Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights
The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights is John Steinbeck's retelling of the Arthurian legend, based on the Winchester Manuscript text of Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. He began his adaptation in November 1956. Steinbeck had long been a lover of the Arthurian legends; the introduction to his translation contains an anecdote about him reading them as a young boy. His enthusiasm for Arthur is apparent in the work; the book was left unfinished at his death, ends with the death of chivalry in Arthur's purest knight, Lancelot of the Lake. Steinbeck took a "living approach" to the retelling of Malory's work, he followed Malory's structure and retained the original chapter titles, but he explored the psychological underpinning of the events, tuned the use of language to sound natural and accessible to a Modern English speaker: Malory wrote the stories for and to his time. Any man hearing him knew every reference. There was nothing obscure, he wrote the common speech of his time and country.
But that has changed—the words and references are no longer common property, for a new language has come into being. Malory did not write the stories, he wrote them for his time and his time understood them... And with that by enchantment the words began to flow. Based on Steinbeck's letters collected in the Appendix at the end of the volume, he appears to have worked on the book intensely from about November 1956 through late 1959, but after that never returned to the work. Hodges, Laura F. "The Personae of Acts: Symbolic Repetition and Variation". Steinbeck Quarterly 12.01–02: 20–27
To a God Unknown
To a God Unknown is a novel by John Steinbeck, first published in 1933. The book was Steinbeck's third novel. Steinbeck found To a God Unknown difficult to write. In this short novel, Steinbeck explores the relationship of man to his land; the plot might follows a man, Joseph Wayne, who moves to California in order to establish a homestead. He is joined by his three brothers once his father dies, they create a thriving ranch; when a drought strikes the land, Steinbeck analyses how men respond to having their faith shaken. The protagonist of this story is Joseph Wayne, a rancher, born and lived his early life on his father's ranch, he is the third of his brothers, younger than Burton and Thomas, who are both married, but older than Benjy. As he grows up, he feels a special connection to the land, decides to move to California to create a homestead and start a family, his father, John Wayne, begs him not to go but acquiesces once he realizes Joseph's passion, gives him his blessing. On his way West, Joseph meets "Old Juan" who encourages him to establish a home and throw a fiesta once he's set up.
After a time of wandering, Joseph enters California and records his homestead in the Nuestra Senora valley. He buildDs his house under a great oak tree. While building, he works with an Indian, who offers to be his vaquero in exchange for friendship. Joseph hears about the "dry years", a lengthy drought that seems to be periodic, is the bane of all the farmers in the area, he is convinced, that they will never come again. He tells them to come and join him, to take the land next to his; as they explore the land they have been given and Juanito stUmble upon a mossy rock and a deep spring in the center of a pine forest. It has an aura about it that makes everyone acknowledge that it is sacred, but it is frightening as well. Joseph meets Elizabeth, a schoolteacher from Monterey. After several failed attempts, Joseph wins her hand and they are married; when they return to the farm after the wedding, they discover that Benjy has been stabbed to death by Juanito, who caught him seducing his wife. When the two men meet that night at the sacred rock, Juanito asks Joseph to kill him in revenge for his brother, but Joseph refuses.
Joseph wants to pass it off as an accident so Juanito can stay on, but Juanito flees the farm, promising to return once the guilt has passed. Elizabeth is integrated into the farm and meets Rama, Thomas' wife, who helps her with many things, including her first childbirth. For a time, the farm prospers, Elizabeth bears a child. Joseph's brother Burton, a devout Christian, becomes concerned with Joseph's activities with the tree, after seeing him talk to it and offer sacrifice to it as well. After a time, Joseph remembers his promise to Old Juan, the farm becomes the site of a New Year's fiesta. After witnessing all the pagan activities that take place at the fiesta, Burton decides to leave the farm. After he leaves, the remaining brothers discover. In the following rainless winter, everything begins to die as a severe drought sets in, everyone fears that the dry years have come again. However, Joseph refuses to move. One day and Elizabeth visit the glade with the sacred rock, to quell Elizabeth's fear of it.
Elizabeth decides to climb on the mossy rock, but slips and falls, breaks her neck, dies instantly. Joseph returns to the homestead in a state of shock with Elizabeth's body, shocking everyone. Rama sees how disturbed Joseph sleeps with him to fulfill their needs. Afterward, Joseph gives his firstborn son to her; some time when the drought is forcing desperate measures and Thomas explore the coast to see if there is any way they will be able to remain at the homestead. They meet a man who ritually sacrifices small creatures to the sun each night as the sun goes down, Joseph feels a connection with him. Upon returning and Thomas decide to drive the cattle out to San Joaquin to find green pastures. At the last minute, Joseph decides to stay, but feels abandoned by all the land except the pine grove with the stream and the mossy rock, he believes that the mossy rock is the heart of the land, as long as it stays alive, the land cannot be dead. He lives by the rock and watches the stream dry up, using the water to keep the rock wet and alive.
Juanito returns and convinces Joseph to visit the town's priest to enlist his help in breaking the drought. The priest refuses saying that his concern is the salvation of human souls. Defeatedly, Joseph returns to the rock, only to find that the stream has run dry and the rock is dying. Lost in confusion, Joseph realizes that he is the heart of the land, so sacrifices himself by cutting his wrists to water the rock with his blood; as he lies dying on the sacred rock, he feels. Joseph Wayne - The protagonist of the story, Joseph is a rancher with a strong connection to the land, he is levelheaded, but is driven to feverish actions when inflamed with the passion of the land. He marries Elizabeth and introduces her to the rancher lifestyle, together they have a child, named John Wayne after Joseph's father. At the end of the novel, Joseph realizes that he is the heart of the land and sacrifices himself to bring rain. Thomas Wayne - The second Wayne brother, Thomas has a special connection to animals.
He can sense their moods and emotions, loves to be around
The Log from the Sea of Cortez
The Log from the Sea of Cortez is an English-language book written by American author John Steinbeck and published in 1951. It details a six-week marine specimen-collecting boat expedition he made in 1940 at various sites in the Gulf of California, with his friend, the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, it is regarded as one of Steinbeck's most important works of non-fiction chiefly because of the involvement of Ricketts, who shaped Steinbeck's thinking and provided the prototype for many of the pivotal characters in his fiction, the insights it gives into the philosophies of the two men. The Log from the Sea of Cortez is the narrative portion of an unsuccessful earlier work, Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research, published by Steinbeck and Ricketts shortly after their return from the Gulf of California, combined the journals of the collecting expedition, reworked by Steinbeck, with Ricketts' species catalogue. After Ricketts' death in 1948, Steinbeck dropped the species catalogue from the earlier work and republished it with a eulogy to his friend added as a foreword.
Steinbeck met Ricketts in 1930 through a shared interest in marine biology. Ricketts made a modest living as a professional biologist by preparing and selling specimens of intertidal fauna to laboratories and universities from his small lab in Cannery Row, Steinbeck spent many hours at the lab in Ricketts' company. Ricketts was the inspiration for the boozy, good-hearted character of "Doc", who appeared in the novels Steinbeck set in and around Monterey, elements of his personality are mirrored by many other important characters in Steinbeck's novels. Both Steinbeck and Ricketts had achieved some measure of security and recognition in their professions by 1939: Steinbeck had capitalized on his first successful novel, Tortilla Flat, with the publication of The Grapes of Wrath, Ricketts had published Between Pacific Tides, which became the definitive handbook for the study of the intertidal fauna of the Pacific Coast of the coterminous United States. Steinbeck was looking for a new start; the two men had long thought of producing a book together and, in a change of pace for both of them, they began work on a handbook of the common intertidal species of the San Francisco Bay Area.
The book came to nothing. They planned a motoring trip to Mexico City as a break from their work on the handbook, but as time went on they became more interested in a collecting trip around the Gulf of California. Ricketts noted in his journal: Jon said, "If you have an objective, like collecting specimens, it puts so much more direction onto a trip, makes it more interesting."... He said, "We'll do a book about it that'll more than pay the expenses of the trip." A specimen-collecting expedition along the Pacific Coast and down into Mexico provided them with a chance to relax, for Steinbeck, a chance for a brief escape from the controversy mounting over The Grapes of Wrath. Ricketts, suffering as a result of the breakup of his long-term relationship with a married woman in Monterey, was glad to get away too, they planned to collect specimens from the rock and tide pools and the shore line uncovered between tides which would allow them build up a picture of the macro level ecosystem in the Gulf.
The preserved specimens of the fauna they collected could be identified and catalogued or sold on their return. Early in 1940, Steinbeck and Ricketts hired a Monterey Bay sardine fishing boat, the Western Flyer, with a four-man crew, spent six weeks travelling the coast of the Gulf of California collecting biological specimens. Along with Ricketts and the four crew members mentioned in the book, Steinbeck was accompanied by his wife, Carol. Steinbeck hoped that the trip would help rescue their failing marriage, but it seems to have had the opposite effect: the marriage ended soon after they returned. Steinbeck's lawyer and friend, Toby Street, was on board as far as San Diego; the Western Flyer is a 75-foot purse seiner, crewed by Tony Berry, the captain. Stocked with supplies, collecting equipment and a small library, the boat put out to sea on the afternoon of March 11, 1940, they started in a leisurely fashion down the Pacific coast. They refueled at San Diego and on March 17 passed Point San Lazaro and made their way down the Pacific side of the Baja California peninsula.
They put in at Cabo San Lucas, on the tip of the peninsula, where they were greeted by Mexican officials and began collecting specimens. The collecting team was planned to consist of Steinbeck and Ricketts alone, but Carol and Enea and Colletto joined them, allowing for a much more efficient collection at each stop; the battles with their outboard motor, referred to pseudonymously as the "Hansen Sea-Cow", which would feature as a humorous thread throughout the journal and continued the next day when they moved further round the coast to El Pulmo Reef: Our Hansen Sea-Cow was not only a living thing but a mean, contemptible, mischievous, hateful living thing.... Loved to ride on the back of a boat, trailing its propeller daintily in the water while we rowed... when attacked with a screwdriver fell apart in simulated death... It loved no one, trusted no one, it had no friends. Making for Isla Espiritu Santo they faced strong winds and, rather than attempting to land at the island, they anchored at Pescadero on the mainland.
