The Star Tribune is the largest newspaper in Minnesota. It originated as the Minneapolis Tribune in 1867 and the competing Minneapolis Daily Star in 1920. During the 1930s and 1940s Minneapolis's competing newspapers were consolidated, with the Tribune published in the morning and the Star in the evening, they merged in 1982. After a tumultuous period in which the newspaper was sold and re-sold and filed for bankruptcy protection in 2009, it was purchased by local businessman Glen Taylor in 2014; the Star Tribune serves Minneapolis and is distributed throughout the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, the state of Minnesota and the Upper Midwest. It contains a mixture of national and local news, sports and lifestyle content. Journalists from the Star Tribune and its predecessor newspapers have won six Pulitzer Prizes, including two in 2013; the newspaper's headquarters is in downtown Minneapolis. The Star Tribune's roots date to the creation of the Minneapolis Daily Tribune by Colonel William S. King, William D. Washburn and Dorilus Morrison.
The newspaper went through several different editors and publishers during its first two decades, including John T. Gilman, George K. Shaw, Albert Shaw and Alden J. Blethen. In 1878 the Minneapolis Evening Journal began publication. On November 30, 1889, the Tribune headquarters in downtown Minneapolis caught fire. Seven people were killed and 30 injured, the building and presses were a total loss. In 1891, the Tribune was purchased by Gilbert A. Pierce and William J. Murphy for $450,000. Pierce sold his share to Thomas Lowry and Lowry sold it to Murphy, making Murphy the newspaper's sole owner, his business and legal background helped him structure the Tribune's debt and modernize its printing equipment. The newspaper experimented with partial-color printing and the use of halftone for photographs and portraits. In 1893, Murphy sent the Tribune's first correspondent to Washington, D. C; as Minneapolis grew, the newspaper's circulation expanded. In 1905, Murphy merged it with the Tribune, he died in 1918.
After a brief transitional period, Murphy's son Fred became the Tribune's publisher in 1921. The other half of the newspaper's history begins with the Minnesota Daily Star, founded on August 19, 1920, by elements of the agrarian Nonpartisan League and backed by Thomas Van Lear and Herbert Gaston; the Daily Star had difficulty attracting advertisers with its overt political agenda, went bankrupt in 1924. After its purchase by A. B. Frizzell and former New York Times executive John Thompson, the newspaper became the politically independent Minneapolis Daily Star. In 1935, the Cowles family of Des Moines, purchased the Star; the family patriarch, Gardner Cowles, Sr. had purchased The Des Moines Register and the Des Moines Tribune during the first decade of the century and managed them successfully. Gardner's son, John Cowles, Sr. moved to Minneapolis to manage the Star. Under him it had the city's highest circulation. In 1939 the Cowles family purchased the Minneapolis Evening Journal, merging the two newspapers into the Star-Journal.
Tribune publisher Fred Murphy died in 1940. The Tribune became the city's morning newspaper, the Star-Journal was the evening newspaper, they published a joint Sunday edition. A separate evening newspaper was spun off, which published until 1948. In 1944, John Cowles, Sr. hired Wisconsin native and former Tulsa Tribune editor William P. Steven as managing editor of the two newspapers. During his tenure in Minneapolis, he was president of the Associated Press Managing Editors Association in 1949 and first chairman of the organization's Continuing Study Committee. By August 1960 John Cowles, Jr. was vice president and associate editor of the two papers, it was soon apparent that he disapproved of Steven's hard-nosed approach to journalism. When Steven chafed under the younger Cowles's management, he was fired. After Steven's ouster, John Cowles, Jr. was editor of the two newspapers. He had a progressive political viewpoint, publishing editorials supporting the civil rights movement and liberal causes.
