Grove City, Pennsylvania
Grove City is a borough in Mercer County, United States, located 60 miles north of Pittsburgh and 75 miles south of Erie. It is the home of a private conservative Christian liberal arts college, it is the home to George Junior Republic, an all-boys institution. GJR serves to house and treat 400 boys from troubled backgrounds. A traditional industrial center, Grove City has manufactured locomotive engines, gas engines, foundry products, motor trucks; the nearby Grove City Premium Outlets take their name from Grove City. At the 2010 census, the population was 8,322. Grove City is part of the OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,024 people, 2,575 households, 1,560 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,025.7 people per square mile. There were 2,745 housing units at an average density of 1,035.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.32% White, 0.64% African American, 0.06% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander,0.14% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population. There were 2,575 households, out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.94. In the borough the population was spread out, with 16.7% under the age of 18, 31.8% from 18 to 24, 20.2% from 25 to 44, 14.6% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $34,598, the median income for a family was $46,676. Males had a median income of $36,467 versus $21,934 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,365. About 4.8% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.
Edie Adams and singer, Emmy and Tony Award winner Paula Kelly, singer with The Modernaires, Vocal Group Hall of Fame Paul Kengor and professor at Grove City College Gary Peters, baseball player, 1963 American League Rookie of the Year Dick Stevenson, former member of Pennsylvania House of Representatives Patricia Wettig, actress Amy Walter, spoken word poet Smokin' Joe Kubek, Texas blues guitarist Grove City is home to two locomotive engine production plants for GE Transportation, purchased by WABTEC
Sharon is a city in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, in the United States, 75 miles northwest of Pittsburgh. It is part of the OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the home of the Vocal Group Hall of Fame. The Sharon area was first settled in 1795, it was incorporated as a borough on October 6, 1841, incorporated as a city on December 17, 1918. The city operated under the Pennsylvania third-class city code until 2008, at which point it adopted a home rule charter under which the elected position of mayor was replaced with a hired city manager and financial officer; the founding families of Sharon first settled on a flat plain bordering the Shenango River, between two hills on the southwestern edge of what is today Sharon's downtown business district. According to local legend, the community received its name from a Bible-reading settler who likened the location to the Plain of Sharon in Israel. A center of coal mining, Sharon's economy transitioned to iron and steelmaking and other heavy industry after the arrival of the Erie Extension Canal in the 1840s.
Following the extensive national deindustrialization of the 1970s and'80s, the city's economy diversified and is now based on light industry, health care, social services. The Frank H. Buhl Mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Sharon is The Vocal Group Hall of Fame. Other local attractions are The Winner off-price fashion store, Reyer's shoes, Daffin's Candy. Sharon is located at 41°13′48″N 80°29′56″W in southwest Mercer County; the city borders the city of Hermitage to the north and east, the city of Farrell to the south, on the west the census-designated places of Masury and West Hill, Ohio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles, all land. However, the Shenango River runs through the city and provides drinking water to Sharon and several surrounding communities; as of the census of 2000, there were 16,328 people, 6,791 households, 4,189 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,342.6 people per square mile.
There were 7,388 housing units at an average density of 1,964.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.44% White, 10.85% African American, 0.21% Asian, 0.18% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 2.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. From the Census Ancestry Question, Sharon has the following ethnic make-up: German 21%, Irish 14%, Italian 11%, Black or African American 11%, English 8%, Polish 5%, Slovak 5%, Welsh 3%, Scots-Irish 2%, Hungarian 2%, Dutch 2%, French 2%, Croatian 1%, Scottish 1%, Russian 1%, Swedish 1%, Arab 1%, Slavic 1%, American Indian tribes, specified 1%. Sharon's Jewish community is served by the Reform Jewish Temple Beth Israel. There were 6,791 households, out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was distributed with 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,945, the median income for a family was $34,581. Males had a median income of $30,072 versus $20,988 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,913. About 14.0% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. The Sharon City School District maintains three K-6 elementary schools: Case Avenue, C. M. Musser, West Hill, it has the 7-12 Sharon Middle/High School. Sharon is home to the Shenango campus of Pennsylvania State University, which offers several two-year and four-year degrees.
It hosts Laurel Technical Institute, a for-profit trade school, the Sharon Regional Health System School of Nursing. Because of Sharon's location on the Pennsylvania/Ohio border, it is served by WKBN-TV, WFMJ-TV, WYTV, WYFX-LD and WBCB, all broadcast from nearby Youngstown, OH. Sharon is served by AM radio stations such as WLOA, WPIC, WKBN, by FM radio stations such as WYFM/"Y-103", WLLF/"The River", WYLE/"Willie 95.1", WMXY/"Mix 98.9" and WWIZ/"Z-104". City website Sharon, PA/city-data Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sharon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Mercer is a borough in Mercer County, United States. The population was 2,002 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Mercer County. Mercer is part of the OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the community was named after physician Brigadier General Hugh Mercer. Brigadier General Mercer was a close friend to General Washington and became a rallying point for the Battle of Princeton; the town is known for its Memorial Day Parade with the main street lined with 500 flags. Each February it holds Penn's Woods West Arts & Crafts Festival at the Mercer Area High School as well as Victorian Days in the summer. Penns Woods West and Victorian Days are no longer being held in the Borough; the Mercer County Court House and Christiana Lindsey House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. At the time of his inauguration in Mercer in January 2002, Chris Portman was one of the youngest mayors in the history of the USA. Mercer is located at 41°13′35″N 80°14′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all land.
The United States post office in Mercer contains a mural, Clearing the Land, painted in 1940 by Lorin Thompson. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,391 people, 1,020 households, 609 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,930.3 people per square mile. There were 1,086 housing units at an average density of 876.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.45% White, 2.17% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.84% of the population. There were 1,020 households, out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.2% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.89. In the borough the population was spread out, with 22.2% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $29,795, the median income for a family was $46,979. Males had a median income of $27,371 versus $19,576 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $22,161. About 6.0% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. John Bingham, drafter of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Leech Maskrey. Major league baseball player who played for the Cincinnati Red Stockings in 1886 Gary Peters, major league baseball player who played for the Chicago White Sox and Boston Red Sox.
1963 AL Rookie of the Year Trent Reznor and creator of the band Nine Inch Nails Samuel Waugh, painter J. C. Williamson and impresario
Blair County, Pennsylvania
Blair County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 127,089, its county seat is Hollidaysburg. The county was created on February 1846, from parts of Huntingdon and Bedford Counties. Blair County comprises PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 527 square miles, of which 526 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Brush Mountain Logan Valley Morrison Cove Tussey Mountain Centre County Huntingdon County Bedford County Cambria County Clearfield County Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site I-99 / US 220 US 22 US 220 Bus. PA 36 PA 164 PA 350 PA 453 PA 550 PA 764 PA 865 PA 866 PA 867 PA 867 Truck As of the census of 2000, there were 127,089 people and 52,159 households within the county; the population density was 246 people per square mile. There were 55,061 housing units at an average density of 105 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.18% White, 1.68% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races.
0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.0 % were of 12.2 % Irish, 10.7 % Italian, 9.9 % American and 6.0 % English ancestry. There were 52,159 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.60% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 19, 5.9% from 20 to 24, 11.1% from 25 to 34, 19.3% from 35 to 49, 21.4% from 50 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years; the population was 48.55% male, 51.45% female. Bruce Erb, Republican Terry Tomassetti, Vice-chair, Republican Ted Beam, Democrat Clerk of Courts and Prothonotary, Carol Newman, Republican Controller, A.
C. Stickel, Republican Coroner, Patricia Ross, Republican District Attorney, Richard Consiglio, Republican Register of Wills and Recorder of Deeds, Mary Ann Bennis, Republican Sheriff, James Ott, Republican Treasurer, James Carothers, Republican Allegheny Township Police Altoona City Police Altoona Area School District Police Bellwood Borough Police Blair County Sheriff's Office Blair Township Police Central Pennsylvania Humane Society Police Duncansville Borough Police Freedom Township Police Greenfield Township Police Hollidaysburg Borough Police Logan Township Police Martinsburg Borough Police Norfolk Southern Railroad Police North Woodbury Township Police Pennsylvania State Police Pennsylvania State University Altoona Police Roaring Spring Borough Police Spring Cove School District Police Tyrone Borough Police Tyrone Area School District Police UPMC Altoona Police Van Zandt VA Hospital Police Williamsburg Borough Police John Eichelberger, Pennsylvania's 30th Senatorial District John McGinnis, Pennsylvania's 79th Representative District Judy Ward, Pennsylvania's 80th Representative District John Joyce, Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey, Democrat As of November 2014, there are 84,077 registered voters in Blair County.
Democratic: 27,875 Republican: 45,573 Libertarian: 473 No Party Affiliation: 4,820 Other: 5,336 Penn State Altoona South Hills School of Business and Technology YTI Career Institute Pennsylvania Highlands Community College Altoona Area School District Bellwood-Antis School District Claysburg-Kimmel School District Hollidaysburg Area School District Penn Cambria School District Spring Cove School District Tyrone Area School District Williamsburg Community School District Agora Cyber Charter School Central Pennsylvania Digital Learning Foundation Charter School. Altoona. There are 17 public cyber charter schools in Pennsylvania that are available statewide for free, to children K-12. See: Education in Pennsylvania. Greater Altoona Career and Technology Center - Altoona Data taken from Pennsylvania EdNA - PDE database of public private schools 2012 Blair County hosts a system of eight libraries that can be accessed with one library card. Resource sharing exists between the eight libraries. Books from any of the eight system libraries can be placed on hold and delivered to a patron's home library and returned to any of the eight libraries in the system.
Altoona Area Public Library - Altoona Bellwood Antis Public Library - Bellwood Blair County Library System - Altoona Claysburg Area Public Library - Claysburg Hollidaysburg Area Public Library - Hollidaysburg Martinsburg Community Library - Martinsburg Roaring Spring Community Library - Roaring Spring Tyrone-Snyder Twnshp Pub Library - Tyrone Williamsburg Public Library - Williamsburg There is one Pennsylvania state park in Blair County. Canoe Creek State Park Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns; the following cities and townships are located in Blair County: Altoona Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U. S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, they are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well; the population ranking of
McConnellsburg is a borough in Fulton County, United States. The population was 1,220 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Fulton County. The McConnellsburg Historic District was recognized by the United States Department of the Interior in 1993 when it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the district consists of 144 structures. Of notable meaning are the numerous taverns, automotive garages and other travel-related structures still in existence today, which includes the Fulton House, the Fulton County Courthouse, the log cabin of Daniel McConnell, who laid out the borough on April 20, 1786, it was further incorporated on March 26, 1814. McConnellsburg's largest economic driver is Oshkosh Corporation-owned JLG Industries, a major manufacturer of construction and maintenance access-related lifting equipment such as boomlifts, etc. McConnellsburg is located in eastern Fulton County at 39°55′58″N 77°59′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land.
The elevation in the center of town is 896 feet above sea level. The borough is located in the Ridge and Valley section of the Appalachian Mountains in southern Pennsylvania, it is situated in a 2-mile-wide valley between Tuscarora Mountain to the east and Little Scrub Ridge and Meadow Grounds Mountain to the west. U. S. Route 522 passes north-south through the center of town as Second Street; the main east-west street through the town center is Lincoln Way, or old U. S. Route 30. U. S. Route 30 now bypasses the borough on a limited access highway to the north; the west end of Pennsylvania Route 16 is in McConnellsburg, following Lincoln Way and the Buchanan Trail southeast out of town. Via US 522 it is 24 miles south to Hancock, 9 miles north to the Pennsylvania Turnpike. US 30 leads 19 miles west to Breezewood. PA 16 leads southeast 10 miles to Mercersburg and 20 miles to Greencastle; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,073 people, 506 households, 271 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,998.2 people per square mile.
There were 551 housing units at an average density of 1,539.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.02% White, 0.84% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 506 households, out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.4% were non-families. 42.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 21.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.72. In the borough the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 28.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.9 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $25,987, the median income for a family was $33,125. Males had a median income of $28,478 versus $20,577 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,884. About 14.9% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.7% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Newspaper: The Fulton County News WEEO-FM, 103.7 - talk radio format Toby Shaw, news presenter
Bedford County, Pennsylvania
Bedford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 49,762; the county seat is Bedford. In 1750 Robert MacRay, a Scots-Irish immigrant, opened the first trading post in Raystown on the land, now Bedford County; the early Anglo-American settlers had a difficult time dealing with raids from Native Americans. In 1754 fierce fighting erupted as Native Americans became allied with the British or French in the North American front, known as the French and Indian War, of the Seven Years' War between those nations in Europe. In 1759, after the capture of Fort Duquesne in Allegheny County, on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, English colonists built a road between the fort to the newly built Fort Bedford in Raystown; the English defeated the French in the war and took over their territories in North America east of the Mississippi River. Treaties with the Indians opened more land for future peaceful settlement; this road improved on ancient Indian trails.
In years it was widened and paved as "Forbes Road". When the Pennsylvania Turnpike was built, this interstate toll road became the main highway through Bedford County. Bedford County was created on 9 March 1771 from part of Cumberland County and named in honor of Fort Bedford; the 1767 Mason-Dixon Line had stabilized the southern border with Maryland. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the population increased due to emigration. Within a lifetime Old Bedford County was reduced from its original boundaries. Huntingdon County was created on 20 September 1787 from the north part of Bedford County, plus an addition of territory on the east from Cumberland County. Somerset County was created from part of Bedford County on 17 April 1795. Centre was created on 13 February 1800 from parts of Huntingdon, Lycoming and Northumberland counties. Cambria County was created on 26 March 1804 from parts of Bedford and Somerset Counties. Blair County was created on February 1846 from parts of Huntingdon and Bedford Counties.
Fulton County was created on 19 April 1850 from part of Bedford County, setting the county at its current boundaries. The land was developed into lush farms with woodlands, it was developed as a trading center on the way to Pittsburgh and farther west of Pennsylvania. In 1794 President George Washington came to the county in response to the Whiskey Rebellion. In the late 19th century, the Bedford Springs Hotel became an important site for wealthy vacationers, it was built near natural springs, important to the Native Americans for hundreds of years. During the administration of President James Buchanan, he moved much of his administration to the hotel, which became the informal summer White House; the U. S. Supreme Court met at the hotel once, it was the only time. During the late 19th century, the county had a population boom, with the number of people doubling between 1870 and 1890. Railroads constructed through the town connected the county with the mining industry; the story of the Lost Children of the Alleghenies originates from Blue Knob State Park in the county.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,017 square miles, of which 1,012 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. Evitts Mountain Morrison Cove Tussey Mountain Blue Knob, highest mountain in the county at 3,120 feet Blair County Huntingdon County Fulton County Allegany County, Maryland Somerset County Cambria County Bedford County is situated along the western border of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province, characterized by folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of early to middle Paleozoic age; the northwestern border of the county is at the Allegheny Front, a geological boundary between the Ridge and Valley Province and the Allegheny Plateau. The stratigraphic record of sedimentary rocks within the county spans from the Cambrian Warrior Formation to the Pennsylvanian Conemaugh Group. No igneous or metamorphic rocks of any kind exist within the county; the primary mountains within the county extend from the southern border with Maryland to the northeast into Blair County, are held up by the Silurian Tuscarora Formation, made of quartz sandstone and conglomerate.
Chestnut Ridge is a broad anticline held up by the Devonian Ridgeley Member of the Old Port Formation made of sandstone and conglomerate. Broad Top, located north of Breezewood, is a plateau of flat-lying rocks that are stratigraphically higher, thus younger, than most of the other rocks within the county. Broad Top extends into Huntingdon County to Fulton County to the east; the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River is the main drainage in the northern two-thirds of the county. The river flows to the east through the mountains within the county through several water gaps caused by a group of faults trending east–west through the central part of the county; the river turns north and flows into Raystown Lake in Huntingdon County. The southern third of the county is drained by several tributaries of the Potomac River. Both the Potomac and Juniata rivers are part of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Several limestone quarries exist in Bedford County, most of which are owned and operated by New Enterprise Stone and Lime Company.
Odd Fellows, or Oddfellows Odd Fellowship or Oddfellowship, is an international fraternity consisting of lodges first documented in 1730 in London. The first known lodge was called Loyal Aristarcus Lodge No. 9, suggesting there were earlier ones in the 18th century. Notwithstanding, convivial meetings were held "in much revelry and as not, the calling of the Watch to restore order." Names of several British pubs today suggest past Odd Fellows affiliations. In the mid-18th century, following the Jacobite risings, the fraternity split into the rivaling Order of Patriotic Oddfellows in southern England, favouring William III of England, the Ancient Order of Oddfellows in northern England and Scotland, favouring the House of Stuart. Odd Fellows from that time include John Wilkes and Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet of Thornton, advocating civil liberties and reliefs, including Catholic emancipation. Political repressions such as the Unlawful Oaths Act and the Unlawful Societies Act, resulted in neutral amalgamation of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in 1798.
Since the fraternity has remained religiously and politically independent. George IV of the United Kingdom, admitted in 1780, was the first documented of many Odd Fellows to attend freemasonry, although the societies remain mutually independent. In 1810, further instigations led to the establishment of the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England. Odd Fellows spread overseas, including formally chartering the fraternity in the United States in 1819. In 1842, due to British authorities intervening in the customs and ceremonies of British Odd Fellows and in light of post-colonial American sovereignty, the American Odd Fellows became independent as the Independent Order of Odd Fellows under British-American Thomas Wildey, soon constituting the largest sovereign grand lodge. By the mid-19th century, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity become the largest and richest fraternal organisation in the United Kingdom. To this day, beyond recreational activities, Odd Fellows promote philanthropy, the ethic of reciprocity and charity, albeit with some grand lodges implying Judeo-Christian affiliation.
Still largest, the American-seated Independent Order of Odd Fellows enrolls some 600,000 members divided in 10,000 lodges in 30 countries, inter-fraternally recognised by the second largest, the British-seated Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity. In total, members of all international branches combined are estimated in the millions worldwide. Several theories aim to explain the etymological background of the name "Odd Fellows" spelled "Oddfellows" in British English. In the 18th century United Kingdom, major trades were organised in guilds or other forms of syndicates, but smaller trades did not have equivalent social or financial security. One theory has it that "odd fellows", people who exercised unusual, miscellaneous "odd trades" joined together to form a larger group of "odd fellows". Another theory suggests that in the beginning of odd fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of the early era of industrialisation, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as fraternalism and charity.
The name was adopted at a time when the severance into sects and classes was so wide that persons aiming at social union and mutual help were a marked exception to the general rule. It met a mixed reaction from the upper classes, who may have seen them as a source of revenue by taxes, but as a threat to their authority. Any suggestion of history before the 18th century is considered mere speculation; the Odd Fellows are one of the earliest and oldest fraternal societies, but their early history is obscure and undocumented. Due to increased trade during the Middle Ages, guilds came to make up a part of the urban culture, grouping people from a number of trades banded together. Hence, people of an odd assortment of trades speculatively brought the background of the early history of Odd Fellows; when the English King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church, the guilds were viewed by him as supporting the Pope, in 1545 he confiscated all material property of the guilds. Queen Elizabeth I took from the guilds the responsibility for training apprentices, by the end of her reign, most guilds had been suppressed.
Dubious traditions, tracing the fraternity's origins back to Roman Emperors Nero in A. D. 55, its name to Titus in A. D. 79 because of their odd signs and ceremonies, are at best considered peculiarities. Although some of these legends are at best dubious, the evolution from the guilds is more reliably documented. By the 13th century, the tradesmen's guilds had become prosperous. During the 14th century, with the growth of trade, the guild "Masters" moved to protect their power by restricting access to the guilds. In response, the less experienced "Fellows" set up their own rival guilds; the exact origin of Oddfellowship is involved in obscurity. It must have had a beginning, but just when and where, no historian has been able to ascertain. All of its history prior to the introduction of the Order into England is conjecture founded upon proofless, and, in most cases, absurd traditions. Great antiquity has been claimed for the order... Oddfellows themselves, now admit that the institution cannot be traced back beyond the first half of the 18th century.
There were numerous Oddfellow organizations in England in the 1700s. One Edwardian Oddfellow history argued that in 1710 there was a'Loyal Lintot of Oddfellows' in London; the first Oddfellows group in South Yorkshire, dates from 1730. The earliest surviving documented eviden