The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
Mary Spratt Provoost Alexander was an influential colonial era merchant in New York City. Mary was born in New York City on April 16, 1693, she was the daughter of John Spratt and Maria de Peyster, who were both from prominent families of colonial era New York. Her father, John Spratt, was born near Glasgow and became a merchant in New York and a speaker for the irregular assembly during the Leisler Rebellion in 1689, her mother, Maria de Peyster, was from a respected Dutch family of goldsmiths. Her mother's siblings included Abraham de Peyster, the 20th Mayor of New York City, Johannes de Peyster, the 23rd Mayor of New York City, Elizabeth de Peyster, who married John Hamilton, provincial governor of New Jersey, her mother was first married to Paulus Schrick, remarried to John Spratt in 1687. After Spratt’s death in 1697 she married again to one David Provoost, a merchant of Huguenot-Dutch ancestry who served as the mayor of New York City. After Mary's mother died in 1700, the Spratt children went to live with their maternal grandmother, Cornelia DePeyster, a major merchant rated as one of the wealthiest people in New York in 1695.
Her maternal grandfather was Johannes de Peyster Sr. a Dutch merchant who emigrated to New Amsterdam. Mary’s life was divided between caring for her growing family, continuing the Provoost mercantine enterprises, supporting her husband’s political career. Mary played a pivotal role in the case of John Peter Zenger, she traveled to Philadelphia and convinced prominent lawyer Andrew Hamilton to represent Zenger in his New York libel case. Under her leadership, the Provoost business grew extensively, she imported goods on such a large scale that it was said that hardly a ship docked in New York City without a consignment of goods for her. She sold these goods in her own store and, during the French and Indian Wars, supplied William Shirley’s Fort Niagara expedition with food, tools and boats. In 1743 her fortune was estimated at 100,000 pounds, she and her family lived in a mansion on Broad Street. One of her sons, William Alexander, Lord Stirling, became her business partner. On October 15, 1711, Seventeen year old Mary Spratt married Samuel Provoost, a younger brother of her mother’s third husband.
Samuel Provoost was a merchant haberdasher, dry goods importer, real estate agent. Mary invested her inheritance in his trading venture, she had three children with Provoost: Maria Provoost. John Provoost, who married Eva Rutgers, daughter of Harman Rutgers and aunt of Henry Rutgers, in 1741. David Provoost. On June 5, 1721, widowed Mary Spratt Provoost married James Alexander, a prominent attorney and politician. Alexander became one of the leading lawyers in New York City. Mary Alexander had seven children by her second husband: Mary Alexander II, who married Peter Van Brugh Livingston, the son of Philip Livingston and brother of Governor William Livingston, in 1739. James Alexander, who died young. William Alexander, who married married Sarah Livingston, a daughter of Philip Livingston, in 1748. Elizabeth Alexander, who married John Stevens, the Vice President of the New Jersey Legislative Council. Catherine Alexander, who married Walter Rutherfurd, born in Edgerston, Scotland, in 1758. Anna Alexander, who died young.
Susannah Alexander, who married John Reid, a British army General and founder of the chair of music at the University of Edinburgh. Alexander died on April 18, 1760, she was buried alongside her husband in the family vault at Wall Street. Indicative of her social influence, the pallbearers at her funeral included the governors of New York and New Jersey. Mary was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, but joined the Anglican church, her son John was the father of the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New York. Through her daughter Mary, she was the grandmother of 12 grandchildren, including Philip Peter Livingston. Through her son William, she was the grandmother of three, William Alexander, Mary Alexander, who married a wealthy merchant named Robert Watts of New York, Catherine Alexander, who married Congressman William Duer. Through her daughter Elizabeth, she was the grandmother of John Stevens III, a lawyer and inventor who constructed the first U. S. steam locomotive and first steam-powered ferry, Mary Stevens, who married Chancellor Robert Livingston, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase.
