woolwich district in London. Small died at Woolwich in July 1879, he was survived by his widow and one daughter