Natural History Museum at Tring
The Natural History Museum at Tring was the private museum of Lionel Walter, 2nd Baron Rothschild. It houses one of the finest collections of stuffed mammals, birds and insects in the United Kingdom, it was first known as the Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum. The museum is located in Tring, Hertfordshire; the Natural History Museum at Tring was once the private museum of Lionel Walter, 2nd Baron Rothschild, is located in the grounds of the former Rothschild family home of Tring Park. The building was constructed in 1889 to house his collection of mounted specimens and first opened to the public in 1892; the Rothschild family gave the Museum and its contents to the nation in 1937. Lionel Walter bred hybrids between a hybrid foal is on display, he was seen riding a zebra-drawn carriage. The museum's Zebra Cafe alludes to Lord Rothschild's love of zebras and has photographs of his trained zebras harnessed to open carriages; the extensive collection, housed in several rooms, includes extinct animals and birds such as the quagga, great auk and reconstructions of the moa and dodo.
Oddities include examples of abnormal coloration. The dogs display was relocated to the Rothschild Zoological Museum from the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London after World War II; this shows how domestic dogs have changed shape due to selective breeding and includes the tiny Russian and Mexican lapdogs as well as famous racing greyhounds. The Museum has six galleries, each; the first gallery contains birds, large carnivorans and primates, the second is used to show temporary exhibits, the third crocodilians, fishes, large mammals and marine invertebrates, the fourth accommodates kangaroos and odd-toed ungulates, the fifth holds bovids, hippopotamuses and marine mammals, the sixth gallery contains amphibians, various British mammals, domestic dogs, lizards, snakes and small mammals. The Museum contains a Discovery Room, designed for young children and the Rothschild Room, a room set out to recreate the surroundings that the Rothschild family would have worked in, it became part of the Natural History Museum in 1937.
In April 2007 its name was changed to the Natural History Museum at Tring. The site is home to the ornithological research collections and the ornithological library of The Natural History Museum, but these are not open to the public. There are small special themed exhibitions throughout the year showcasing specimens not on display, as well as activities for youngsters. On 24 June 2009 a theft occurred from the museum involving removal of 299 brightly coloured stuffed birds male trogons and quetzals from Central and South America, as well as birds of paradise from the island of New Guinea some of, collected by Alfred Russel Wallace.. The police announced on 12 November 2010 that a 22-year-old US citizen had been arrested, in the Tring area, in connection with the theft and the majority of bird skins had been recovered. Rist stole the birds for the purpose of selling the feathers in Victorian salmon flies, to raise money to buy a gold flute; the story was featured on NPR's This American Life, "The Feather Heist".
Edwin Rist, a student at The Royal Academy of Music, pleaded guilty to the theft on 24 November 2010. In April 2011 Rist was given a 12-month jail sentence, suspended for two years, a supervision order, he was required to repay £125,150, the estimated proceeds from selling the skins through such outlets as eBay. The police advised that 191 intact bird skins had so far been recovered, of which only 101 had labels recording the birds' key scientific data. In the early hours of 27 August 2011 a thief broke in through the museum's front doors and removed the horns from two rhinoceros exhibits, one Indian rhino the other a white rhino, using, it was believed a large hammer. However, in the light of recent thefts from other museums, three months before the break-in, curators had replaced the real rhino horns, valued at £240,000, with replica ones made from resin which had no commercial value. On 17 January 2012 Darren Bennett from Leicester was charged with the theft of two replica rhinoceros horns.
More information about the collecting of animals can be found in the book Dear Lord Rothschild: Birds and History ISBN 0-86689-019-X More information about the Edwin Rist thefts can be found in the book The Feather Thief: Beauty and the Natural History Heist of the Century by Kirk Wallace Johnson, episode 654 of This American Life. The Natural History Museum at Tring The Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum on the Tring Information Centre website Photograph of Museum exterior
James Jewett Stillman was an American businessman who invested in land and railroads in New York and Mexico. He was chairman of the board of directors of the National City Bank, he forged alliances with the Rockefeller family, Standard Oil and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. to lay a foundation that made it, arguably, "the greatest bank in the Western Hemisphere." He engaged in an expansion policy that made National City the largest bank in the United States by 1894, the first to open foreign branches, a leader in foreign exchange. By 1902, the bank was able to pay any sum of money to any city in the world within 24 hours, he was worth $77 million at the time of his death, making him one of the wealthiest people in the country at the time. Stillman was born on June 9, 1850 to Charles Stillman and Elizabeth Pamela Goodrich in Brownsville, Texas, a town founded by his father. Both of his parents were born in Connecticut. Charles Stillman had significant business interests which James acquired in 1872, he expanded those to control of sixteen Texas banks and a significant land holdings in the Rio Grande Valley Corpus Christi and Kerrville, Texas.
Along with W. Averell Harriman, Jacob Henry Schiff and William Rockefeller, he controlled the most important Texas railroads. In 1876, Stillman supported Porfirio Díaz's overthrow of the government of Mexico by the Revolution of Tuxtepec, he was chairman of the board of directors of the National City Bank and retired in 1908. He died on March 1918 at his home on 9 East 72nd Street in Manhattan, New York, his funeral was at New York. He married Sarah Elizabeth Rumrill. Together they had: Sarah Elizabeth "Elsie" Stillman, who married William Goodsell Rockefeller, the son of William Rockefeller, a senior executive of Standard Oil James Alexander Stillman, who married Anne Urquhart Potter, he served as president of National City Bank of New York Isabel Goodrich Stillman, who married Percy Avery Rockefeller in 1901. Percy was another son of William Rockefeller Charles Chauncey Stillman, who died aboard the RMS Aquitania and who married Mary E. White. Ernest Goodrich Stillman, who married Mildred Margaret Whitney Stillman was an intimate friends of James O. Bloss and John William Sterling.
After the death of James Gordon Bennett Jr. it was learned by the administrators of his estate that he had appointed Stillman one of the administrators and trustees. Stillman had little or no opportunity to act under the authority of Bennett's will, as he died a few weeks after Bennett's death. Stillman named Sterling one of his executors. Sterling could hardly have begun his duties under Stillman's will; the Bennett estate, the Stillman estate and the Sterling estate totaled about $76,000,000. After Sterling's death it was learned that he had appointed his long time intimate companion, one of the executors, and a few weeks after Sterling's death, Bloss died. His grandchildren included Godfrey Stillman Rockefeller, a financier, James Stillman Rockefeller, who married Nancy Carnegie, grandniece of Andrew Carnegie. James served as president of National City from 1952 to 1959 and was chairman from 1959 to 1967, his great-grandson is the director, Academy Award nominee, Whit Stillman. In 1928, the C.
O. Stillman was named in his honor. At the time, it was the largest oil tanker in the World. Stillman is considered to have been one of the 100 wealthiest Americans, having left an enormous fortune. John K. Winkler, The First Billion: The Stillmans and the National City Bank. John Mason Hart, James Stillman. Handbook of Texas Online, accessed January 10, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Works by or about James Stillman at Internet Archive James Stillman at Find a Grave
The island thrush is a common forest bird in the thrush family. 50 subspecies have been described, ranging from Taiwan, through South East Asia and Melanesia, to Samoa, exhibiting great differences in plumage. Several subspecies are threatened and three have become extinct; the island thrush is a member of the cosmopolitan genus Turdus, one of the most distributed bird genera in the world. The taxonomy of the island thrush is complex, has defied attempts to split the group based on the four suspected morphological types; the subspecies Turdus poliocephalus niveiceps from Taiwan represents the most distinct taxon and may be a separate species. This subspecies lives at the northerly range of the species, is the only one in which the males and females differ in colour. There are thought to be at least two further subspecies not yet described scientifically, both from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi; the list below is sorted alphabetically. T. p. albifrons. Erromango, Vanuatu. T. p. becki Mayr, 1941.
Paama, Lopevi and Emae, in Vanuatu. T. p. beehleri Ripley, 1977. New Ireland. T. p. bougainvillei Mayr, 1941. Bougainville Island. T. p. canescens. Goodenough Island. T. p. carbonarius Mayr & Gilliard, 1951. Mountains of east-central New Guinea. T. p. celebensis. South-west Sulawesi. T. p. deningeri Stresemann, 1912. Seram. T. p. efatensis Mayr, 1941. Efate and Nguna, in Vanuatu. T. p. erythropleurus 1887, Christmas thrush. Christmas Island. T. p. fumidus Statius Muller, 1844. Mountains of western Java. T. p. hades Mayr, 1941. Gau Island, Fiji. T. p. heinrothi Rothschild & Hartert, 1924. St Matthias Islands, Papua New Guinea. T. p. hygroscopus Stresemann, 1931. Southern Sulawesi. T. p. indrapurae Robinson & Kloss, 1916. South-central Sumatra. T. p. javanicus Horsfield, 1821. Mountains of central Java. T. p. katanglad Salomonsen, 1953. Central Mindanao, Philippines. T. p. kelleri. Mount Apo, Philippines. T. p. keysseri Mayr, 1931. Mountains of the Huon Peninsula, New Guinea. T. p. kulambangrae Mayr, 1941. Kolombangara, Solomon Islands.
T. p. layardi. Viti Levu, Ovalau and Koro Islands, Fiji. T. p. loeseri Meyer de Schauensee, 1939. Northern Sumatra. T. p. malekulae Mayr, 1941. Pentecost and Ambrym Islands, Vanuatu. T. p. malindangensis. Mount Malindang, Philippines. T. p. mareensis E. L. Layard & Tristram, 1879. Maré Island, in the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia. Extinct. T. p. mayonensis. Southern Luzon, Philippines. T. p. mindorensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1896. Mindoro, Philippines. T. p. nigrorum Ogilvie-Grant, 1896. Negros, Philippines. T. p. niveiceps, Taiwan thrush. Taiwan. T. p. papuensis. Mountains of south-east New Guinea. T. p. placens Mayr, 1941. Ureparapara and Vanua Lava, Vanuatu. T. p. poliocephalus 1801, Norfolk thrush. Norfolk Island. Extinct. T. p. pritzbueri E. L. Layard, 1878. Lifou, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia. T. p. rennellianus Mayr, 1931. Rennell Island, southern Solomon Islands. T. p. ruficeps. Kadavu, Fiji. T. p. samoensis Tristram, 1879. Savai'i and Upolu Islands, Samoa. T. p. schlegeli P. L. Sclater, 1861. Western Timor. T. p. seebohmi, Borneo thrush.