In 1982 the afternoon Star was discontinued due to low circulation, the staffs of the Star and Tribune were transferred to the merged Minneapolis Star and Tribune. Cowles, Jr. fired publisher Donald R. Dwight, his handling of Dwight's termination led to his removal as editor in 1983, although his family retained a controlling financial interest in the newspaper. In 1983, the Star Tribune challenged a Minnesota tax on paper and ink before the Supreme Court of the United States. In Minneapolis Star Tribune Co. v. Commissioner, the court found that the tax was a violation of the First Amendment. In 1987 the newspaper's name was simplified to Star Tribune, the slogan "Newspaper of the Twin Cities" was added. In 1998 the McClatchy Company purchased Cowles Media Company for $1.4 billion, ending the newspaper's 61-year history in the family in one of the largest sales in American newspaper history. Although McClatchy sold many of Cowles's smaller assets, i
Leech Lake Indian Reservation
The Leech Lake Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation located in the north-central Minnesota counties of Cass, Itasca and Hubbard. The reservation forms the land base for the federally recognized Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, one of six bands comprising the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, organized in 1934; the Leech Lake Reservation has the highest population of any reservation in Minnesota, with a resident population of 10,660 indicated by the 2010 United States census. As of the 2010 census, the reservation had a population of 10,660, making it the largest in the state by number of residents; as the reservation covers 972.517 sq mi of land and 337.392 sq mi of water, about one-fourth of its territory is covered by lakes. The largest lakes on the reservation are Leech Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish, Cass Lake; the band uses 40 lakes for the production of wild rice, the community produces more rice than any other reservation in the state. The reservation is the second-largest in Minnesota in terms of land area, the largest in terms of total area.
The core areas of the reservation were established by the 1855 treaty of Washington, which formed three smaller reservations for the Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians, modified several times thereafter. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the present "Greater" Leech Lake Indian Reservation was formed from the merger of the Leech Lake, Cass Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish reservations of the Pillager Band, the Chippewa Indian Reservation of the Lake Superior Band, the White Oak Point reservation of the Mississippi Band. A minimal percentage of reservation land is owned by citizens of the Band; the reservation consists of eleven villages. Nearly all Leech Lake communities are located near the woods of the Chippewa National Forest; the largest community is Cass Lake, situated on the southwestern shores of the eponymous lake. The next largest settlements are Ball Club, Onigum and Bena. In some communities, housing is located with each side lined with homes. Battle of Sugar Point Bryan v. Itasca County Leech Lake Tribal College List of historical Indian reservations in the United States List of largest Indian reservations Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Palace Bingo and Casino Official website Ekidong, Aaniin.
Ojibwe Vocabulary Project. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Humanities Center. ISBN 9780578034645. Treuer, Anton. Living Our Language: Ojibwe Tales & Oral Histories. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873514040. Treuer, Anton. Ojibwe in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873517683
Minnesota Historical Society
The Minnesota Historical Society is a nonprofit educational and cultural institution dedicated to preserving the history of the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was founded by the territorial legislature in 1849 a decade before statehood; the Society is named in the Minnesota Constitution. It is headquartered in the Minnesota History Center in downtown St. Paul. Although its focus is on Minnesota history it is not constrained by it, its work on the North American fur trade has been recognized in Canada as well. MNHS holds a collection of nearly 550,000 books, 37,000 maps, 250,000 photographs, 225,000 historical artifacts, 950,000 archaeological items, 38,000 cubic feet of manuscripts, 45,000 cubic feet of government records, 5,500 paintings and drawings. MNopedia: The Minnesota Encyclopedia, is since 2011 an online "resource for reliable information about significant people, places and things in Minnesota history", funded through a Legacy Amendment Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund grant and administered by the Minnesota Historical Society.
The Minnesota Historical Society operates 31 historic sites and museums, 26 of which are open to the public. MNHS manages 14 sites directly and 10 in partnerships where the society maintains the resources and provides funding. Five sites are being held for preservation but are closed to public access, two are self-guided sites with interpretive signage. Seven of the sites are National Historic Landmarks and 16 others are on the National Register of Historic Places. Seven sites lie within Minnesota state parks, three are elements of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. "Journals and other documents of the Minnesota Historical Society". Minnesota Historical Society / Internet Archive. Retrieved November 24, 2012; these publications are described in more detail in an online format, at the MHC's own Digital History Books page Minnesota Historical Society Placeography – wiki operated by the Minnesota Historical Society This article incorporates text from MNopedia, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
The cabinet card was a style of photograph, used for photographic portraiture after 1870. It consisted of a thin photograph mounted on a card measuring 108 by 165 mm; the carte de visite was displaced by the larger cabinet card in the 1880s. In the early 1860s, both types of photographs were the same in process and design. Both were most albumen prints, the primary difference being the cabinet card was larger and included extensive logos and information on the reverse side of the card to advertise the photographer’s services; however into its popularity, other types of papers began to replace the albumen process. Despite the similarity, the cabinet card format was used for landscape views before it was adopted for portraiture; some cabinet card images from the 1890s have the appearance of a black-and-white photograph in contrast to the distinctive sepia toning notable in the albumen print process. These photographs have a neutral image tone and were most produced on a matte collodion, gelatin or gelatin bromide paper.
