Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. An industrialized city in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario, Hamilton has a population of 536,917, a metropolitan population of 747,545; the city is located about 60 km southwest of Toronto, with which the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is formed. On January 1, 2001, the current boundaries of Hamilton was created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth. Residents of the city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 77th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2018–19 and has a well-known medical school. In pre-colonial times, the Neutral First Nation used much of the land but were driven out by the Five Nations who were allied with the British against the Huron and their French allies.
A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which included King Street in the lower city. Following the United States gaining independence after their American Revolutionary War, in 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada, chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal; the Crown granted them land in these areas in order to develop Upper Canada and to compensate them for losses in the United States. With former First Nations lands available for purchase, these new settlers were soon followed by many more Americans, attracted by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois, allied with Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario as compensation for lands they lost in what was now the United States. During the War of 1812, British regulars and Canadian militia defeated invading American troops at the Battle of Stoney Creek, fought in what is now a park in eastern Hamilton.
The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton, when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly, shortly after the War of 1812. Nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which became the site of the town; as he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly, which established a new Gore District, of which the Hamilton townsite was a member. This town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. An early indication of Hamilton's sudden prosperity was marked by the fact that in 1816 it was chosen over Ancaster, Ontario that year to be the administrative center for the new Gore District. Another dramatic economic turnabout for Hamilton occurred in 1832 when a canal was cut through the outer sand bar that enabled Hamilton to become a major port.
A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832, when a cut-stone design was completed on Prince's Square, one of the two squares created in 1816. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official city status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament, 9 Victoria Chapter 73. By 1845, the population was 6,475. In 1846, there were useful roads to many communities as well as stage coaches and steamboats to Toronto and Niagara. Eleven cargo schooners were owned in Hamilton. Eleven churches were in operation. A reading room provided access to newspapers from other cities and from England and the U. S. In addition to stores of all types, four banks, tradesmen of various types, sixty-five taverns, industry in the community included three breweries, ten importers of dry goods and groceries, five importers of hardware, two tanneries, three coachmakers, a marble and a stone works; as the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879, a public library in 1890, the Right House department store in 1893.
The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire, the second telephone exchange in all of North America were each established in the city between 1877–78. The city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co. Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies and Dofasco, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively. Procter & Gamble and the Beech-Nut Packing Company opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922 their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s. In 1929 the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, was constructed.
Jackson Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
Jackson Street, is a Lower City collector road in Hamilton, Canada. It starts off West of Locke Street South at Jackson Playground as a one-way street up to Queen Street South where it switches over to a two-way street and is interrupted at Bay Street South the site of the Hamilton City Hall and the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, resumes again East of the property on MacNab Street South and ends at Wellington Street South. Jackson Street is named after tinware manufacturer. Jackson Street was called Tyburn Street and Maiden Lane, it is now named after Edward Jackson. CHCH TV 11 began broadcasting in 1954 as a CBC affiliate from a transmitter located at 481 First Road West in Stoney Creek. At the time, all private stations were required to be CBC affiliates; the CHCH Television Tower is a 357.5 metre-high guyed TV mast, the primary transmitter for television station CHCH-TV. When it was built in 1960, the CHCH Television Tower became the tallest structure in Canada. In 1961, CHCH became an independent TV station.
In 1974, CHCH TV 11 was first in the world with the television premiere of The Godfather. Hamilton is home to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame museum; the museum hosts an annual induction event in a week-long celebration that includes school visits, a golf tournament, a formal induction dinner and concludes with the Hall of Fame game involving the local CFL Hamilton Tiger-Cats at Ivor Wynne Stadium. Note: Listing of Landmarks from West to East. Jackson Playground Locke Street Shopping district CHCH-TV 11 Studios old Bell Telephone building converted to lofts. Bay 200, residential apartment building Hamilton City Hall Canadian Football Hall of Fame Downtown YWCA Whitehern Downtown YMCA James Street South Shopping District Hamilton Courthouse United International Laborers Union of North America building New Horizon Office Building Note: Listing of neighbourhoods from West to East. Kirkendall Durand Corktown Lower City Roads: Burlington Street, West/East Barton Street, West/East Cannon Street, West/East Wilson Street King William Street King Street, West/East Main Street, West/East.
Locke Street, South Queen Street, South Hess Street, South Bay Street, South MacNab Street, South James Street, South Hughson Street, South John Street, South Catharine Street, South Ferguson Avenue, South Wellington Street, South MapArt Golden Horseshoe Atlas - Page 647 - Grids G10, G11, G12, G13 Downtown Hamilton Durand Neighbourhood Kirkendall Neighbourhood Google Maps: Jackson Street
Queen Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
Queen Street is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Canada. It starts off at Beckett Drive, a mountain-access road in the city and is a two-way street up to Herkimer Street and a one-way street the rest of the way north up to the Canadian National Railway Yard where the road turns right, merging with Stuart Street which travels in a west–east direction. Queen Street was named after Queen Caroline of Brunswick, wife of King George IV. Queen Street forms the western boundary line of the Durand neighbourhood. Durand is bounded by Main Street to the north, James Street and James Mountain Road to the east and the Niagara escarpment to the south. With the turn of the 20th century, luxurious new residences were built along Markland and Aberdeen Avenues and to the south in the lee of the escarpment; these residences reflected the entrepreneurial spirit of those who made their fortunes in transportation, finance and commerce in one of North Americas major centres, Hamilton. By 1920, the Durand neighbourhood was considered to be the “exclusive” neighbourhood in Hamilton.
However, the Great Depression and the Second World War took their tolls on the fortunes of many of the established Durand households. Owners could no longer afford the taxes and upkeep on their homes, many of the grander residences were either demolished and replaced with middle-class low-rise housing, or were renovated to become low-rise apartment buildings. Much of the heritage of the neighbourhood survives today; the Hamilton A. A. A. Grounds, is a park, home to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats from 1872-1949. Entrance to the park at Queen Street South is right before Charlton Avenue West. Today it is the site of the Hamilton Tennis Club. Today Ivor Wynne Stadium is the home of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. It's off of 2 blocks West of Gage Avenue North; the TH&B Railway came into Hamilton in 1895. A railway tunnel was constructed from Queen to Park Street to cut down on the noise and disruption for the wealthy families who lived South of Jackson Street in the Durand neighbourhood. In 1964, Imperial Tobacco Company's Hamilton operations are moved to Ontario.
It was known as the Tuckett Tobacco Company, started up by George Elias Tuckett, Hamilton's 27th Mayor in 1896. Today the property is the site of two high-rise apartment buildings, Queen's Terrace and Oxford Heights. Tuckett's home was the Scottish Rite Castle on Queen Street, remains as one of Hamilton's most magnificent structures. At its peak the Tuckett Tobacco Company employed 600 workers and products were sold throughout the world; the first factory opened up in the 1860s near the intersection of Bay Streets. The Queen Street North factory opened up 28 February 1891 and stayed opened until 17 September 1966. One can reach the Bruce Trail via Queen Street South; the trail cuts through the city along the Niagara Escarpment and used by many locals for a full days hike. The Trail is 430 miles long and starts at Niagara Falls, passes through Hamilton and ends at the Bruce Peninsula. Hikers are led to hidden waterfalls and places of quiet charm. Note: Listing of Landmarks from North to South. Canadian National Railway Yards A City Window & Glass, building Queen's Terrace/ Oxford Heights Gary Hill Parkette Queen 75 Queen Elizabeth Tower All Saints Church, Ontario Scottish Rite Castle, Originally the home of George Elias Tuckett, Tuckett Tobacco Company owner + Hamilton's 27th Mayor in 1896.
Grand Lodge of Canada, behind the Scottish Rite Castle on King Street West Canadian Pacific Railway tunnel, Hess Village, Western end of George Street. Queen's Court, Players' Guild of Hamilton, Inc. Jackson Villa, Queensvilla Condominiums Capital Terrace, Savaria Tower, Pannonia Tower, Hamilton Amateur Athletic Association Grounds Hamilton Tennis Club Beckett Drive, a Mountain-access road Bruce Trail Niagara Escarpment Note: Listing of neighbourhoods from North to South Strathcona/ Central -, Queen Street is the division between these two neighbourhoods. Kirkendall North/ Durand, Queen Street is the division between these two neighbourhoods. Kirkendall South Note: Listing of streets from North to South. Barton Street West Cannon Street West - One-way street, York Boulevard - One-way street King Street West - One-way street Main Street West - One-way street Jackson Street West Hunter Street West - One-way street Charlton Avenue West - One-way street Aberdeen Avenue Note: Listing of streets from West to East.