Mountains of northern Borneo. T. p. sladeni Cain & Galbraith, 1955. Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. T. p. sterlingi Mayr, 1944. Eastern Timor. T. p. stresemanni M. Bartels, Jr, 1938. Mount Lawu, Java. T. p. tempesti E. L. Layard, 1876. Taveuni, Fiji. T. p. thomassoni. Northern Luzon, Philippines. T. p. tolokiwae Diamond, 1989. Tolokiwa Island, Bismarck Archipelago. T. p. vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1830. Vanikolo Islands and Utupua, in the Solomons. T. p. versteegi Junge, 1939. Mountains of western New Guinea. T. p. vinitinctus, Lord Howe thrush. Lord Howe Island. Extinct. T. p. vitiensis E. L. Layard, 1876. Vanua Levu, Fiji. T. p. whiteheadi. Mountains of eastern Java. T. p. whitneyi Mayr, 1941. Gaua Island, Vanuatu. T. p. xanthopus J. R. Forster, 1844. Yandé Island, New Caledonia; the island thrush is but patchily distributed across its range. It is present on islands in Samoa, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, New Guinea and surrounding islands, many Indonesian islands, the Philippines, Taiwan. However, it is restricted to areas with bird communities of less than 25–35 species.
On the larger islands this means that it is only found at high altitudes, above 2750 m. Smaller islands can only support much smaller bird communities, on these the island thrush may be found at lower altitudes. Two or more subspecies may exist on some islands, segregated into different habitats; the ranges of many subspecies may be as small as a single island—for example the Kadavu subspecies T. p. ruficeps. The 49 subspecies of island thrush vary in appearance, but all resemble a typical Turdus thrush and have a yellow bill, eye-ring and legs; the Samoan subspecies, T. p. samoensis, is identical in appearance to the blackbird, whereas T. p. seebohmi of northern Borneo is dark above with a red breast and resembles the American robin. Some subspecies have an white head, the Kadavu form T. p. ruficeps has an orange head. The island thrush has a catholic diet, taking a range of invertebrates such as insects, snails, earthworms, as well as carrion and small reptiles, it will take fruit and seeds, depending on what is locally available.
Its foraging technique is described as simil
James Stillman Rockefeller
James Stillman Rockefeller was a member of the prominent U. S. Rockefeller family, he won an Olympic rowing title for the United States became president of what became Citigroup. He was a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History and a member of the board of overseers of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, he was born on June 8, 1902, to William Goodsell Rockefeller and Elsie Stillman, daughter of James Stillman, in the Manhattan borough of New York City. He graduated from Yale University in 1924, where he was elected to Scroll and Key and Phi Beta Kappa, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon. That same year Rockefeller captained a crew of Yale teammates, they won a gold medal in rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics in France. Rockefeller appeared on the cover of Time magazine on July 7, 1924. Rockefeller returned from the Olympics and spent the next six years with the Wall Street banking firm of Brown Bros. & Co.. He joined the National City Bank in New York in 1930 and was president from 1952 to 1959 and chairman from 1959 to 1967.
He retired as chairman in 1967. During his tenure, the bank merged with the smaller First National Bank and took the name The First National City Bank of New York. Under each of his successors, the bank's name has changed: George S. Moore shortened it to "First National City Bank" and formed a holding company, First National City Corp. Under Walter B. Wriston these became "Citibank" and "Citicorp" respectively. Under John Reed the firm merged with Travelers Group to become Citigroup. During World War II, Rockefeller served in the Airborne Command. On April 15, 1925, he married grandniece of Andrew Carnegie. Nancy helped establish the Greenwich Maternal Health Center in 1935. Together, they had four children: James Stillman Rockefeller Jr., married to Liv Coucheron Torp, married to Thor Heyerdahl Nancy Sherlock Rockefeller, who married Barclay McFadden, Jr. After his death, she married Daniel Noyes Copp Andrew Carnegie Rockefeller, who married Jean Victoria Mackay Georgia Stillman Rockefeller, who married James Harden RoseRockefeller died on August 10, 2004, at the age of 102 in Greenwich, following a stroke.
He lived in Greenwich, Connecticut in a 19,000-square-foot brick Georgian mansion, built in 1929, with 11 bedrooms and 16 marble bathrooms on four levels. There are an elevator, an outdoor pool and English gardens, his house was resold again in 2009 for $23.9 million. In January 1937, he became the full owner of Long Valley Farm near Spring Lake in Cumberland County and Harnett County, North Carolina. At the time of his death, Rockefeller had four children, fourteen grandchildren, thirty-seven great-grandchildren, one great-great granddaughter. Rockefeller was America's oldest living Olympic champion, the earliest living cover subject of Time magazine. Time Magazine Cover July 7, 1924 Yale Olympic Rower Passes Away at 102
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri