Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, FRS, PC, a British statesman and member of the Conservative Party, served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and twice as Home Secretary. He is regarded as the father of modern British policing and as one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party and he entered the House of Commons in 1809 under the tutelage of his father and of Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington. Peel was widely seen as a star in the Conservative Party and served in various junior ministerial offices, becoming Chief Secretary for Ireland. He cut tariffs to stimulate trade, to replace the lost revenue he pushed through a 3% income tax and he played a central role in making free trade a reality and set up a modern banking system. In 1830 the Whigs finally returned to power and Peel became a member of the Opposition for the first time, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto, laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. His first ministry was a minority government, dependent on Whig support, after only four months, his government collapsed and he served as Leader of the Opposition during the second government of the Viscount Melbourne.
Peel declined to head another minority government in May 1839, prompting a political crisis and he finally became Prime Minister again after the 1841 general election. His second government ruled for five years - its major legislation included the Mines and Collieries Act 1842, the Income Tax Act 1842, the Factories Act 1844, Peels government was weakened by anti-Irish and anti-Catholic sentiment following the controversial Maynooth Grant of 1845. After the outbreak of the Great Irish Potato Famine, his decision to join with Whigs, Peel remained an influential backbench MP and leader of the Peelite faction until his death in 1850. Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, reversed his stance, Peel, a Conservative, achieved repeal with the support of the Whigs in Parliament, overcoming the opposition of most of his own party. Many critics accordingly saw him as a traitor to the Tory cause, or as a Liberal wolf in sheeps clothing, taylor says, Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesman.
He carried Catholic Emancipation, he repealed the Corn Laws, he created the modern Conservative Party on the ruins of the old Toryism. Peel was born at Chamber Hall, Lancashire, to the industrialist and parliamentarian Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet and his father was one of the richest textile manufacturers of the early Industrial Revolution. Peel was educated briefly at Bury Grammar School, at Hipperholme Grammar School, at Harrow School and finally Christ Church, Oxford and he was a law student at Lincolns Inn in 1809 before entering Parliament. Peel saw part-time military service as a Captain in the Manchester Regiment of Militia in 1808, Peel entered politics in 1809 at the age of 21, as MP for the Irish rotten borough of Cashel, Tipperary. With a scant 24 electors on the rolls, he was elected unopposed and his sponsor for the election was the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, with whom Peels political career would be entwined for the next 25 years.
Peel made his speech at the start of the 1810 session. His speech was a sensation, famously described by the Speaker, Charles Abbot, as chief secretary in Dublin in 1813, he proposed the setting up of a specialist police force, called peelers
Andover /ˈændoʊvər/ is a town in the English county of Hampshire. The town is on the River Anton some 18 miles west of the town of Basingstoke,18 miles north-west of the city of Winchester and 25 miles north of the city of Southampton. Andover is twinned with the towns of Redon in France, Goch in Germany and its name is recorded in Anglo-Saxon in 955 AD as Andeferas, and is thought to be of Celtic origin, compare Welsh onn dwfr = ash water. Andovers first mention in history is in 950 when King Edred is recorded as having built a hunting lodge there. In 962 King Edgar called a meeting of the Saxon parliament at his hunting lodge near Andover, of more importance was the baptism, in 994 of a Viking king named Olaf. The identity of man was either Olav Trygvason or Olof Skötkonung. The baptism was part of a deal with King Ethelred II of England whereby he stopped ravaging England, Olav Tryggvason became king of Norway in 995 and tried to convert his country to Christianity before his death in the Battle of Svolder in 1000.
