The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are or located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members. UEFA represents the national football associations of Europe, runs nation and club competitions including the UEFA European Championship, UEFA Nations League, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup, controls the prize money and media rights to those competitions. Henri Delaunay was Ebbe Schwartz the first president; the current president is Aleksander Čeferin, a former Football Association of Slovenia president, elected as UEFA's seventh president at the 12th Extraordinary UEFA Congress in Athens in September 2016, automatically became a vice-president of the world body FIFA. UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel, Switzerland after consultation between the Italian and Belgian associations.
The European football union began with 25 members. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, in Bern. In 1995, UEFA headquarters were transferred to Switzerland. UEFA membership coincides for the most part with recognition as a sovereign country in Europe, although there are some exceptions; some states are not members. Some UEFA members are not sovereign states, but form part of a larger recognised sovereign state in the context of international law; these include Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, the Faroe Islands, Kosovo, however in the context of these countries government functions concerning sport tend to be carried at the territorial level coterminous with the UEFA member entity. Some UEFA members are transcontinental states and others are considered part of Europe both culturally and politically. Countries, members of the Asian Football Confederation were admitted to the European football association Israel and Kazakhstan. Additionally some UEFA member associations allow teams from outside their association's main territory to take part in their "domestic" competition.
AS Monaco, for example, takes part in the French League. F. C. participate in the English League. Derry City, situated in Northern Ireland, plays in the Republic of Ireland-based League of Ireland and the 7 native Liechtensteinian teams play in the Swiss Leagues. Saarland Football Union, joined Football Association of West Germany Football Association of East Germany, joined Football Association of West Germany as German Football Association Football Federation of the Soviet Union. Four other successor republics formed their own football organisations. Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro, which exited the union, created the Football Association of Montenegro, it competed as FR Yugoslavia until 2003 when the country changed its name to Montenegro. Football Association of Czechoslovakia, became Football Association of the Czech Republic and Slovak Football Association with the Football Association of the Czech Republic acknowledged as its direct successor. Lithuania, in 1990 sanctions were imposed due to secession of Lithuanian Football Federation from the Football Federation of Soviet Union Yugoslavia, in 1992-1998 sanctions were imposed due to the Bosnian War Italy, in 1974-1975 sanctions were imposed against SS Lazio due to its fans, Italy was restricted from the European Cup to which Lazio qualified England, in 1985-1991 sanctions were imposed against English association football clubs due to the Heysel Stadium disaster by suspending their participation in continental competitions for five years Netherlands, in 1991-1992 sanctions were imposed against AFC Ajax due to its fans, the Netherlands were restricted from the European Cup to which Ajax qualified Albania, in 1967 special sanctions were imposed against 1966–67 Albanian Superliga due to its political background 1968–69 the Warsaw Pact demonstrated political protest and imposed sanctions on clubs of its members in continental competitions (included E
Drogheda United F.C.
Drogheda United Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Drogheda, County Louth playing in the League of Ireland First Division. They play; the current club is the amalgamation of two former clubs in the town: Drogheda United, a non-league club founded in 1919. C. founded in 1962. The clubs merged their operations to form the current club in 1975 and have achieved success since 2005 by winning two Setanta Sports Cups, an FAI Cup, their first league title, the 2007 League of Ireland. Founded in 1919 the original Drogheda United were a non-league club for all of their early years of existence but on Saturday 22 June 1963 another Drogheda Club – Drogheda F. C. were elected to the League of Ireland when the league was expanded to include twelve teams rather than ten. In their first season there they finished tenth and in each of the next three seasons finished in the bottom three. In the 1967–68 season they achieved a respectable fifth-place finish and the following season finished in sixth place.
When the league expanded to include fourteen teams the club dropped down the table again finishing in the bottom five in each of the next six seasons and recording their heaviest league defeat 8–1 to Cork Hibernians in the 1970–71 season. They did, get to FAI Cup final that season where they were beaten 3–0 by Limerick. In 1975 Drogheda F. C. amalgamated with Drogheda United to form Drogheda United F. C. and the 1975–76 season saw an improvement in fortunes on the field as they finished sixth in the league and they reached the FAI Cup Final for the second time, this time losing 1–0 to Bohemians. For the next three seasons, quite the opposite at what had happened before, they finished in third place. During these seasons Drogheda United achieved two club records – their biggest league victory and Cathal Muckian scoring 21 league goals in a season; the club endured another tough spell in the league finishing in the bottom half for the next five seasons bar the 1982–83 season when they managed to achieve their second highest league placing of second-place finishing sixteen points behind Athlone Town.
They did win their first trophy during these seasons the League of Ireland Cup in the 1983–84 season. The 1984–85 season saw the introduction of the League of Ireland First Division to begin the following season with Drogheda United among the four clubs who were relegated from the Premier Division but in this season Drogheda United entered European Competition for the first time where they were destroyed against Tottenham Hotspur in the UEFA Cup First Round 14–0 on aggregate, they remained in the First Division until the 1988–89 season when they went up as First Division Champions. Their joy was short-lived, however, as the following season they were relegated although this time they achieved promotion at the first time of asking. In the next two seasons Drogheda battled bravely against relegation surviving by one point and on goal difference in the respective seasons. However, they were relegated for the third time in the 1993–94 season. Drogheda United were much becoming a yo-yo club, swapping divisions every season between the 1993–94 and 2000–01 seasons when in 2000–01 they finished a disappointing ninth in the ten-team First Division.
In 2002–03 they were promoted to the Premier Division under Harry McCue and were there until the 2016 season, as they got relegated in 2015, coming in twelfth place In 2003, Harry McCue was sacked as manager of Drogheda United. Paul Doolin upped the standard of training and fitness levels. However, he found that to compete with the big clubs like Bohemians and Shelbourne he would need a professional squad. In 2004, he made the squad professional and gave part-time players the option to turn professional or leave the club; the change to full-time saw. They won their first FAI Cup in 2005, beating Cork City in the final and won back-to-back Setanta Cups in 2006 and 2007, they qualified for the UEFA Cup for the 2006–07 season thanks to their 2005 FAI Cup success. This time they fared better than in their first foray into Europe as they defeated HJK Helsinki 4–2 on aggregate in the First Qualifying Round and were just eliminated 11–10 in an epic penalty shoot-out in the next round against IK Start of Norway.
They were in the UEFA Cup Qualifying stages for the 2007–08 campaign, losing to Helsingborgs IF in the second round. United won the League of Ireland for the first time in 2007, beating Cork City 2–1 at United Park with three games to go. Guy Bates scored the winning goal for Drogheda that day. Drogheda were dominant in the league, winning the title by seven points; the league win meant that Drogheda would be playing in the Champions League Qualifiers for the first time in their history in the 2008–09 season. They succeeded in their first qualifier against Levadia Tallinn, they played the Second Qualifying Round against Dynamo Kyiv which, they ended up losing 4–3 on aggregate. In the first a late goal for Kiev secured a 2–1 victory at Dalymount Park. In the second game, an early Kiev goal after 13 minutes seemed to have finished the tie, but remarkably, on 41 minutes, Drogheda were awarded a penalty. Shane Robinson slotted home the spot-kick. Drogheda worked tirelessly trying to get the second goal, but they gave away a penalty on 72 minutes, converted.
2–1 down, it seemed the tie was over now. Amazingly however, Graham Gartland scored an 88th-minute goal to make it 2–2. Adam Hughes got a further chance when he had an ope
Northern Territory News
The Northern Territory News is a morning tabloid newspaper based in Darwin, Australia. It is a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corp, it serves Darwin and the rest of the Northern Territory. It covers local and world news as well as sports and business; the paper has a Monday to Friday readership average of 47,000, reaching an average of 55,000 on Saturdays. News Corp Australia publishes its local counterpart, The Sunday Territorian, available throughout Darwin and the Northern Territory, as well as free weekly community newspapers under the banner of Sun Newspapers; the first edition of the Northern Territory News was published on 8 February 1952, as a weekly tabloid twice weekly, building up to five days a week in 1964. In February 1975 publication reverted to five afternoons a week; the Saturday edition started again in 1979 and now all six papers are morning dailies. The Northern Territory News was founded as a counterbalance to perceived pro-communist bias from the Northern Territory's only newspaper at the time the trade union owned The Northern Standard which soon folded.
The paper was quite politically active being a noted advocate of greater self-governance powers for the Northern Territory as well as being vocal on a number of other local issues. However, the paper lapsed into the current apolitical stance it maintains presently with its most noted feature being its colourful headlines and front pages; the paper has become well known around Australia for its front-page headlines with then-Deputy Editor Paul Dyer winning a Walkley Award for his contributions in 2012. A book, What A Croc, featuring the paper's most popular front pages was released in 2014. List of newspapers in Australia Official website medianet sections and liftouts News medianet
South Melbourne FC
South Melbourne Football Club is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in suburb of Albert Park, in Melbourne, Victoria. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Victoria, with matches played at Lakeside Stadium. Founded in 1959 as South Melbourne Hellas, with a basis in the Greek community, South Melbourne were once considered the most successful soccer club in Australia; the club has won four national championships, a string of Victorian State League titles, represented Oceania in the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship. Along with the Marconi Stallions, they were one of two clubs to compete in every season of the National Soccer League; the club was chosen by the IFFHS as the Oceania team of the 20th century. South Melbourne was formed in 1959 with the amalgamation of three struggling Melbourne soccer clubs—South Melbourne United, the oldest of the three clubs with a history dating back to the early 1900s—the Greek-backed Yarra Park Aias, Hellenic. Theo Marmaras, initiator of the merger proposal and president of Hellenic, became the first president of the new club.
In recognition of the large Greek Australian support base of Hellenic and Yarra Park, which were the best-supported of the three clubs, the new club was named South Melbourne Hellas, the name by which it was to be known for the majority of its 50 years. The first emblem reflected the colour scheme of the Greek national flag; the first uniform consisted of jersey of white with a red'V' around the collar, the was that of South Melbourne United, as well as blue shorts and blue and white hooped socks. On they would adopt predominantly blue and white strips, with various designs throughout the seasons, with the most common being a predominantly royal blue strip. South Melbourne won the Victorian First Division championship of 1960, the club's inaugural year of competition; the club was promoted to the Victorian State League First Division the following year, where it finished fifth in its first year. With a number of astute signings—Scottish journeyman Tommy Anderson, Ernie Ackerley, Leo Damianakos, Jim Pyrgolios and Andreas Roussis of Panathinaikos and Apollon Athens—the club won the division championship in 1962, 1964, 1965.
In 1965, South Melbourne secured the services of 35-year-old former AEK Athens F. C. star Kostas Nestoridis as player-coach. The result was a significant increase in crowd attendances and a fourth league title in 1966. Eager to repeat its success, the club recruited a number of Greek and local footballers, but they failed to make any impact. By 1969, the import experiment was considered a failure and most of the Greek players returned to their homeland. In 1970, the club focused its attention on recruiting local soccer players, it soon signed two players that would become South Melbourne's greatest players, Steve Walker and striker Jim Armstrong. South Melbourne missed out on the title by a point in the 1971 season, edged out by Footscray JUST, but with Armstrong scoring goals aplenty, South Melbourne went on to win the championship in 1972; the season saw coach Bill Curran consolidate the first team's strength by signing midfielder Peter Bourne and promoting skilled youngsters Giovanni Batticiotto, Fethon Ileris and Bill Hasapis.
The club continued its successful run with the 1974 title, second place in 1975, with star recruits Jimmy Mackay, Peter Ollerton and Duncan Cummings, capped off its final year in the Victorian State League by winning the 1976 championship. South Melbourne joined Mooroolbark, Heidelberg United, Footscray JUST as Melbourne's participants in the newly formed National Soccer League in 1977. A mass exodus of its best players, saw the team slump to 11th place in its inaugural year, but a recruiting drive by coach Dave Maclaren gave the club a respectable third in 1978, it wasn't to last. South Melbourne finished at the bottom of the league table in 1979; the recruitment of Alan Davidson, George Campbell, Steve Blair, Branko Buljevic, Alun Evans, Charlie Egan, helped South Melbourne climb the NSL ladder in the early part of the decade, with South becoming runners up in the NSL in 1981, their best NSL placing at the time. They won the Ampol Cup in 1982; some solid player signings such as gave the club some respectability, but a combination of committee problems and a string of coaches, never allowed the team to settle and gain consistency.
South Melbourne finished first on the league ladder in 1984, but in a newly restructured NSL competition, it had to win the finals series to win the title. The club powered past local rivals Heidelberg United in the Southern Division play-offs, edged out Sydney Olympic in the Grand Final to win the 1984 national championship. After the departure of George Campbell to rivals Preston Makedonia in 1983/84, Branko Buljevic to Footscray Just in 1985 and others, South Melbourne could not repeat the success of the previous year. Despite finishing in first place, it was knocked out of the finals series by local rivals Brunswick Juventus and Preston. A major overhaul by coach Brian Garvey saw a number of new signings being made, including youngsters Paul Trimboli, David Healy, Kimon Taliadoros and Harry Micheil; the young team put in some memorable performances as the decade came to a close, finishing in the top half of the league table, but failed to win another championship. The club appointed Ferenc Puskás as coach for the 1989/90 season, helping South win the NSL Cup tournament for that season, as well backing up their 1988 Dockerty Cup win with victory in the 1989 tournament.
