Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Earl of Lennox
The Earl or Mormaer of Lennox was the ruler of the district of the Lennox in western Scotland. The first earl recorded is Ailin I, sometimes called'Alwin', he is traditionally said to have been created Earl of Lennox by King Malcolm IV in 1154, but this is too early a date. The earldom may in fact have been created in the late twelfth century by King William the Lion for his brother David, after David gained the higher title Earl of Huntingdon, he resigned the Earldom of Lennox and it passed to Ailin. Earl Ailin's parentage and background is unknown, his line continued as Earls of Lennox until the time of Earl Duncan in the fifteenth century. Duncan's daughter Isabella married son of Robert, Duke of Albany. Duncan hoped this marriage would improve the family's prospects, but it would in fact be their downfall. Duke Robert had infamously murdered David, the heir to the throne, when David's brother James became king, he wreaked his vengeance: the entire family were executed, including Earl Duncan, despite the fact he had had no part in the murder.
Isabella was imprisoned in Tantallon Castle, but she escaped execution, succeeded her father as Countess of Lennox. All four of her sons died in her lifetime: two from King James's retribution, two from natural causes, she had several grandsons, but none of them were legitimate, the earldom therefore died with her around the year 1457. In 1473 the earldom was reclaimed by Sir John Stewart of Darnley, the grandson of Elizabeth Lennox, daughter to Earl Duncan and sister to Countess Isabella. In 1565 his great-great-great-grandson Henry, Lord Darnley married Queen of Scots, he would be murdered at Kirk o' Field in 1567, therefore on the death of his father Earl Matthew, the earldom of Lennox passed to James, the son of Henry and Mary. James would accede as King of Scots a few months and the title merged with the Crown. In 1572, the earldom was conferred upon King James's uncle Charles, he did not long enjoy the title, for he died four years at the age of twenty-one. It was next granted to the king's great-uncle Robert in 1578.
This Robert, described as being "symple and of lyttle action or accomte", was persuaded to exchange the earldom of Lennox for the earldom of March, so that the king could give the former title to his friend and cousin Esmé. In 1581, Esmé's earldom was raised to a dukedom, his line continued as Dukes of Lennox until the time of his great-grandson Charles, who died childless in 1672 after drowning at Elsinore while on a diplomatic mission to the Danish government. In 1675, the Dukedom of Lennox was conferred upon Charles, bastard son of King Charles II, along with the English Dukedom of Richmond and several other titles. However, he would sell his lands in the Lennox to the Duke of Montrose, meaning he became Duke of Lennox in name alone; this line survives today, is headed by another Charles. Despite being Stewarts, they used "Lennox" as their surname, changed to "Gordon-Lennox" in the 19th century after the fourth Duke married Lady Charlotte Gordon and heiress to George, Duke of Gordon. David, Earl of Huntingdon Ailin I, Earl of Lennox Ailin II, Earl of Lennox Maldouen, Earl of Lennox Malcolm I, Earl of Lennox Malcolm II, Earl of Lennox Donald, Earl of Lennox Margaret, Countess of Lennox m. Walter of Faslane, descendant of the second Earl.
Duncan, Earl of Lennox Isabella, Countess of Lennox m. Murdoch Stewart, Duke of AlbanyThe title became extinct c. 1459, as all four sons of Countess Isabella died without legitimate issue. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, he married his half-first cousin Mary, Queen of Scots and heiress of King James V of Scotland, by whom he was the father of King James VI of Scotland and I of England, who inherited the earldom on the death of his grandfather the 4th Earl, whereupon it merged with the Crown, but was re-created by the king for his uncle. Charles Stewart, Earl of Lennox, second son of the 4th Earl of the second creation. Robert Stewart, Earl of Lennox, "exchanged" for the Earldom of March in 1580, second son of the third Earl of the second creation. Esmé Stewart, Earl of Lennox, grandson of the third Earl of the second creation through his third son John. Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox James Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Frederick Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox, Richmond
James Balfour Paul
Sir James Balfour Paul was the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the officer responsible for heraldry in Scotland, from 1890 until the end of 1926. Paul was born in Edinburgh, the second son of the Rev. John Paul of St Cuthbert's Church and Margaret Balfour, at their home, 13 George Square in Edinburgh, his great-grandfather was Sir William Moncreiff, 7th Baronet. He was educated at Royal High University of Edinburgh, he was admitted an advocate in 1870. Thereafter he was Registrar of Friendly Societies, Treasurer of the Faculty of Advocates, appointed Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1890, he was created a Knight Bachelor in the 1900 New Year Honours list, received the knighthood on 9 February 1900. Among his works was The Scots Peerage, a nine-volume series published from 1904 to 1914, he tried two interesting heraldic cases in Court of the Lord Lyon, the first being in 1909, when Sir Colin Macrae claimed the right to use the coat of arms as Chief of the Name of Clan Macrae, opposed by Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap.