Longwood Road, South Chedoke Parkway Dundurn Street, South Locke Street, South Queen Street, South Hess Street, South Bay Street, South MacNab Street, South James Street, South Hughson Street, South John Street, South Catharine Street, South Ferguson Avenue, South Niagara Escarpment Commission MapArt Golden Horseshoe Atlas - Page 647 - Grids F11, G11, H11, J11 Hess Village: Official web site Kirkendall.ca Bruce Trail Association Hikes on the Bruce Trail Google Maps: Queen Street
James Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
James Street is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Canada. It starts off at the base of the Niagara Escarpment from James Mountain Road, a mountain-access road in the city was a one-way street going south throughout but now has sections of it that are two-way, it extends north to the city's waterfront at the North End where it ends at Guise Street West right in front of the Harbour West Marina Complex and the Royal Hamilton Yacht Club. James Street was named after one of Nathaniel Hughson's sons. Hughson was one of the City founders of Hamilton along with James Durand. James Street was called Lake Road because it was the road that led to Lake Ontario to the north, it was renamed to Jarvis Street after city founder George Hamilton's wife and finally changed to its present-day James. George Hamilton, a settler and local politician, established a town site in the northern portion Barton Township after the war in 1815, he kept several east-west roads which were Indian trails, but the north-south streets were on a regular grid pattern.
Streets were designated "East" or "West" if they crossed James Street or Highway 6. Streets were designated "North" or "South" if they crossed King Street or Highway 8. James Street was the Lake Road and in 1835, James Street was extended south, but was interrupted by a bog at Hunter Street, drained out and graded. Hugh Cossart Baker, Sr. established the first life insurance company in Canada 21 August 1847. The firm was incorporated in 1849; the first head office was in Hamilton, Ontario on the top floor of the Mechanics' Institute on James Street near Merrick, where Hamilton City Centre now stands. The head office remained in Hamilton until 1900, when the new president George Cox moved it to Toronto. In 1872, the Bank of Hamilton was established, it had its head offices at the corner of King and James Streets and lasted until 1924. The Bank of Hamilton merged with The Commerce on January 2, 1924, it was one of the last surviving banks in Canada, not headquartered in Toronto or Montreal. On June 20, 1877, the first commercial telephone service in Canada began in Ontario.
Hugh Cossart Baker, Jr. learned of Alexander Graham Bell's invention in 1877 at the Philadelphia International Exposition and from there decided to test the communication tool in Hamilton. Hugh Cossart Baker Jr. is credited with making the first telephone exchange in the British Empire from an office building at the corner of James and Main Street East which still stands there today. In 1890, the first Bowling alley in the City opens at back of the J. W. MacDonald Tobacco shop. In 1929, the Pigott Building was built for $1,000,000. Known as Hamilton's first skyscraper, it stands at 210 feet. An office building, the Pigott Building is now used for condominiums; the Lister Block building on the corner of James and King William Street was the first indoor commercial mall in Canada. In 1961, the Old city hall, with its 38-metre clock tower was demolished to allow expansion of Eaton's department store; the clock and bell went into the tower of the 1990 Eaton Centre, now known as the Hamilton City Centre.
In 1973, The Birks Building, at King and James, was demolished to make room for a modernist law office, was once described by Oscar Wilde as "the most beautiful building in all of North America." In 2000, LIUNA Station reopened the James Street North Canadian National rail station as a banquet hall. In 1996 the station was used for the most expensive film made in Canada to that time, The Long Kiss Goodnight, which cost $95,000,000.00 U. S. to make. In 2000, X-Men shot some of its scenes at LIUNA Station, it starred Patrick Stewart. The Bank of Montreal building had its cornerstone laid on 8 August 1928 and was completed 18 June 1929. At the time, the bank's directors were quoted in the local papers as saying. An impressive structure with a Cathedral-like interior was designed by Kenneth G. Rea and built by the local Pigott Construction Company. In 1972, the Bank of Montreal vacated the building but the following year the Hamilton Public Library used it as a reference library. In September 1980, the building was vacated again and was used a couple times thereafter as a night club.