Through her daughter Catherine, she was the grandmother of John Rutherfurd, a Federalist member of the United States Senate from New Jersey who served from 1791 to 1798. He was married to daughter of Congressman Lewis Morris of Morrisania; the Alexander Papers at the New-York Historical Society Library contain the records of the mercantile business. New York Business Woman Mary Alexander 1693-1760 Eighteenth Century American Women. Accessed October 2013 Guide to the Alexander papers New York Historical Society. Accessed October 2013
Bethlehem Township, New Jersey
Bethlehem Township is a township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the New York metropolitan area; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 3,979, reflecting an increase of 159 from the 3,820 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 716 from the 3,104 counted in the 1990 Census. Bethlehem was first mentioned in official records dating back to 1730, though details of its formation are uncertain. Bethlehem was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Kingwood Township, Alexandria Township, Union Township, Junction borough and Glen Gardner; the township was named for the city of Bethlehem. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 20.828 square miles, including 20.711 square miles of land and 0.117 square miles of water. The township is an exurb of New York City, lying on the western fringe of the New York metropolitan area, as part of the Newark-Union, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division, in turn a part of the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The Musconetcong River forms the township's northern border with Warren County. The northern half of the Township consists of the Musconetcong Valley while the southern half is covered by the Musconetcong Mountains; the southwest corner of the township lies on. The landscape is rural in nature, featuring farms and forests, scattered with newer housing developments and older farm homes. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Charlestown, Ludlow, Swinesburg and West Portal. Residents and businesses in Bethlehem Township have mailing addresses to nearby towns including Bloomsbury, Glen Gardner and Asbury, as'Bethlehem Township' itself is not a mailing address. Bethlehem Township falls under the'Northern New Jersey' climate zone. According to the Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist at Rutgers University, the Northern climate zone covers about one-quarter of New Jersey and consists of elevated highlands and valleys which are part of the Appalachian Uplands.
Surrounded by land, this region can be characterized as having a continental climate with minimal influence from the Atlantic Ocean, except when the winds contain an easterly component. Prevailing winds are from the northwest in winter. Being in the northernmost portion of the state, with small mountains up to 1,800 feet in elevation, the Northern Zone exhibits a colder temperature regime than other climate regions of the State of New Jersey; this difference is most dramatic in winter when average temperatures in the Northern Zone can be more than ten degrees Fahrenheit cooler than in the Coastal Zone. Annual snowfall averages 40 to 50 inches in the northern zone as compared with an average of 10-15 inches in the extreme south. Bethlehem Township falls under the USDA 6a Plant Hardiness zone. Various animals are native to central-western New Jersey, including red fox, black bear, wild turkeys, squirrels, chipmunks, a variety of birds, a plethora of insects and vegetation. There are some fish in the streams of the county.
Trees include deciduous varieties and evergreen varieties. Black bears are the largest land mammals in New Jersey and are known to be most abundant in the northern-western regions of the state, including Bethlehem Township; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,979 people, 1,344 households, 1,147.776 families residing in the township. The population density was 192.1 per square mile. There were 1,386 housing units at an average density of 66.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 95.65% White, 0.98% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 1.88% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.50% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.02% of the population. There were 1,344 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.0% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.6% were non-families. 11.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.22. In the township, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 18.1% from 25 to 44, 38.4% from 45 to 64, 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.2 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 100.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $127,540 and the median family income was $130,580. Males had a median income of $95,694 versus $70,069 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $44,477. About 0.6% of families and 1.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.1% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 3,820 people, 1,266 households, 1,092 families residing in the township; the population density was 183.3 peopl
Somerset County, New Jersey
Somerset County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 335,432, a 3.7% increase from the 2010 United States Census, making it the 13th most populous of the state's 21 counties. Somerset County is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Somerville. The most populous place was Franklin Township, with 62,300 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hillsborough Township, covered 55.00 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,468, the second highest in New Jersey and ranked 25th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Somerset County, as of the 2000 Census, was the seventh wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $76,933, fourth in median family income at $90,655 and ranked seventh by per capita income at $37,970; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 11th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
In 2012, 49.8 percent of Somerset County residents were college graduates, the highest percentage in the state. Somerset County was ranked number 3 of 21 NJ counties as one of the healthiest counties in New Jersey, according to an annual report by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Somerset County was created on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. Somerset County is one of America's oldest counties, is named after the English county of Somerset; the area was first settled in 1681, in the vicinity of Bound Brook, the county was established by charter on May 22, 1688. Most of the early residents were Dutch. General George Washington and his troops marched through the county on several occasions and slept in many of the homes located throughout the area. Somerset County played an important part during both World War I and World War II with weapons depots and the manufacturing of the army's woolen blankets. For much of its history, Somerset County was an agricultural county. In the late 19th century, the Somerset Hills area of Somerset County became a popular country home for wealthy industrialists.