The second was action brought against Mrs. Fraser Mackenzie by Colonel James Stewart-Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, in connection with the bearing of arms in right of her father. In the second case, the Lyon's ruling was upheld on appeal by the House of Lords. Shortly before his retirement in 1926, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1926 New Year Honours list, he was admitted an Esquire and a Commander of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, was a member of the Royal Societies and University Clubs, he was Secretary of the Order of the Thistle. He gave the Rhind Lectures on heraldry, he resided at Edinburgh. Sir James married, in 1872, Helen Margaret, daughter of John Nairne Forman of Staffa, WS, they had four children: a daughter. One son, John William became a heraldic officer, while another, Arthur Forman, became an architect and partner of Robert Rowand Anderson. Sir James is buried with other family in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, in the north section east of the opening in the wall between the original cemetery and the north extension.
History of the Royal Company of Archer Record Series of Registrum Magni Sigilli, Handbook to the Parliament House Heraldry in relation to Scottish History and Art. An Ordinary of Arms Contained in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland 1st ed. 2nd ed. Memoir and Remains of John M. Gray in 2 vols; the Scots Peerage Vol. I, with successive volumes up to Vol. IX Accounts of the Lord Treasurer of Scotland Vols. II-XI, 1900-1916 "Ancient Artillery, with some notes on Mons Meg" in The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, volume 50, 1915-1916, pps: 191-201. Scottish History Society, Diary of the Rev. George Ridpath, Minister of Stichill Kelly's Handbook to the Titled and Official Classes, 1903, London, p. 1156. Douglas, Sir Robert, Sir James Balfour, ed; the Scots Peerage, Wood's — Volume IX contains the index for the other eight volumes. Works related to Obituary: Sir James Balfour Paul at Wikisource Family tree
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Duke of Aubigny
Duke of Aubigny was a title in the Peerage of France, held by Scottish noblemen. The Scottish Dukes of Aubigny had their origins in Aubigny-sur-Nère, from the 15th century, an important honour throughout the Auld Alliance and Ancien Régime, its importance was displaced for the ducal title of Clan Gordon, during a long and turbulent period between the French Revolution and French Third Republic. The titleholder of this land was called Seigneur d'Aubigny and was conferred upon the House of Stewart's cadet branch, Stuart of Darnley; the first ducal holder was Louise de Kérouaille, who in 1684 was created Duchess of Aubigny in the Peerage of France at the request of Charles II, King of England and Scotland. However the letters patents creating the Duchy were not registered by the Paris Parliament, so the Dukedom became extinct at the Duchess' death in 1734. In 1777 King Louis XV issued lettres de suranation which restored the 1684 peerage to the heirs of Duchess Louise; the 2nd Duke of Richmond had received a brevet de duc, which gave him the honours of a Duke at the Court.
The Duchy was confiscated during Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, but returned to Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. The 4th Duke was the nephew of the 3rd Duke, so his succession to the Dukedom of Aubigny is according to ancient Salic Law, thus the Dukes of Richmond and Lennox have since used this title; the arms of the Lennox Dukes of Aubigny exhibit an inescutcheon gules, three buckles or which stand for the Duchy of Aubigny. These arms are in fact derived from the arms of the Stewart of Darnley lords of Aubigny; as descendants to the Stewarts of Bonkyl, they bore a fess chequy Azure and Argent, a bordure gules with buckles or. In 1428 John Stewart of Aubigny was awarded the right to incorporate the arms of France into his coat of arms, his descendants quartered France with Stewart. Property concerning the Château of Aubigny is no longer in the possession of the title-bearers, sold off in order to maintain the Dukes' personal finances within the UK itself. Aubigny is the chief tourist attraction in France which attests to the Auld Alliance, the honour now only an historic title.
John Stewart, 1st Lord of Aubigny Alan Stewart, 2nd Lord of Aubigny John Stewart, 3rd Lord of Aubigny Bernard Stewart, 4th Lord of Aubigny Robert Stewart, 5th Lord of Aubigny John Stewart, 6th Lord of Aubigny Esmé Stewart, 7th Lord of Aubigny Esmé Stewart, 8th Lord of Aubigny Henry Stewart, 9th Lord of Aubigny George Stewart, 10th Lord of Aubigny Ludovic Stewart, 11th Lord of Aubigny Charles Stewart, 12th Lord of Aubigny Louise de Kérouaille, 1st Duchess of Portsmouth, Duchess of Aubigny. Dukedom and Peerage extinct at her death. Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, jointly with his mother Louise de Kéroualle. Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox. Only a "Brevet Duke" and not a Duke and Peer. Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny. Restored to Peerage in 1777. Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond, 5th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 1st Duke of Gordon Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 7th Duke of Richmond, 7th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 2nd Duke of Gordon Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 8th Duke of Richmond, 8th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 3rd Duke of Gordon Frederick Charles Gordon-Lennox, 9th Duke of Richmond, 9th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 4th Duke of Gordon Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond, 10th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 5th Duke of Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond, 11th Duke of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, 6th Duke of Gordon List of French peerages Duke of Richmond Duke of Lennox Duke of Gordon The Stuarts of Darnley, seigneurs d'Aubigny The Auld Alliance, Aubigny-sur-Nère and The Stewarts
Orléans Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in the city of Orléans, France. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Orléans and was built from 1278 to 1329 and 1601-1829; the edifice is in the Gothic architectural style. The cathedral is most famous for its association with Joan of Arc; the French heroine attended evening Mass in this cathedral on May 2, 1429 while in the city to lift the siege. The cathedral's stained glass windows now depict the story of Joan of the defender of Orléans. John Stewart of Darnley “Orléans Cathedral.”, A. D. White Architectural Photographs Collection, Cornell University Rare and Manuscript Collections (15/5/3090.01 Media related to Orléans Cathedral at Wikimedia Commons Map showing the city in which this church is located. Diocese of Orléans official website Ministry of Culture: Cathédrale Sainte-Croix d'Orléans Orleans Cathedral at Structurae
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war, it was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, the development of strong national identities in both countries. Tensions between the crowns of France and England can be traced back to the origins of the English royal family itself, French in origin. For this reason, English monarchs had held not only the English Crown, but titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals to the kings of France; the status of the English King's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages.
French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing the French royal domain. In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. In 1328, Charles IV of France died without brothers, his closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was sister of the deceased King. Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Furthermore, political sentiment favoured a Frenchman for the crown rather than a foreign prince; the throne passed instead to Philip, Count of Valois, a patrilineal cousin of Charles IV, who would become Philip VI of France, the first king of the House of Valois. The English had not expected their claim to meet with success, did not press the matter when it was denied.
However, disagreements between Philip and Edward induced the former to confiscate the latter's lands in France, in turn prompted Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Agincourt—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, convinced the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy prevented the English kings from completing the conquest of France. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay and Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent. Historians divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, the Lancastrian War. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed by the parties to advance their agendas.
Historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history. The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops, aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratisation of the manpower and weapons of armies. Although a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism; the wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, artillery became important. The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire, thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically. In England, political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture.
The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, as well as the general shock at losing a war in which investment had been so great, became factors leading to the Wars of the Roses. The root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe; the outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England about Gascony and Scotland. The dynastic question, which arose due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext; the question of female succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, his posthumous son John I lived only a few days. Furthermore, the paternity of his daughter was in question, as her mother, Margaret of Burgundy, had been exposed as an adulterer in the Tour de Nesle affair. Philip, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, positioned himself to take the crown, advancing the stance that women should be ineligible to succeed to the French throne.
Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V. By the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, whi