On March 20 they spent the day collecting. A visit from some natives of La Paz that evening, coupled with the ex
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
The Pearl (novel)
The Pearl is a novella by American author John Steinbeck, first published in 1947. It is the story of a pearl diver and explores man's nature as well as greed, defiance of societal norms, evil. Steinbeck's inspiration was a Mexican folk tale from La Paz, Baja California Sur, which he had heard in a visit to the pearl-rich region in 1940. In 1947, it was adapted into a Mexican film named La Perla and in 1987 into a cult Kannada movie Ondu Muttina Kathe; the story is one of Steinbeck's most popular books and has been used in high school classes. The Pearl is sometimes considered a parable; the Pearl, which takes place in La Paz, begins with a description of the idyllic family life of Kino, his wife Juana and their infant son, Coyotito. Kino watches as Coyotito sleeps, but sees a scorpion crawl down the rope that holds the hanging hammock where Coyotito lies. Kino attempts to catch the scorpion. Although Kino kills the scorpion, it still stings Coyotito. Juana and Kino, accompanied by their neighbors, go to see the local doctor, who refuses to treat Coyotito because Kino cannot pay enough to sustain the greedy needs of the Doctor.
Kino and Juana take Coyotito down near the sea, where Juana uses a seaweed poultice on Coyotito's shoulder, now swollen. Kino dives for oysters from his canoe, hoping to find a pearl, he finds a large oyster which yields an immense pearl, which he dubs "The Pearl of the World". The news that Kino has found an immense pearl travels fast through La Paz. Kino's neighbors begin to feel bitter toward him for his good fortune, but neither Kino nor Juana realize this feeling that they have engendered. Juan Tomas, Kino's brother, asks him what he will do with his money, he envisions getting married to Juana in a church and dressing Coyotito in a yachting cap and sailor suit, he claims that he will buy a rifle for himself. The local priest tells Kino to remember to give thanks and to pray for guidance; the doctor visits, although Coyotito seems to be healing, the doctor insists that Coyotito still faces danger and treats him. Kino tells the doctor that he will pay him once he sells his pearl, the doctor attempts to discern where the pearl is located.
That night, a thief attempts to break into Kino's hut. Juana warns Kino that the pearl will destroy them, but Kino insists that the pearl is their one chance and that tomorrow they will sell it; the next day, Kino goes to sell his pearl. Unknown to him, the pearl dealers in La Paz are in cahoots with each other, secretly conspiring to make it appear as though the prices offered are competitive when they are defrauding the natives, they offer Kino a thousand pesos for the pearl. Kino decides to go to the capital instead; that night, Kino is attacked by more thieves, Juana once again reminds him that the pearl is evil. However, Kino vows; that night, Juana attempts to take the pearl and throw it into the ocean, but Kino finds her and beats her for doing so. A group of men knock the pearl from his hand. Juana watches from a distance and sees Kino approach her, limping with another man whose throat Kino has a slit. Juana finds the pearl, they decide that they must leave if the killing was in self-defense.
Kino finds that his canoe has been damaged, their house was torn up, the outside set afire. In the meantime, they stay with Kino's brother Juan Tomas with his wife Apolonia's protest, they hide for the next day before setting out for the capital at night. Kino and Juana travel at rest at the day. Kino spots several bighorn sheep trackers passing by, so Kino and Juana escape into the mountains and find a cave to hide in. Juana and Coyotito hide in the cave; as Kino approaches, the trackers hear a cry. They assume is a coyote pup and shoot in the direction of the cries to silence it. At that moment, Kino attacks. However, Kino can hear nothing but the song of death, for he soon realizes that it was Coyotito's cries that the trackers heard, the shot hit Coyotito. Juana and Kino returned heartbroken to the city of La Paz, Kino carrying a rifle stolen from one of the trackers he killed, while Juana carries the dead Coyotito like a sack from her back; the two approach the gulf, Kino sees an image of Coyotito with his head shot away in the pearl.
Horrified, Kino hurls the pearl into the ocean. Steinbeck began writing the story as a movie script in 1944, first published it as a short story called "The Pearl of the World" in Woman's Home Companion in December 1945; the original publication is sometimes listed as "The Pearl of La Paz". He expanded it to novella length and published it under the name The Pearl by Viking Press in 1947; as he was writing the novella version, he was travelling to Mexico where the film version, co-written with Jack Wagner, was being filmed. The film was released by RKO in 1947 as a co-promotion with the book; the Pearl was loosely adapted in 2001 for a film directed by Alfredo Zacharias and starring Lukas Haas and Richard Harris, released directly to video in 2005. Family-One of the major themes in the novel is family. Throughout the novel, the plot discusses how the family lives after the pearl, it is the focus of the plot and many of the decisions are based on what would be best for the family. For example, the first thing that Kino desires to do with the money from the pearl is to give his wife and Coyotito a better lif