It was renovated afterwards and today it is home to a National Law Firm office. The Federal Building on James Street North was built in 1856, it was first home to a post office which moved to the corner of King and John Streets. It was the temporary site of the Hamilton City Hall between 1888 and 1890 while the new structure on the corner of James and Market Streets was being built. In 1897, the Sun-Life Assurance Company renovated it for their own district offices. In 1920, it went through another major renovation, it is home to the Hamilton City Ballet which takes up the entire top floor and the rest of the building is used up as residential apartments. One can reach the Bruce Trail via James Street South; the trail cuts through the city along the Niagara Escarpment and used by many locals for a full day's hike. The trail is 430 miles long and starts at Niagara Falls, passes through Hamilton and ends at the Bruce Peninsula. Hikers are led to hidden waterfalls and places of quiet charm; the Lister Block, first built in 1886, was
Wellington Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
Wellington Street is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Canada. It starts off at Charlton Avenue East as a two-way street for only one block where it's blocked off by the Corktown Park and a couple of Canadian National Railway lines that cut through it, it starts up again north of the park on Young Street and is a one-way street the rest of the way. It ends in the North End of the City on Burlington Street East, in front of the Lakeport Brewing Company and the Administration offices of the Hamilton Port Authority. Wellington Street was called Lovers' Lane; the Hamilton General Hospital is major teaching hospital on the corners of Barton Street East and Wellington Street North in downtown Hamilton, Ontario, affiliated with McMaster University. It is sometimes referred to as "HGH" and was founded in 1848; the David Braley Cardiac and Stroke Research Institute is a $90-million Research Centre that will be home to 500+ scientists and will be built right behind the Hamilton General Hospital. The new building with 165,000 square feet is expected to open in 2010.
At least 250 new jobs will be added to the local economy. David Braley contributed $10-million towards the project. Braley's donation marks an important transition in Hamilton's economy, as he takes money he made in the industrial economy and uses it to help the community develop a more diverse economic base. David Braley is the president of auto-parts manufacturer Orlick Industries Ltd. former owner of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats and current owner of the B. C. Lions. In 1856, the Daniel C. Gunn Engine Shop on Wellington Street North, produced the first Canadian-built locomotives. In 1976, First Place apartments, a seniors high rise at King and Wellington opened on the site of First United Church, which burned down in 1969. Lakeport Brewing Company is based in Hamilton and focused on producing value-priced quality beer for the Ontario take-home market. Lakeport pioneered the "24 for $24" value segment. Lakeport produces nine proprietary beer brands, two of which, Lakeport Honey Lager and Lakeport Pilsener, are two of the top ten selling brands in the province of Ontario.
Lakeport has more than 200 employees at its production facility. It is one of the fastest growing companies in the Hamilton region. Lakeport Brewing Company joined forces with the Hamilton Port Authority who will finance and construct a 35,000 square foot expansion to Lakeport's Hamilton harbour front facility. Lakeport Brewing Company is Canada's No. 1 co-packer of beer, spirit-based products. The company is said to be North America's most modernized beverage alcohol production facility. On Monday May 8, Labatt Brewing Company made it official and announced that Lakeport, who they purchased earlier in the year, for $200-million for rights to the income trust, which controlled the plant, will continue to operate in the City of Hamilton, it will continue to operate in Hamilton as they believe it is a "viable plant" and "the company is proud to integrate it with Labbat's." The operations employees continue to brew Lakeport in Hamilton but the marketing and sales jobs are now centralized at Labatt's head offices.