The area is still the home of wealthy pharmaceutical industrialists. In 1917, Somerset County, in cooperation with Rutgers University, hired its first agricultural agent to connect local farmers with expert advice; the Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Somerset County, located in Bridgewater, serves residents in the areas of agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development and family and community health sciences. In the 1960s, townships that were once agricultural were transformed into suburban communities. Examples include Bridgewater Township and the Watchung Hills communities of Watchung, Green Brook and Warren Township; this growth was aided by the development of the county's strong pharmaceutical and technology presence. Warren Township used to be considered "the greenest place in New Jersey." More there has been an influx of New York City commuters who use NJ Transit's Raritan Valley Line and Gladstone Branch or use Interstate 78. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 304.86 square miles, including 301.81 square miles of land and 3.04 square miles of water.
The high point is on Mine Mountain in Bernardsville, at 860 feet above sea level. The lowest point is just above sea level on the Raritan River at the Middlesex County line. Somerset County borders the following counties: Morris County, New Jersey – north Union County, New Jersey – east Middlesex County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – south Hunterdon County, New Jersey – west In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Somerville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −16 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1955. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 4.83 inches in July. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 323,444 people, 117,759 households, 84,668.721 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,071.7 per square mile. There were 123,127 housing units at an average density of 408 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 70.06% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 14.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.01% of the population. There were 117,759 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 25% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.8 males. At the 2000 United States Census there were 297,490 people, 108,984 households and 78,359 families residing in the county.
The population density was 976 per square mile (377/
Hunterdon County, New Jersey
Hunterdon County is a county located in the western section of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 125,059, making it the state's 18th-most populous county, representing a 2.6% decrease from the 128,349 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 6,360 from the 121,989 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 14th-most populous county. The percentage increase in population of 13.2% between 1990 and 2000 was the largest in New Jersey triple the statewide increase of 4.5%, the absolute increase in residents was the third highest. Its county seat is Flemington. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $80,759, the third-highest in New Jersey and ranked 33rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 19th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Hunterdon County is noted for having the second-lowest level of child poverty of any county in the United States.
It is part of the Newark-Union, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division of the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. However, some portions of the county include themselves as part of the Delaware Valley, though Hunterdon County is not included in that area. Hunterdon County was established on March 11, 1714, separating from Burlington County, at which time it included all of present-day Morris and Warren counties; the rolling hills and rich soils which produce bountiful agricultural crops drew Native American tribes and Europeans to the area. Around 500 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands shaped like an arch collided with proto North America and rode over the top of the North American plate; the rock from the islands created the highlands of Hunterdon County as there was a shallow sea where Hunterdon County is now located. Around four hundred million B. C. a small continent, long and thin, collided with proto North America. This collision created compression.
The Paleozoic sediment of shale and sandstone faulted. The heat allowed the igneous rock to bend, thus Hunterdon County was born; the African plate which collided with North America created more folding and faulting in the southern Appalachians. The African and North America plates tore and drifted away from each other; the Wisconsin glacier that entered into New Jersey around 21,000 BCE and melted around 13,000 BCE did not reach Hunterdon County. However, there are glacial outwash deposits from streams and rivers that flowed from the glacier southward depositing rock and sediment. Hunterdon County has two geophysical provinces; the first is the Highlands, the western section of the county. The other is the Piedmont, the eastern and southern section of the county; the Highlands account for one third of the area and the Piedmont accounts for two thirds of the county. The Highlands are part of the Reading Prong. Limestone and shale over igneous rock comprise the Highlands; the Piedmont includes the Hunterdon Plateau and the Raritan Valley Lowlands which are 150 to 300 feet above sea level.