Olof Skötkonung was already king of Sweden and became its first Christian king, at the time of the Domesday Book Andover had 107 male inhabitants and probably had a total population of about 500. It was quite a large settlement by the standards of the time, Andover had 6 watermills which ground grain to flour. In 1175 King Richard I sold Andover a charter granting the townspeople some rights, the members elected two officials called bailiffs who ran the town. In 1201 King John gave the merchants the right to collect taxes in Andover themselves. In 1256 Henry III gave the townspeople the right to hold a court, Andover sent MPs to the parliaments of 1295 and 1302–1307. The town was ravaged by two fires, one in 1141 and another in 1435. Andover remained a market town. Processing wool appears to have been the industry and street names in the area of the town known as Sheep Fair commemorate this. A weekly market, and a fair were held. As well as the Church of St Mary the town had a priory and a run by monks, dedicated to St John the Baptist.
In 1538 during the Reformation Henry VIII closed the priory and the hospital, in 1571 a free school for the boys of Andover was established
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, Spain. The site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century, after George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot Nelsons Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues, a number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999. The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday, the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, a Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day.
The square is a centre of celebrations on New Years Eve. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removal in the early 21st century, the square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London. The square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads. At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. To the south west is The Mall leading towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south, Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church. London Undergrounds Charing Cross tube station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square, other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines.
London bus routes 3,6,9,11,12,13,15,23,24,29,53,87,88,91,139,159,176,453 pass through Trafalgar Square. Building work on the side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, straight-tusked elephant, the site of Trafalgar Square has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward Is reign, the area was the site of the Kings Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, from the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The name Royal Mews comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting, after a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. After 1732, the Kings Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables and its site is occupied by the National Gallery
Edward Blore was a 19th-century British landscape and architectural artist and antiquary. He was born in Derby, the son of the antiquarian writer Thomas Blore, Blores background was in antiquarian draughtsmanship rather than architecture, in which he had no formal training. Charles Locke Eastlake, writing in 1872, believed that he had apprenticed to an engraver. In around 1822 Blore supplied the illustrations to Thomas Frognall Dibdins Aedes Althorpianæ, in 1823 he toured Northern England, making drawings for a work called the Monumental Remains of Noble and Eminent Persons. It was issued in parts with text by the Rev. Philip Bliss, Blore engraved many of the plates himself. In 1826, he was appointed surveyor to Westminster Abbey, the following year he was engaged to furnish plans for the chancel fittings of Peterborough Cathedral. Shortly afterwards he was employed to restore Lambeth Palace, in a state of near ruin and his work there included the construction of a fire-proof room for the preservation of manuscripts and archives.
Eastlake praised Blores careful detail in his work at Westminster Abbey, adding this was, in short and he had studied and drawn detail so long and zealously that its design came quite naturally to him, and in this respect he was incomparably superior to his contemporaries. Blore is most notable for his completion of John Nashs design of Buckingham Palace and he completed the palace in a style similar to but plainer than that intended by Nash. In 1847, Blore returned to the palace and designed the facade facing The Mall thus enclosing the central quadrangle. He worked St James Palace in London, and a number of other designs in both England and Scotland, including restoring Salisbury Tower at Windsor Castle. Blore was a friend of Sir Walter Scott, having been introduced by Daniel Terry. This led to Prince Vorontsovs suggestion to design his extensive Vorontsovs Palace in Alupka, the Alupka palace was built between 1828 and 1846, in a mixture of styles ranging from Gothic Revival to Moorish Revival.
The palaces guidebook describes the building as Blores tribute to Muslim architecture, the structure features two facades, contrasting the starkness of Scottish Baronial on its landward side with Arabian fantasy facing the sea. Such designs were unusual and display a more side to Blores work than can be seen from his work in London. Around 1840 he was responsible for alterations at Wythenshawe Hall. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1841, Blore died in London on 4 September 1879, and was buried in Highgate Cemetery, London. The architects Philip Charles Hardwick and Frederick Marrable and Henry Clutton were his pupils, william Mason worked for him before going to Australia and New Zealand
Kensal Green Cemetery
Kensal Green Cemetery is in Kensal Green in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. Inspired by the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, it was founded by the barrister George Frederick Carden, the cemetery opened in 1833 and comprises 72 acres of grounds, including two conservation areas, adjoining a canal. The cemetery is home to at least 33 species of bird and this distinctive cemetery has memorials ranging from large mausoleums housing the rich and famous to many distinctive smaller graves and includes special areas dedicated to the very young. It has three chapels, and serves all faiths, despite its Grecian-style buildings the cemetery is primarily Gothic in character, due to the high number of private Gothic monuments. Due to this atmosphere, the cemetery was the location of several scenes in movies. The cemetery is located in the London Borough of Kensington & Chelsea, the cemetery lies between Harrow Road and the Grand Union Canal. There is a set of gates set in the southern wall to the cemetery which is adjacent to the canal.
Public meetings were held in June and July 1830 at the Freemasons Tavern, Paul, a partner in the London banking firm of Strahan, Paul and Bates, found and conditionally purchased the 54 acres of land at Kensal Green for £9,500. However and Carden were already embroiled in a dispute regarding the design of the cemetery, where Paul favoured the Grecian style and Carden the Gothic style. This attracted 46 entrants, and in March 1832 the premium was awarded, despite opposition, for a Gothic Revival design by Henry Edward Kendall. On 11 July 1832, the Act of Parliament establishing a General Cemetery Company for the interment of the Dead in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis gained Royal Assent. The Act authorised it to raise up to £45,000 in shares, buy up to 80 acres of land and build a cemetery, Company directors appointed after the Bill received Royal Assent asserted their control and preference for a different style. Founded as the General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, Kensal Green Cemetery was consecrated on 24 January 1833 by the Bishop of London, receiving its first funeral the same month.
The Treasury was sceptical that Chadwicks scheme would ever be financially viable, although the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 authorised the scheme, it was abandoned in 1852. The overall layout is on an east-west axes, with a path leading to a raised chapel towards the west. The entrance is to the north-east and the largest monuments line the path to the chapel. The Church of England was allotted 39 acres and the remaining 15, clearly separated, acres were given over to Dissenters, originally there was a division between the Dissenters’ part of the cemetery and the Anglican section. This took the form of a fence from the canal to the gate piers on the path
Francis Leggatt Chantrey
Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey RA was an English sculptor. He became the leading sculptor in Regency era Britain, producing busts. He left the Chantrey Bequest or Chantrey Fund for the purchase of works of art for the nation, Chantrey was born at Jordanthorpe near Norton, where his father had a small farm. His father, who dabbled in carpentry and wood-carving, died when Francis was twelve. In 1802 Chantrey paid £50 to buy out of his apprenticeship with Ramsay and immediately set up a studio as a portrait artist in Sheffield. For several years he divided his time between Sheffield and London, studying intermittently at the Royal Academy Schools, in the summer of 1802 he travelled to Dublin, where he fell very ill, losing all his hair. He exhibited pictures at the Royal Academy for a few years from 1804, but from 1807 onwards devoted himself mainly to sculpture. Asked in life, as a witness in a case, whether he had ever worked for any other sculptors, he replied, No. His first recorded marble bust was one of the Rev.
James Wilkinson and his first imaginative sculpture, a head of Satan was shown at the Royal Academy in 1808. Three of them were shown at the Royal Academy that year, on 23 November 1809 he married his cousin, Mary Ann Wale at St Marys Church, Twickenham. He bought land to two more houses, a studio and offices. In 1811 he showed six busts in the Royal Academy, the subjects included Horne Tooke and Sir Francis Burdett, two political figures he greatly admired, his early mentor John Raphael Smith, and Benjamin West. Joseph Nollekens placed the bust of Tooke between two of his own, and the given to it is said to have had a significant influence on Chantreys career. In the wake of the exhibition he received commissions amounting to £2,000, in 1813 he was able to raise his price for a bust to a hundred and fifty guineas, and in 1822 to two hundred. He visited Paris in 1814, and again in 1815, this time with his wife, Thomas Stothard, in 1819 he went to Italy, accompanied by the painter John Jackson, and an old friend named Read.
In Rome he met Thorvaldsen and Canova, getting to know the latter especially well, in 1828 Chantrey set up his own foundry in Eccleston Place, not far from his house and studio, where large-scale works in bronze, including equestrian statues, could be cast. His assistants would make a clay model based on the drawings. A plaster cast would be made of the model
From 1807 prizes were given to artists and surplus funds were used to buy paintings for the nation. The British Institution was founded in June 1805 by a group of subscribers who met in the Thatched House Tavern in London. The British Institution opened at the Pall Mall site on 18 January 1806, above Seguier the Institution had a Keeper, a role given to a series of engravers. When in 1832 two pictures by Richard Parkes Bonington, who had been only four years, were included in an Old Masters exhibition. They were essentially the same group who were to succeed in persuading the government to found the National Gallery in 1824, there was a total group of 125 Governors and Subscribers, paying sums between 100 guineas down to one guinea annually. The Institution had been discussed with the Royal Academy before it was established, the Prince Regent was Patron from the foundation, and loans from the Royal Collection continued throughout the life of the Institution. In 1822 the hereditary nature of the Governors was eased out, as they were becoming far too numerous, the architect was George Dance the Younger, the clerk of the city works.
The gallery had a monumental, neo-classical stone-built front, and three rooms on the first floor, with a total of more than 4,000 square feet of wall space for displaying pictures. Boydell ran up debts in producing his Shakespeare engravings, and obtained an Act of Parliament in 1804 to dispose of the gallery. The main prize winner, William Tassie, a modeller and maker of replica engraved gems, sold the gallery property and contents at auction. When the British Institution took possession, they retained a sculptural group on the façade by Thomas Banks. The price of admission remained one shilling throughout the life of the Institution, there were some private openings in the evenings, for members and exhibitors, these being divided into two by splitting the alphabet. The number of works exhibited grew within a few years to over 500. Within a few years the number of works regularly reached over 500, the 1806 receipts for the shilling entries were £534 & 4s implying 10,684 paying visitors above the members and their guests.
In 1810 the Institution announced that in its first four years a total of 424 works had sold, raising £20,900 for the artists. In 1814 the Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia were among the visitors, from 1807 a number of prizes of £100 or £50 were given to students at the school who painted the best companion pieces to works by Old Masters on display at the gallery. These were increased and extended to artists, reaching 300,200 and 100 guineas by 1811. The Institution commissioned or bought a number of paintings which were presented to the National Gallery and it was given to the National Gallery, but transferred along with their British collection to what is now Tate Britain
John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl
John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl, KT, PC, FRS, styled Marquess of Tullibardine from 1764 to 1774, was a Scottish peer. Murray was the eldest son of John Murray, 3rd Duke of Atholl and his wife, Charlotte, 8th Baroness Strange, daughter of James Murray, Lord George Murray and Lord Charles Murray-Aynsley were his younger brothers. He became known by the courtesy title Marquess of Tullibardine when his father succeeded to the dukedom in 1764, Murray succeeded his father as fourth Duke of Atholl in 1774 and was elected a Scottish Representative Peer. In 1786 he was created Baron Murray, of Stanley in the County of Gloucester, and Earl Strange in the Peerage of Great Britain and he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Perthshire from 1794 to 1830 and was sworn of the Privy Council in 1797. In 1800 he was made a Knight of the Thistle and he succeeded his mother in the barony of Strange in 1805. He was Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England from 1775 until 1781 and he wrote Observations on Larch in 1807 encouraging further its cultivation, which he practiced on a large scale.