Kenesky Sports on Barton & Wellington Streets is the site where Emile "Pops" Kenesky invented the hockey goalie pads in 1917. His new pads were cricket pads and widened to 12 inches; the new pads caught on quickly, this style of pad was used by a majority of pro goalies right on to the 1970s. NHL greats like Jacques Plante and Terry Sawchuk having worn them. Kenesky's company became the best-known manufacturer of hockey equipment in Canada. A hockey school for hockey goalies of all-ages. Alumni include Dwayne Roloson. Note: Listing of Landmarks from North to South. Pier 10 Hamilton Port Authority, Administration Office Lakeport Brewing Company Canadian National railway tracks Hamilton General Hospital David Braley Cardiac and Stroke Research Institute Kenesky Sports & Cycle Co. Ltd. Wellington Park First Place Hamilton, Seniors apartment building Corktown Park Escarpment Rail Trail Bruce Trail Niagara Escarpment Note: Listing of neighbourhoods from North to South North End - Everything north of the Canadian National Railway tracks Beasley/ Landsdale, Wellington Street is the division between these two neighbourhoods.
Corktown, Wellington Street is the division between these two neighbourhoods. Note: Listing of streets from North to South. Burlington Street East Barton Street East Cannon Street East - One-way street Wilson Street - One-way street King William Street - One-way street King Street East - One-way street Main Street East - One-way street Jackson Street East Hunter Street East - One-way street Charlton Avenue East Note: Listing of streets from West to East. MacNab Street, South James Street, South Hughson Street, South John Street, South Catharine Street, South Ferguson Avenue, South Wellington Street, South Victoria Avenue, South Wentworth Street, South Sherman Avenue, South Gage Avenue, South Ottawa Street, South Kenilworth Avenue, South Niagara Escarpment Commission MapArt Golden Horseshoe Atlas - Page 647 - Grids E13, F13, G13, H13 Beasley Neighbourhood North End Neighbours Bruce Trail Association Hikes on the Bruce Trail Google Maps: Wellington Street
King William Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
King William Street is a Lower City collector road in Hamilton, Canada. It starts off at the western-end at James Street North and is a one-way street until Mary Street, where it becomes a two-way street that ends at Wentworth Street North, it is named after King William IV of the United Kingdom. In 1922, CKOC radio station started up; as of April 2007, it is the oldest radio station in English Canada. On the air since May 1, 1922. Ran as Top-40 format, today it's an "Oldies" radio station. In 1927, CHML, began operations as a response to censorship of political discussions by Hamilton's first radio station, CKOC; the original owners were Maple Leaf Radio Company, the "HML" in the callsign stood for "Hamilton Maple Leaf". CHML's broadcast station is on Main Street West in the Lower City. CKOC's broadcast from the corner of King William and John Streets and was an offshoot of the Wentworth Radio and Supply Company owned by Herb Slack, he figured he could sell more radios if he owned a radio station and in the spring of 1922 the station became only the third radio station in all of Canada.
Other broadcast locations over the years for CKOC include, the 11th floor of the Royal Connaught Hotel in the downtown core, the Lister Block building on James & King Williams Streets and a studio on Garfield Avenue near King & Sherman Avenue North. Today the radio station is based on the Mountain on Upper Wentworth Street, just North of Limeridge Mall. Note: Listing of Landmarks from West to East. Hamilton City Centre Lloyd D. Jackson Square Lister Block Building Homegrown Hamilton Club Absinthe Downtown Bingo Hall Geyer Studio The Baltimore House Manta Contemporary Art Gallery Hamilton Central Fire Department Seventy-Seven Night Club The Underground, Steel City Music Venue Children's International Learning Centre Theatre Aquarius, Dofasco Centre for the Performing Arts, downtown Hamilton Regional Police station Tweedsmuir Elementary School Cathedral High School Note: Listing of neighbourhoods from West to East. Central - The financial center of Hamilton, Ontario Beasley Landsdale Lower City Roads: Burlington Street, West/East Barton Street, West/East Cannon Street, West/East Wilson Street King William Street King Street, West/East Main Street, West/East.
James Street, North Hughson Street, North John Street, North Catharine Street, North Ferguson Avenue, North Wellington Street, North Victoria Avenue, North Wentworth Street, North MapArt Golden Horseshoe Atlas - Page 647 - Grids G12, G13, G14 The Underground, Steel City Music Venue Theatre Aquarius, Dofasco Centre for the Performing Arts
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion