Timperley is a suburban village in Altrincham in the borough of Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. In Cheshire, it is seven miles southwest of Manchester; the population at the 2011 census was 11,061. The name Timperley derives from Timber Leah, the Anglo-Saxon for a "clearing in the forest"; this can be used to date the settlement of Timperley to between the 7th and 8th centuries. The first documented mention of the township of Timperley was in 1211. Timperley was a predominantly agricultural settlement before the Industrial Revolution, focusing on arable crops; the Bridgewater Canal branch from Stretford to Runcorn was built through Timperley and opened in 1776. This improvement in transport encouraged the development of market gardening in the area to serve the growing city of Manchester; the city provided a source of night soil, unloaded from the canal by Deansgate Lane to provide manure for farms and market gardens. During the mid-19th century four railways were built in Timperley; the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway opened in 1849 with a station in Timperley on Wash Lane.
The Warrington and Stockport Railway opened in 1854 from Timperley Junction just south of Timperley station on the MSJAR. It became part of the London and North Western Railway in 1859; the Stockport and Altrincham Junction Railway was built through Timperley to link with the now LNWR W&S at Broadheath Junction opening in February 1866 and, from Skelton Junction, to link with the MSJAR at Deansgate Junction opening in December 1865. This became part of the Cheshire Lines Committee. Baguley station on the CLC line served Timperley village. Timperley curve was built in 1879 by the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway linking Skelton Junction with Timperley Junction; the CLC line from Skelton Junction to Glazebrook was opened in 1873. West Timperley railway station on this line was in Broadheath; the arrival of the railways in Timperley brought the middle classes from the centre of Manchester, this is reflected by the increase of numbers in domestic services in Timperley at the same time. The impact of the railway can be seen in Timperley's growth between 1851 and 1871, more than doubling from 1,008 to 2,112.
In 1931, the MSJAR line was electrified, one of the first railway lines in Great Britain to use supply by overhead cables. A large electrical sub-station was built in connection with this just south of Timperley station; the line was converted to be part of Manchester Metrolink in 1992. Up until the early 19th century Timperley was one of several townships in the parish of Bowdon. Timperley Parish Council was established in the 19th century. From the late 19th century Bucklow Rural District Council administered Timperley until 1936 when responsibility passed to Altrincham Urban District Council. In 1974, Altrincham UD was merged into the new Trafford Metropolitan Borough of Greater Manchester; the ward of Timperley has three out of sixty three seats on Trafford Borough Council, at the 2011 local elections two seats were held by Liberal Democrats Jane Brophy and Neil Taylor and one by the Conservative Angela Bruer-Morris. Parts of Timperley are in Village and Hale Barns wards. Since 1997, Timperley has formed part of the Altrincham and Sale West Constituency, before that it was encompassed by the Altrincham and Sale constituency.
It has been represented, in the House of Commons by the Conservative MP, Graham Brady. Timperley lies to the north east of Altrincham and is bounded by Fairywell Brook to the east, Hale Moss and Well Green to the south, Timperley Brook to the west and Baguley Brook to the north, it has borders with the areas of Altrincham to the South, Sale to the North and the Manchester suburb of Wythenshawe to the East. Areas of Timperley include: Village West Timperley Timperley Heyes Timperley Brook Higher Timperley Broomwood estate Timperley was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. At the 2001 UK census, the village of Timperley had a total population of 11,049; the population density was 37.4 persons per hectare and for every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Timperley, 19.6% had no academic qualifications, lower than the 24.7% all of Trafford and 28.9% in England. Of the 4,473 households in Timperley, 46.8% were married couples living together, 24.9% were one-person households, 7.3% were co-habiting couples and 7.2% were lone parents.
With 94.9% being born in United Kingdom there is a low proportion of foreign-born residents. There is a low proportion of non-white people as 97.2% of residents were recorded as white. The largest minority group was recorded as Asian at 1.1% of the population. At the 2001 UK census, Timperley had a possible workforce of 8,092 people; the town has a low rate of unemployment compared with Trafford and England. The Office for National Statistics estimated that during the period of April 2001 to March 2002 the average gross weekly income of households in Timperley was £640. According to the 2001 UK census, the industry of employment of residents in Timperley was 17.8% property and business services, 16.2% retail and wholesale, 11.9% manu
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
The ghazal is a form of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain; the ghazal form is ancient. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent and Turkey. A ghazal consists of between five and fifteen couplets, which are independent, but are linked – abstractly, in their theme; the structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content, due to its allusive nature, the ghazal has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation; the word ghazal originates from the Arabic word غزل. The root syllables Gh-Z-L have three possible meanings in Arabic: غَزَل or غَزِلَ - To sweet-talk, to flirt, to display amorous gestures.
غزال - A young, graceful doe. غَزَلَ - to spin. The poetic form derives its name from the first and the second etymological roots, One particular translation posits a meaning of ghazal as'the wail of a wounded deer', which provides much context to the theme of unrequited love common to many ghazals; the Arabic word غزل ġazal is pronounced like the English word guzzle, but with the ġ pronounced without a complete closure between the tongue and the soft palate. In English, the word is pronounced or; the ghazal is a short poem consisting of rhyming couplets, called Bayt. Most ghazals have between twelve shers. For a poem to be considered a true ghazal, it must have no fewer than five couplets. All ghazals confine themselves to less than fifteen couplets. Ghazal couplets are expected to have the same meter; the ghazal's uniqueness arises from its rhyme and refrain rules, referred to as the'qaafiyaa' and'radif' respectively. A ghazal's rhyming pattern may be described as BA, CA, DA... and so on. In its strictest form, a ghazal must follow five rules: Matlaa: The first sher in a ghazal is called the'matlaa'.
Both lines of the matla must contain the radif. The matlaa sets the tone of the ghazal, as well as its rhyming and refrain pattern.. Radif/Radeef: The refrain word or phrase. Both lines of the matlaa and the second lines of all subsequent shers must end in the same refrain word called the radif. Qaafiyaa: The rhyming pattern; the radif is preceded by words or phrases with the same end rhyme pattern, called the qaafiyaa. Maqtaa/Maktaa: The last couplet of the ghazal is called the maqtaa, it is common in ghazals for the poet's nom de plume, known as takhallus to be featured in the maqtaa. The maqtaa is more personal than the other couplets in a ghazal; the creativity with which a poet incorporates homonymous meanings of their takhallus to offer a additional layers of meaning to the couplet is an indicator of their skill. Bah'r/Beher: Each line of a ghazal must follow the same metrical pattern and syllabic count. Unlike in a nazm, a ghazal's couplets do not need a common continuity; each sher is self-contained and independent from the others, containing the complete expression of an idea.
However, the shers all contain a thematic or tonal connection to each other, which may be allusive. A near-universal convention that traces its history to the origins of the ghazal form is that the poem is addressed to a female beloved by a male narrator; the ghazal originated in Arabia in the 7th century, evolving from the qasida, a much older pre-Islamic Arabic poetic form. Qaṣīdas were much longer poems, with up to 100 couplets. Thematically, qaṣīdas did not include love, were panegyrics for a tribe or ruler, lampoons, or moral maxims. However, the qaṣīda's opening prelude, called the nasīb, was nostalgic and/or romantic in theme, ornamented and stylized in form. In time, the nasīb began to be written as standalone, shorter poems; the ghazal came into its own as a poetic genre during the Umayyad Era and continued to flower and develop in the early Abbasid Era. The Arabic ghazal inherited the formal verse structure of the qaṣīda a strict adherence to meter and the use of the Qaafiyaa, a common end rhyme on each couplet.
The nature of the ghazals changed to meet the demands of musical presentation, becoming briefer in length. Lighter poetic meters, such as khafîf, muqtarab were preferred, instead of longer, more ponderous meters favored for qaṣīdas. Topically, the ghazal focus changed from nostalgic reminisces of the homeland and loved-ones, towards romantic or erotic themes – These included sub-genres with themes of courtly love, homoeroticism, as a stylized introduction to a larger poem. With the spread of Islam, the Arabian ghazal spread both westwards, into Africa and Spain, as well as eastwards, into Persia; the popularity of ghazals in a particular region was preceded by a spread of the Arabic language in that country. In medieval Spain, ghazals written in Hebrew as well as Arabic have been found as far back the 1
In the fields of philosophy and æsthetics, the derogatory term philistinism describes “the manners and character, or mode of thinking of a philistine”, manifested as an anti-intellectual social attitude that undervalues and despises art and beauty and spirituality. A philistine person is a man or woman of smugly narrow mind and of conventional morality whose materialistic views and tastes indicate a lack of and an indifference to cultural and æsthetic values. Since the 19th century, the contemporary denotation of philistinism, as the behaviour of "ignorant, ill-behaved persons lacking in culture or artistic appreciation, only concerned with materialistic values" derives from Matthew Arnold's adaptation to English of the German word Philister, as applied by university students in their antagonistic relations with the townspeople of Jena, where, in 1689, a row resulted in several deaths. In the aftermath, the university cleric addressed the town-vs-gown matter with an admonishing sermon "The Philistines Be Upon Thee", drawn from the Book of Judges, of the Tanakh and of the Christian Old Testament.
In Word Research and Word History, the philologist Friedrich Kluge said that the word philistine had a positive meaning that identified a tall and strong man, such as Goliath. In German usage, university students applied the term Philister to describe a person, not trained at university. In English usage, as a descriptor of anti-intellectualism, the term philistine—a person deficient in the culture of the liberal arts—was common British usage by the decade of 1820, which described the bourgeois, merchant middle class of the Victorian Era, whose wealth rendered them indifferent to culture. In Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism, Matthew Arnold said: Now, the use of culture is that it helps us, by means of its spiritual standard of perfection, to regard wealth as but machinery, not only to say as a matter of words that we regard wealth as but machinery, but to perceive and feel that it is so. If it were not for this purging effect wrought upon our minds by culture, the whole world, the future, as well as the present, would belong to the Philistines.
The people who believe most that our greatness and welfare are proved by our being rich, who most give their lives and thoughts to becoming rich, are just the people whom we call the Philistines. Culture says: “Consider these people their way of life, their habits, their manners, the tones of their voices; the denotations and connotations of the terms philistinism and philistine have evolved to describe the uncouth person, hostile to art and the life of the mind, who, in their stead, prefers the life of economic materialism and conspicuous consumption as paramount human activities. 17th centuryWhilst involved in a lawsuit, the writer and poet Jonathan Swift, in the slang of his time, described a gruff bailiff as a philistine, someone, considered a merciless enemy. 18th centuryThe polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe described the philistine personality, by asking: What is a philistine? A hollow gut, full of fear and hope that God will have mercy! Goethe further described such men and women, by noting that:... the Philistine not only ignores all conditions of life which are not his own, but demands that the rest of mankind should fashion its mode of existence after his own.
In the comedy of manners play, The Rivals, Richard Brinsley Sheridan identifies a violent aristocrat as'that bloodthirsty Philistine, Sir Lucius O'Trigger'. 19th centuryThe philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche identified the philistine as a person who, for a lack of true unity, could only define style in the negative. 20th centuryIn the novel Der Ewige Spießer, the Austro–Hungarian writer Ödön von Horváth derided the cultural coarseness of the philistine man and his limited view of the world. The eponymous philistine is a failed businessman, a salesman of used cars, who aspires to the high-life of wealth. In the Lectures on Russian Literature, in the essay'Philistines and Philistinism' the writer Vladimir Nabokov describes the philistine man and woman as:A full-grown person whose interests are of a material and commonplace nature, whose mentality is formed of the stock ideas and conventional ideals of his or her group and time. I have said “full-grown” person because the child or the adolescent who may look like a small philistine is only a small parrot mimicking the ways of confirmed vulgarians, it is easier to be a parrot than to be a white heron.
“Vulgarian” is more or less synonymous with “philistine”: the stress in a vulgarian is not so much on the conventionalism of a philistine, as on the vulgarity of some of his conventional notions. I may use the terms “genteel” and “bourgeois”. Genteel implies the lace-curtain refined vulgarity, worse than simple coarseness. To burp in company may be rude, but to say “excuse me” after a burp is
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
John Allyn McAlpin Berryman was an American poet and scholar, born in McAlester, Oklahoma. He was a major figure in American poetry in the second half of the 20th century and was considered a key figure in the Confessional school of poetry, his best-known work is The Dream Songs. John Berryman was born John Allyn Smith, Jr. in Oklahoma where he was raised until the age of ten, when his father, John Smith, a banker, his mother, Martha, a schoolteacher, moved to Florida. In 1926, in Clearwater, when Berryman was eleven years old, his father shot and killed himself. Smith was jobless at the time, he and Martha were both filing for divorce. Berryman was haunted by his father's death for the rest of his life and would write about his struggle to come to terms with it in much of his poetry. In "Dream Song #143", he wrote, "That mad drive wiped out my childhood. I put him down/while all the same on forty years I love him/stashed in Oklahoma/besides his brother Will". In "Dream Song #145", he wrote the following lines about his father: Similarly, in Dream Song #384, Berryman wrote: After his father's death at the rear entrance to Kipling Arms, where the Smiths rented an apartment, the poet's mother, within months, married John Angus McAlpin Berryman in New York City.
The poet was renamed John Allyn McAlpin Berryman. Berryman's mother changed her first name from Peggy to Jill. Although his stepfather would divorce his mother and his stepfather stayed on good terms. With both his mother and stepfather working, his mother decided to send him away to the South Kent School, a private boarding school in Connecticut. Berryman went on to college at Columbia College where he was president of the Philolexian Society, joined the Boar's Head Society, edited The Columbia Review, studied under the literary scholar and poet Mark Van Doren. Berryman would credit Van Doren with sparking his interest in writing poetry seriously. For two years, Berryman studied overseas at Clare College, Cambridge, on a Kellett Fellowship, awarded by Columbia, he graduated in 1936. Regarding Berryman's earliest success in poetry, the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry editors note that "Berryman's early work formed part of a volume entitled Five Young American Poets, published by New Directions in 1940".
One of the other young poets included in the book was Randall Jarrell. Berryman would soon publish some of this early verse in his first book with New Directions Publishing titled Poems, in 1942. However, his first mature collection of poems, The Dispossessed, appeared six years published by William Sloane Associates; the book received negative reviews from poets like Randall Jarrell who wrote, in The Nation, that Berryman was "a complicated and intelligent " whose poetry in The Dispossessed was too derivative of W. B. Yeats. Berryman would concur with this assessment of his early work, stating, "I didn't want to be like Yeats; the couple moved to Beacon Hill. The marriage ended in 1953, when Simpson grew weary of tolerating Berryman's affairs and acting as "net-holder" throughout his self-destructive personal crises. Simpson would memorialize her time with Berryman and his circle in her 1982 book Poets in Their Youth. In 1947, Berryman started an affair with a married woman named Chris, documented in a long sonnet sequence that he refrained from publishing, in part, because publication of the sonnets would have revealed the affair to his wife.
However, he did decide to publish the work, titled Berryman's Sonnets, in 1967. The work included over one hundred sonnets. In 1950, Berryman published a biography of the fiction writer and poet Stephen Crane whom he admired, becoming "the only biography by a leading American poet of the great American writer, Stephen Crane." This book was followed by his next significant poem, Homage to Mistress Bradstreet, which featured illustrations by the artist Ben Shahn and was Berryman's first poem to receive "national attention" and a positive response from critics. Edmund Wilson wrote that it was "the most distinguished long poem by an American since T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land." When "Homage to Mistress Bradstreet and Other Poems" was published in 1959, the poet Conrad Aiken praised the shorter poems in the book which he thought were better than "Homage to Mistress Bradstreet". Despite the relative success of his third book of verse, Berryman's great poetic breakthrough occurred after he published 77 Dream Songs in 1964.
It won the 1965 Pulitzer Prize for poetry and solidified Berryman's standing as one of the most important poets of the post-World War II generation that included Robert Lowell, Elizabeth Bishop, Delmore Schwartz. Soon afterwards, Berryman started receiving a great deal of national attention from the press, from arts organizations, from the White House which sent him an invitation to dine with President Lyndon B. Johnson. Berryman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1967, that same year Life magazine ran a feature story on him; that year the newly created National Endowment for the Arts awarded him a ten thousand dollar grant. Berryman continued to work on the "dream song" poems at a feverish pace and published a second l