Sometimes images from this period can be identified by a greenish cast. Gelatin papers were introduced in the 1870s and started gaining acceptance in the 1880s and 1890s as the gelatin bromide papers became popular. Matte collodion was used in the same period. A true black-and-white image on a cabinet card is to have been produced in the 1890s or after 1900; the last cabinet cards were produced in the 1920s as late as 1924. Owing to the larger image size, the cabinet card increased in popularity during the second half of the 1860s and into the 1870s, replacing the carte de visite as the most popular form of portraiture; the cabinet card was large enough to be viewed from across the room when displayed on a cabinet, why they became known as such in the vernacular. However, when the renowned Civil War photographer Mathew Brady first started offering them to his clientele towards the end of 1865, he used the trademark "Imperial Carte-de-Visite." Whatever the name, the popular print format joined the photograph album as a fixture in the late 19th-century Victorian parlor.
Early in its introduction, the cabinet card ushered in the temporary disuse of the photographic album which had come into existence commercially with the carte de visite. Photographers began employing artists to retouch photographs by altering the negative before making the print to hide facial defects revealed by the new format. Small stands and photograph frames for the tabletop replaced the heavy photograph album. Photo album manufacturers responded by producing albums with pages for cabinet cards with a few pages in the back reserved for the old family carte de visite prints. For nearly three decades after the 1860s, the commercial portraiture industry was dominated by the carte de visite and cabinet card formats. In the decade before 1900, the number and variety of card photograph styles expanded in response to declining sales. Manufacturers of standardized card stock and print materials hoped to stimulate sales and retain public interest in card photographs. However, the public demanded outdoor and candid photographs with enlarged prints which they could frame or smaller unmounted snapshots they could collect in scrapbooks.
Owing in part to the immense popularity of the affordable Kodak Box Brownie camera, first introduced in 1900, the public began taking their own photographs, thus the popularity of the cabinet card declined. Introduced: 1860. First used for horizontal views eventually adapted for portraits. Peak popularity: 1880s. Although not uncommon in the 1870s, the cabinet card did not displace the carte de visite until the 1880s. Decline: 1890s; as snapshot and personal photography became commonplace among the public, the popularity of the cabinet card and cabinet card specific albums waned. Unmounted paper prints and the scrapbook albums started replacing them. A variety of other large card styles of various names and dimensions came about for professional portraits in the 1880s and 1890s. After 1900, card photographs had a much larger area surrounding the print quite with an embossed frame around the image on heavy, gray card stock. Last Used: The cabinet card still had a place in public consumption and continued to be produced until the early 1900s and quite a bit longer in Europe.
The last cabinet cards were produced in the 1930s. When attempting to determine the date of creation for a cabinet card, clues can be gathered by the details on the card; the type of card stock or whether it had right-angled or rounded corners can help to determine the date of the photograph to as close as five years. However, it has to be noted that these dating methods aren't always 100% accurate, since a Victorian photographer may have been using up old card stock, or the cabinet card may have been a re-print made many years after the photo was recorded. Card stock 1866–1880: square, lightweight mount 1880–1890: square, heavy weight card stock 1890s: scalloped edgesCard colours 1866–1880: thin, light weight card stock in white, off white or light cream. 1880s on: Large, ornate text for photographer name and add
Great Northern Railway (U.S.)
The Great Northern Railway was an American Class I railroad. Running from Saint Paul, Minnesota, to Seattle, Washington, it was the creation of 19th-century railroad entrepreneur James J. Hill and was developed from the Saint Paul & Pacific Railroad; the Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the U. S. In 1970 the Great Northern Railway merged with three other railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad, which merged in 1996 with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway; the Great Northern was the only funded – and built – transcontinental railroad in U. S. history. No federal subsidies were used unlike all other transcontinental railroads; the Great Northern was built in stages to create profitable lines, before extending the road further into the undeveloped Western territories. In a series of the earliest public relations campaigns, contests were held to promote interest in the railroad and the ranchlands along its route.
Fred J. Adams used promotional incentives such as feed and seed donations to farmers getting started along the line. Contests were all-inclusive, from largest farm animals to largest freight carload capacity and were promoted to immigrants and newcomers from the East; the earliest predecessor railroad to the GN was the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, a bankrupt railroad with a small amount of track in the state of Minnesota. James Jerome Hill convinced John S. Kennedy, Norman Kittson, Donald Smith, George Stephen, others to invest $5.5 million in purchasing the railroad. On March 13, 1878, the road's creditors formally signed an agreement transferring their bonds and control of the railroad to Hill's investment group. On September 18, 1889, Hill changed the name of the Minneapolis and St. Cloud Railway to the Great Northern Railway. On February 1, 1890, he transferred ownership of the StPM&M, Montana Central Railway, other rail systems he owned to the Great Northern; the Great Northern had branches that ran north to the Canada–US border in Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana.
It had branches that ran to Superior and Butte, connecting with the iron mining fields of Minnesota and copper mines of Montana. In 1898 Hill purchased control of large parts of the Messabe Range iron mining district in Minnesota, along with its rail lines; the Great Northern began large-scale shipment of ore to the steel mills of the Midwest. At its height, Great Northern operated over 8,000 miles; the railroad’s best known engineer was John Frank Stevens, who served from 1889 to 1903. Stevens was acclaimed for his 1889 exploration of Marias Pass in Montana and determined its practicability for a railroad. Stevens was an efficient administrator with imagination, he discovered Stevens Pass through the Cascade Mountains, set railroad construction standards in the Mesabi Range of northern Minnesota, supervised construction of the Oregon Trunk Line. He became the chief engineer of the Panama Canal; the logo of the railroad, a Rocky Mountain goat, was based on a goat William Kenney, one of the railroad's presidents, had used to haul newspapers as a boy.
The mainline began at Saint Paul, heading west and topping the bluffs of the Mississippi River, crossing the river to Minneapolis on a massive multi-piered stone bridge. The Stone Arch Bridge stands in Minneapolis, near the Saint Anthony Falls, the only waterfall on the Mississippi; the bridge ceased to be used as a railroad bridge in 1978 and is now used as a pedestrian river crossing with excellent views of the falls and of the lock system used to grant barges access up the river past the falls. The mainline headed northwest from the Twin Cities, across eastern Montana; the line crossed the Rocky Mountains at Marias Pass, followed the Flathead River and Kootenai River to Bonners Ferry, South to Sandpoint, west to Newport, Washington and to Spokane, passing by the extensive railroad facility of Hillyard, Washington. From here, the mainline crossed the Cascade Mountains through the Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass, reaching Seattle, Washington, in 1893, with the driving of the last spike at Scenic, Washington, on January 6, 1893.
The main line west of Marias Pass has been relocated twice. The original route over Haskell Pass, via Kalispell and Marion, Montana was replaced in 1904 by a more circuitous but flatter route via Whitefish and Eureka, joining the Kootenai River at Rexford, Montana. A further reroute was necessitated by the construction of the Libby Dam on the Kootenai River in the late 1960s; the Army Corp of Engineers built a new route through the Salish Mountains, including the 7-mile-long Flathead Tunnel, second-longest in the United States, to relocate the tracks away from the Kootenai River. This route opened in 1970; the surviving portions of the older routes (from Columbia Falls to Kalispell and Stryker to Eureka, are now operated by Watco as the Mission Mountain Railroad. The Great Northern mainline crossed the continental divide through Marias Pass, the lowest crossing of the Rockies south of the Canada–US border. Here, the mainline forms the southern border of Glacier National Park, which the GN promoted as a tourist attraction.