Atholl married the Honourable Jane Cathcart, daughter of Charles Cathcart, 9th Lord Cathcart and they had five children, Lady Charlotte Murray. She married Admiral Adam Drummond of Megginch, and had five children and she married Evan Macgregor and had one child. John Murray, 5th Duke of Atholl Lady Amelia Sophia Murray and she married James Drummond, Viscount of Strathallan, and had nine children. James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon who married Emily Frances Northumberland and had 4 children including the 6th Duke. After his first wifes death in 1790 he married Marjory, daughter of James Forbes, 16th Lord Forbes and Catherine Innes and widow of John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod and they had two children who both died young. Atholl died in September 1830, aged 75, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the Duchess of Atholl died in October 1842, aged 81. Namesake of Athol, Nova Scotia Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Atholl Pedigree at Genealogics
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and for ceremonial purposes, the building is managed by committees appointed by both houses, which report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Speaker. The first royal palace was built on the site in the 11th century, part of the New Palaces area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the Thames, which is the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front. Barry was assisted by Augustus Pugin, an authority on Gothic architecture and style. The Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom, Westminster has become a metonym for the UK Parliament, the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was important during the Middle Ages. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive, the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William Is successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the principal residence in the late Medieval period. The predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall, simon de Montforts parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265. The Model Parliament, the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, in 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace.
In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster officially remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various law courts. Because it was originally a residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber which had originally built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III. The House of Commons, which did not have a chamber of its own, the Commons acquired a permanent home at the Palace in St Stephens Chapel, the former chapel of the royal palace, during the reign of Edward VI
Battle of Copenhagen (1801)
The Danish fleet at the inlet of the Copenhagen harbour formed a blockade preventing the British fleet from entering the harbour. The Danish mainly used older ships not meant to sail in the sea as blockades, Denmark defended the capital with these ships and bastions on both side of the harbour inlet, Trekroner, Lynetten as well as Quintus and Strickers. It was the attempt by the British to scare Denmark, as the British had already entered Øresund with a navy in August 1800. Now Britain would have Denmarks entire navy and merchant fleet, so it would not fall in to the hands of the French. The British were not aware that the modern Royal Danish Navy and many merchant ships were hidden in the Roskilde fjord. The battle was the result of failures of diplomacy in the latter half of the 18th century. At the beginning of 1801, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the Royal Navy searched neutral ships trading with French ports, seizing their cargoes if they were deemed to be trading with France. It was in the British interest to guarantee its naval supremacy, the Russian Tsar Paul, having been a British ally, arranged a League of Armed Neutrality comprising Denmark, Sweden and Russia, to enforce free trade with France.
The British viewed the League to be much in the French interest. The League was hostile to the British blockade and, according to the British, its existence threatened the supply of timber, in early 1801, the British government assembled a fleet at Great Yarmouth, with the goal of breaking up the League. The British needed to act before the Baltic Sea thawed and released the Russian fleet from its bases at Kronstadt, If the Russian fleet joined with the Swedish and Danish fleets, the combined fleets would form a formidable force of up to 123 ships-of-the-line. The British fleet was under the command of Admiral Hyde Parker, frustrated by the delay, Nelson sent a letter to Captain Thomas Troubridge, a friend and a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty. This prompted the Earl of St Vincent to send a private note, the British fleet reached the Skaw on 19 March, where they met a British diplomat, Nicholas Vansittart, who told them that the Danes had rejected an ultimatum. Although the Admiralty had instructed Parker to frustrate the League, by force if necessary, he was a naturally cautious person, in the end Nelson was able to persuade Sir Hyde to attack the Danish fleet currently concentrated off Copenhagen.
Promised naval support for the Danes from Karlskrona, in Sweden, the Prussians had only minimal naval forces and could not assist. Attacking the Danish fleet would have been difficult as Parkers delay in sailing had allowed the Danes to prepare their positions well, the northern end of the line terminated at the Tre Kroner forts armed with 68 guns. North of the fort, in the entrance to Copenhagen harbour, were two ships-of-the-line, a frigate, and two brigs, all rigged for sea, and two more hulks. Batteries covered the water between the Danish line and the shore, and further out to sea a large shoal, the Middle Ground, constricted the channel