On 28 November 1981, South Melbourne Hellas and Melb
Kalamata Football Club is a professional football club based in Kalamata, Greece competing in Football League 2. Kalamata FC was formed in 1967 in a merger among other local sides; the team has competed in the Greek first division seven times, in 1972-73, 1974–75, from 1995-96 to 1997-98, from 1999-00 to 2000-01. Kalamata F. C. achieved its first two promotions to the first division, in 1972 and 1974, under President Lykourgos Gaitanaros. Its first two promotions in the early 1970s are considered the team's first golden era; the team could not stick in the top flight though, would not have a resurgence until the 1990s. Businessman Stavros Papadopoulos bought the team in 1992, while the club was stuck in Gamma Ethniki, the third division. Upon his arrival, Papadopoulos began pouring a substantial amount of money into the club, by 1995 the team had achieved promotion to the first division; the team dropped back to the second division for one season in 1997, but again achieved promotion to the first division the next year, remained in the top flight until Papadopoulos sold the team in 2000.
After Papadopoulos' departure Kalamata fell to the second division and has since stayed in the lower divisions. The Papadopoulos era of Kalamata F. C. saw the signing of many international players from Ghana, such as Samuel Johnson, Afo Dodoo, Ebenezer Hagan, Peter Ofori-Quaye and Derek Boateng. Johnson transferred from Kalamata to Anderlecht and played for Fenerbahçe, Hagan transferred to Iraklis and to PAOK, Ofori-Quaye was sold for a club record USD $3.5 million to Olympiacos, Derek Boateng left for Panathinaikos. Kalamata FC is credited with starting the trend among Greek clubs of signing African talent since the late 1990s; the Papadopoulos era saw the uncovering of a wealth of young Greek talent, including Greek international player Nikos Liberopoulos, who made his name at Kalamata before moving to Panathinaikos, from there to AEK and Eintracht Frankfurt. After being demoted to the second division in 1997, they started to bring in young Brazilian talent, as well as some veterans of the biggest teams in Brazil.
The Brazilians helped the team gain promotion to the first division right away in 1998. According to Brazilian media and insiders, Papadopoulos' son Daniil, a former high level amateur athlete in America, was instrumental in spotting some of the Brazilian talent and sending them to Kalamata FC. One of them, Hilton Assis, turned out to be the first cousin of Brazil and Barcelona FC super star Ronaldinho. Hilton was once a promising player in Brazil who starred for Internacional of Porto Alegre, but serious knee operations curtailed his career; when he was healthy he was Kalamata's top goal scorer, but he returned to the Brazilian first division after Papadopoulos sold the team. Kalamata's long-standing rivals are a poor and industrial suburb of Athens. Kalamata FC is claimed to have some of the most passionate and dedicated fans in all of Greece. Kalamata F. C.'s official colours are black and white, the team is known in Greece as the "Black Storm". Kalamata plays; the stadium was completed in 1976, has a seating capacity of 5,400.
Kalamata F. C.'s most famous. Kalamata's long-standing rivals are Paniliakos, located in Pyrgos in the western Peloponnese, Egaleo, in Athens suburb of Egaleo. Messiniakos is Kalamata's cross-town rival, but Messiniakos competed in lower leagues; as of 19 August 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For details on former players, see Category:Kalamata F. C. players Beta Ethniki ChampionshipWinners: 1971–72, 1973–74 Delta Ethniki Championship Winners: 2010–11 Bo Petersson Eduardo Fernandes Amorim Andreas Michalopoulos Nikos Lyberopoulos Soares Lee Bullen Derek Boateng Samuel Johnson Kostas Frantzeskos Peter Ofori-Quaye Triantafyllos Machairidis Dimitrios Konstantopoulos Kyriakos Stamatopoulos Carlos Marcora Tomás De Vincenti Baffour Gyan Ivan Tasić Stanimir Milošković Thanasis Sentementes Ebenezer Hagan Afo Dodoo Sandro Luiz Scapin Vaggelis Kaounos Panagiotis Drougas Panagiotis Bachramis Marcelinho Dimitris Markos Charles Sampson Christos Kalantzis PAE Kalamata - Official site Bulldogs Fan Club - Supporters' club site Onsports.gr Profile
Olympiacos Football Club known as Olympiacos, Olympiacos Piraeus or with its full name as Olympiacos C. F. P. is a Greek professional football club based in Athens. Part of the major multi-sport club Olympiacos CFP, their name was inspired from the ancient Olympic Games and along with the club's emblem, the laurel-crowned Olympic athlete, symbolize the Olympic ideals of ancient Greece, their home ground is a 32,115-capacity stadium in Piraeus. Founded on 10 March 1925, Olympiacos is the most successful club in Greek football history, having won 44 League titles, 27 Cups and 4 Super Cups, all records. Τotalling 75 national trophies, Olympiacos is 9th in the world in total titles won by a football club. The club's dominating success can be further evidenced by the fact that all other Greek clubs have won a combined total of 38 League titles, while Olympiacos holds the record for the most consecutive Greek League titles won, with seven in a row in two occasions, breaking their own previous record of six consecutive wins in the 1950s, when Olympiacos was unequivocally nicknamed Thrylos.