GN constructed stations at East Glacier and West Glacier entries to the park and timber lodges at the entries and other inns and lodges throughout the Park
The Leonids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel–Tuttle, which are known for their spectacular meteor storms that occur about every 33 years. The Leonids get their name from the location of their radiant in the constellation Leo: the meteors appear to radiate from that point in the sky, their proper Greek name should be Leontids, but the word was constructed as a Greek/Latin hybrid and it has been used since. They peak in the month of November. Earth moves through the meteoroid stream of particles left from the passages of a comet; the stream comprises solid particles, known as meteoroids, ejected by the comet as its frozen gases evaporate under the heat of the Sun when it is close enough – closer than Jupiter's orbit. The Leonids are a fast moving stream which encounter the path of impact at 72 km/s. Larger Leonids which are about 10 mm across have a mass of half a gram and are known for generating bright meteors. An annual Leonid shower may deposit 13 tons of particles across the entire planet.
The meteoroids left by the comet are organized in trails in orbits similar to though different from that of the comet. They are differentially disturbed by the planets, in particular Jupiter and to a lesser extent by radiation pressure from the sun, the Poynting–Robertson effect, the Yarkovsky effect; these trails of meteoroids cause meteor showers. Old trails are spatially not compose the meteor shower with a few meteors per minute. In the case of the Leonids, that tends to peak around November 18, but some are spread through several days on either side and the specific peak changes every year. Conversely, young trails are spatially dense and the cause of meteor outbursts when the Earth enters one; the Leonids produce meteor storms about every 33 years, which exceed 1,000 meteors per hour, in contrast to the sporadic background and the shower background. The Leonids are famous because storms, can be among the most spectacular; because of the storm of 1833 and the recent developments in scientific thought of the time, the Leonids have had a major effect on the development of the scientific study of meteors, thought to be atmospheric phenomena.
Although it has been suggested the Leonid meteor shower and storms have been noted in ancient times, it was the meteor storm of 1833 that broke into people's modern day awareness – it was of superlative strength. One estimate of the peak rate is over one hundred thousand meteors an hour, but another, done as the storm abated, estimated in excess of 240,000 meteors during the nine hours of the storm, over the entire region of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, it was marked by several nations of Native Americans: the Cheyenne established a peace treaty and the Lakota calendar was reset. Abolitionists including Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass as well as slave-owners took note and others; the New York Evening Post carried a series of articles on the event including reports from Canada to Jamaica, it made news in several states beyond New York and though it appeared in North America was talked about in Europe. The journalism of the event tended to rise above the partisan debates of the time and reviewed facts as they could be sought out.
Abraham Lincoln commented on it years later. Near Independence, Missouri, in Clay County, a refugee Mormon community watched the meteor shower on the banks of the Missouri River after having been driven from their homes by local settlers; the founder and first leader of Mormonism, Joseph Smith, afterwards noted in his journal his belief that this event was a literal fulfillment of the word of God and a sure sign that the coming of Christ was close at hand. Though it was noted in the midwest and eastern areas it was noted in the far west. Denison Olmsted explained the event most accurately. After spending the last weeks of 1833 collecting information, he presented his findings in January 1834 to the American Journal of Science and Arts, published in January–April 1834, January 1836, he noted the shower was of short duration and was not seen in Europe, that the meteors radiated from a point in the constellation of Leo and he speculated the meteors had originated from a cloud of particles in space.
Accounts of the 1866 repeat of the Leonids counted hundreds per minute/a few thousand per hr in Europe. The Leonids were again seen in 1867. Another strong appearance of the Leonids in 1868 reached an intensity of 1000 per hour in dark skies, it was in 1866–67 that information on Comet Tempel-Tuttle was gathered pointing it out as the source of the meteor shower. When the storms failed to return in 1899, it was thought that the dust had moved on and storms were a thing of the past. In 1966, a spectacular storm was seen over the Americas. Historical notes were gathered thus noting the Leonids back to 900AD. Radar studies showed the 1966 storm included a high percentage of smaller particles while 1965's lower activity had a much higher proportion of larger particles. In 1981 Donald K. Yeomans of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory reviewed the history of meteor showers for the Leonids and the history of the dynamic orbit of Comet Tempel-Tuttle. A graph from it was re-published in Sky and Telescope, it showed relative positions of the Earth and Tempel-Tuttle and marks where Earth encountered dense dust.
This showed that the meteoroids are behind and outside the path of the comet, but paths of the Earth through the cloud of particles resulting in powerful storms were nea
A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Shapes other than rectangular may be used. There are novelty exceptions, such as wood postcards, made of thin wood, copper postcards sold in the Copper Country of the U. S. state of Michigan, coconut "postcards" from tropical islands. In some places, one can send a postcard for a lower fee than for a letter. Stamp collectors distinguish between postal cards. While a postcard is printed by a private company, individual or organization, a postal card is issued by the relevant postal authority; the world's oldest postcard was sent in 1840 to the writer Theodore Hook from Fulham in London, England. The study and collecting of postcards is termed deltiology. Cards with messages had been sporadically created and posted by individuals since the beginning of postal services; the earliest known picture postcard was a hand-painted design on card, posted in Fulham in London by the writer Theodore Hook to himself in 1840, bearing a penny black stamp.
He created and posted the card to himself as a practical joke on the postal service, since the image is a caricature of workers in the post office. In 2002 the postcard sold for a record £31,750. In the United States, the custom of sending through the mail, at letter rate, a picture or blank card stock that held a message, began with a card postmarked in December 1848 containing printed advertising; the first commercially produced card was created in 1861 by John P. Charlton of Philadelphia, who patented a postal card, sold the rights to Hymen Lipman, whose postcards, complete with a decorated border, were labeled "Lipman's postal card"; these cards had no images. In Britain, postcards without images were issued by the Post Office in 1870, were printed with a stamp as part of the design, included in the price of purchase; these cards came in two sizes. The larger size was found to be too large for ease of handling, was soon withdrawn in favour of cards 13mm shorter; the first known printed picture postcard, with an image on one side, was created in France in 1870 at Camp Conlie by Léon Besnardeau.
Conlie was a training camp for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian war. The cards had a lithographed design printed on them containing emblematic images of piles of armaments on either side of a scroll topped by the arms of the Duchy of Brittany and the inscription "War of 1870. Camp Conlie. Souvenir of the National Defence. Army of Brittany". While these are the first known picture postcards, there was no space for stamps and no evidence that they were posted without envelopes. In the following year the first known picture postcard in which the image functioned as a souvenir was sent from Vienna; the first advertising card appeared in 1872 in Great Britain and the first German card appeared in 1874. Cards showing images increased in number during the 1880s. Images of the newly built Eiffel Tower in 1889 and 1890 gave impetus to the postcard, leading to the so-called "golden age" of the picture postcard in years following the mid-1890s. Early postcards showcased photography of nude women; these were known as French postcards, due to the large number of them produced in France.
The first American postcard was developed in 1873 by the Morgan Envelope Factory of Springfield, Massachusetts. These first postcards depicted the Interstate Industrial Exposition. In 1873, Post Master John Creswell introduced the first pre-stamped "Postal Cards" called "penny postcards". Postcards were made; the first postcard to be printed as a souvenir in the United States was created in 1893 to advertise the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Post Office was the only establishment allowed to print postcards, it held its monopoly until May 19, 1898, when Congress passed the Private Mailing Card Act, which allowed private publishers and printers to produce postcards; the United States government prohibited private companies from calling their cards "postcards", so they were known as "souvenir cards". These cards had to be labeled "Private Mailing Cards"; this prohibition was rescinded on December 24, 1901, from when private companies could use the word "postcard". Postcards were not allowed to have a divided back and correspondents could only write on the front of the postcard.
This was known as the "undivided back" era of postcards. From March 1, 1907 the Post Office allowed private citizens to write on the address side of a postcard, it was on this date that postcards were allowed to have a "divided back". On these cards the back is divided into two sections: the left section is used for the message and the right for the address, thus began the Golden Age of American postcards, which peaked in 1910 with the introduction of tariffs on German-printed postcards, ended by 1915, when World War I disrupted the printing and import of the fine German-printed cards. The postcard craze between 1907 and 1910 was popular among rural and small-town women in Northern U. S. states. Postcards, in the form of government postal cards and printed souvenir cards, became popular as a result of the Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893, after postcards featuring buildings were distributed at the fair. In 1908, more than 677 million postcards were mailed; the "white border" era, named for borders around the picture area, lasted from about 1916 to 1930.
Mid-century linen postcards were produced in great quantity from 1931 to 1959. Despite the name, linen postcards were not produced on a linen fabric, but used