The Piedmont is made up of sandstone. Paleo Indians moved into Hunterdon County between 12,000 BCE and 11,000 BCE; the area was warming due to climate change. The Wisconsin Glacier in Warren and Sussex County was retreating northward; the area was that of Taiga/Boreal forests. Paleo Indians traveled in small groups in search of game and edible plants, they used spears made of jasper or black chert. Their camp sites are difficult to find. Native Americans moved into the area but the time they arrived is unknown. Most have come from the Mississippi River area. Many tribes of the Delaware Nation lived in Hunterdon County along the Delaware River and in the Flemington area; these tribes were agricultural in nature, growing corn and squash. Those that lived along the South Branch of the Raritan River farmed. There was a Native American trail. Land purchases from Native Americans occurred from 1688 to 1758. Large land purchases from Native Americans occurred in 1703, 1709 and 1710. Over 150,000 acres were bought with metal knives and pots, blankets, barrels of rum or hard cider, guns and shot.
This allowed for European settlers to enter into Hunterdon County in the early 18th century. After 1760, nearly all Native Americans left New Jersey and relocated to eastern Canada or the Mississippi River area; the first European settlers were Col. John Reading who settled in Reading Township in 1704 and John Holcombe who settled in Lambertville in 1705. Hunterdon County was separated from Burlington County on March 11, 1714. At that time Hunterdon County was large, going from Assunpink Creek near Trenton to the New York State line which at that time was about 10 miles north of Port Jervis, New York. Hunterdon County was named for a colonial governor of New Jersey. Language changes over time and location, so by stemming of, a → lenition of the name of his family seat of "Hunterston" in Ayrshire, the name "Hunterdon" was derived. On March 15, 1739, Morris County was separated from Hunterdon County; the boundary between Hunterdon and Somerset counties is evidence of the old Keith Line which separated the provinces of West Jersey and East Jersey.
Hunterdon County was reduced in area on February 22, 1838, with the formation of Mercer County from portion
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. The city is the county seat of Middlesex County, the home of Rutgers University. New Brunswick is on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River; as of 2016, New Brunswick had a Census-estimated population of 56,910, representing a 3.1% increase from the 55,181 people enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, which in turn had reflected an increase of 6,608 from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as both the Hub City and the Healthcare City; the corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian; the Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital. The area around present-day New Brunswick was first inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans; the first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp known as Inian's Ferry. In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig, in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League and was an administrative seat for the Duchy of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of Hanover, became King George I of Great Britain.
Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784, it was incorporated into a town in 1798 as part of the Township Act of 1798. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776–1777 during the Revolutionary War; the Declaration of Independence received one of its first public readings, by Col. John Neilson, in New Brunswick on July 9, 1776, in the days following its promulgation by the Continental Congress; the Trustees of Queen's College, founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, several freshmen at a tavern called the'Sign of the Red Lion' on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets.
The Sign of the Red Lion was purchased on behalf of Queens College in 1771, sold to the estate of Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh in 1791. Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808, it remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School was established in 1766, shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County; the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to tract of land covering 7 acres located less than one-half mile west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick was formed by royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784; the existence of an African American community in New Brunswick dates back to the 18th century, when racial slavery was a part of life in the city and the surrounding area. Local slaveholders bought and sold African American children and men in New Brunswick in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. In this period, the Market-House was the center of commercial life in the city, it was located at the corner of Queen Street adjacent to the Raritan Wharf. The site was a place where residents of New Brunswick sold and traded their goods which made it an integral part of the city's economy; the Market-House also