Having won the 2014–15 league title, Olympiacos became the only football club in the world to have won a series of five or more consecutive championships for five times in their history, a record, praised by FIFA with a congratulatory letter of its president, Sepp Blatter. They are the only Greek club to have won five consecutive national Cups, as well as six League titles undefeated. Olympiacos are one of only three clubs to have never been relegated from the top flight of Greek football, by winning the 2012–13 title, their 40th in total, they added a fourth star above their crest, each one representing 10 League titles. In European competitions, Olympiacos best performances are their presence in the UEFA Champions League quarter-finals in 1998–99, losing the semi-final spot in the last minutes of their second leg match against Juventus, as well as in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals in 1992–93; the Red-Whites are the highest ranked Greek club in the UEFA rankings, occupying the 29th place in Europe as of 2018, one of the founding members of the European Club Association.
Olympiacos won the Balkans Cup in 1963, at a time when the competition was considered the second most important in the region after the European Cup, becoming the first Greek club to win an international competition. Olympiacos is the most supported football club in Greece being the most popular club in Athens, gathering strong support from Greek communities all over the world. With 83,000 registered members as of April 2006, the club was placed 9th in the 2006 list of football clubs with the most paying members in the world. Olympiacos share a long-standing rivalry with Panathinaikos, with whom they contest in the Derby of the eternal enemies, the most classic football derby in Greece and one of the most well known around the world. Olympiacos was founded on 10 March 1925, in the Athenian-port of Piraeus; the club's initial aim, as stated in the statutes, was the systematic cultivation and development of its athletes' possibilities for participation in athletic competitions, the spreading of the Olympic athletic ideal and the promotion of sportsmanship and fanship among the youth according to egalitarian principles, by stressing a healthy and social basis as its foundation.
Members of "Piraikos Podosfairikos Omilos FC" and "Piraeus Fans Club FC" decided, during a historical assembly, to dissolve the two clubs in order to establish a new unified one, which would bring this new vision and dynamic to the community. Notis Kamperos, a senior officer of the Hellenic Navy, proposed the name Olympiacos and the profile of a laurel-crowned Olympic winner as the emblem of the new club. Michalis Manouskos, a prominent Piraeus industrialist, expanded the name to its complete and current status, Olympiacos Syndesmos Filathlon Pireos. Besides Kamperos and Manouskos, among the most notable founding members were Stavros Maragoudakis, the post office director. Andrianopoulos, a family of well-established Piraeus merchants, played a pivotal role in the founding of Olympiacos; the five brothers, Dinos, Giorgos and Leonidas Andrianopoulos raised the reputation of the club and brought it to its current glory. Yiannis, Dinos and Vassilis were the first to play, while Leonidas, the youngest of the five, made his debut on and played for the club for eight years.
The club's offensive line, made up of the five brothers, became legendary, rising to a mythical status and soon Olympiacos gained enormous popularity and became the most successful and well-supported club in Greece. Back their fan base consisted of the working class, with the team's home ground at Neo Phaliron Velodrome, before moving to its current Karaiskakis Stadium, they became Piraeus Champions in 1925 and 1926. In 1926, the Hellenic Football Federation was founded and organized the Panhellenic Championship in the 1927–1928 season; this was the first national championship, where the regional champions from EPSA league, EPSP league and EPSM league
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of