A cloister is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church against a warm southern flank indicates that it is part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went forward outside and around the cloister."Cloistered life is another name for the monastic life of a monk or nun. The English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law translations to mean cloistered, some form of the Latin parent word "claustrum" is used as a metonymic name for monastery in languages such as German; the early medieval cloister had several antecedents, the peristyle court of the Greco-Roman domus, the atrium and its expanded version that served as forecourt to early Christian basilicas, certain semi-galleried courts attached to the flanks of early Syrian churches.
Walter Horn suggests that the earliest coenobitic communities, which were established in Egypt by Saint Pachomius, did not result in cloister construction, as there were no lay serfs attached to the community of monks, thus no separation within the walled community was required. In the time of Charlemagne the requirements of a separate monastic community within an extended and scattered manorial estate created this "monastery within a monastery" in the form of the locked cloister, an architectural solution allowing the monks to perform their sacred tasks apart from the distractions of laymen and servants. Horn offers as early examples Abbot Gundeland's "Altenmünster" of Lorsch abbey, as revealed in the excavations by Frederich Behn. Another early cloister, that of the abbey of Saint-Riquier, took a triangular shape, with chapels at the corners, in conscious representation of the Trinity. A square cloister sited against the flank of the abbey church was built at Inden and the abbey of St. Wandrille at Fontenelle.
At Fulda, a new cloister was sited to the liturgical west of the church "in the Roman manner" familiar from the forecourt of Old St. Peter's Basilica because it would be closer to the relics. Coomans, Thomas. "Life Inside the Cloister. Understanding Monastic Architecture: Tradition, Adaptive Reuse". Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789462701434. Horn, Walter. "On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister". Gesta. 2: 13–52. Doi:10.2307/766633. JSTOR 766633; the Code of Canon Law, cf canons 667 ff. New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff. on "Nuns, properly so called "Cloister" in the New Advent encyclopaedia New Advent Encyclopaedia on "Religious Life Photos and information on cloisters in France and Spain
Aston Hall is a Grade I listed Jacobean house in Aston, England, designed by John Thorpe and built between 1618 and 1635. It is a leading example of the Jacobean prodigy house. In 1864 the house was bought by Birmingham Corporation, becoming the first historic country house to pass into municipal ownership, is still owned by Birmingham City Council, it is now a community museum managed by the Birmingham Museums Trust and is open to the public during the summer months, after a major renovation completed in 2009. Using a design by John Thorpe, construction commenced in April 1618 by Sir Thomas Holte, who moved into the hall in 1631, it was completed in April 1635. It is now Grade I listed; the house sits in a large park, part of which became Villa Park, the home ground of the Aston Villa football club. The house was damaged after an attack by Parliamentary troops in 1643. There is a hole in the staircase where a cannonball went through a window and an open door, into the banister; the house remained in the Holte family until 1817 when it was sold and leased by James Watt Jr. son of industrial pioneer James Watt.
The house was purchased in 1858 by a private company for use as a public park and museum. After financial difficulties it was bought by the Birmingham Corporation in 1864, becoming the first historic country house to pass into municipal ownership, it was visited by Washington Irving, who wrote about it as Bracebridge Hall, taking the name from Abraham Bracebridge, husband of the last member of the Holte family to live there. Irving's The Sketch Book stories depicted harmonious warm-hearted English Christmas festivities he experienced while staying in Aston Hall, abandoned. An Aston Hall Christmas Eve custom the owners afforded the servants of the house appeared in The Gentleman's Magazine in 1795, which wrote, "the servants have full liberty to drink, sing, go to bed when they please."For a few years from 1878 Birmingham's collections of art and the Museum of Arms were moved to Aston Hall after a fire damaged the municipal Public Library and Birmingham and Midland Institute which shared a building in Paradise Street, until the building of the current Art Gallery in the Council House complex.
In the 1920s, the Birmingham Corporation was having financial troubles and had to choose between saving Aston Hall and the nearby Perry Hall. Aston Hall was saved, in 1927 the Birmingham Civic Society designed formal gardens which were implemented by the city with a workforce recruited from the unemployed and paid for by government grants. However, the scheme included fountains and stone urns and a statue of Pan, by William Bloye, which the Civic Society paid for itself. In 1934 the finished work was presented to the City Parks Committee and unveiled by the Vice President of The Birmingham Civic Society, Sir Gilbert Barling, Bart, CB, CBE; as of January 2011, Birmingham City Council are working on the restoration of the statue, whose head is missing. They have appealed for old photographs. Aston Hall is now a community museum managed by Birmingham Museums Trust, having been managed by Birmingham City Council until 2012. Aston Hall is open to the public during the summer months, following extensive renovation from 2006-2009.
It boasts a series of period rooms which have furniture, paintings and metalwork from the collections of the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery. Visible from the House less than 200 yards to the north is Aston Villa Football club stadium; the easternmost part of the grounds made way for the A38 motorway known as the Aston Expressway. This gave the city centre a direct link with the M6 motorway. Davies, Stuart. By the Gains of Industry - Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery 1885-1985. Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. ISBN 0-7093-0131-6. Haywood, William; the Work of The Birmingham Civic Society 1918-46. Kynoch Press. Hickman, Douglas. Birmingham. Studio Vista Limited. Collection of Prints: With Brief Descriptive Notes, Anastatic Drawing Society, 1858 Aston Hall- Official website Aston Hall - Service for schools - Educational teaching sessions and resources at Aston Hall Aston Hall for Kids - fun and games for children based on Aston Hall
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London, reviving the Gothic style some decades before his Victorian successors, his literary reputation rests on the first Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto, his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. They have been published by Yale University Press in 48 volumes, he was the son of Sir Robert Walpole. As Horace Walpole was childless, on his death his barony of Walpole descended to his cousin of the same surname, created the new Earl of Orford. Walpole was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole and his wife Catherine. Like his father, he received early education in Bexley. Walpole's first friends were his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became attached Henry. At Eton he formed with Charles Lyttelton and George Montagu the "Triumvirate", a schoolboy confederacy.
More important were another group of friends dubbed the "Quadruple Alliance": Walpole, Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton. At Cambridge Walpole came under the influence of an unorthodox theologian. Walpole came to accept the sceptical nature of Middleton's attitude to some essential Christian doctrines for the rest of his life, including a hatred of superstition and bigotry. Walpole left without taking a degree. In 1737 Walpole's mother died. According to one biographer his love for his mother "was the most powerful emotion of his entire life...the whole of his psychological history was dominated by it". Walpole did not have any serious relationships with women. Walpole's sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation, he never married, engaging in a succession of unconsummated flirtations with unmarriageable women, counted among his close friends a number of women such as Anne Seymour Damer and Mary Berry named by a number of sources as lesbian. Many contemporaries described him as effeminate.
Biographers such as Timothy Mowl explore his possible homosexuality, including a passionate but unhappy love affair with the 9th Earl of Lincoln. Some previous biographers such as Lewis and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, have interpreted Walpole as asexual. Walpole's father secured for him three sinecures which afforded him an income: in 1737 he was appointed Inspector of the Imports and Exports in the Custom House, which he resigned to become Usher of the Exchequer, which gave him at first £3900 per annum but this increased over the years. Upon coming of age he became Comptroller of the Pipe and Clerk of the Estreats which gave him an income of £300 per annum. Walpole decided to go travelling with Thomas Gray and wrote a will whereby he left Gray all his belongings. In 1744 Walpole wrote in a letter to Conway. Walpole went on the Grand Tour with Gray, but as Walpole recalled in life: "We had not got to Calais before Gray was dissatisfied, for I was a boy, he, though infinitely more a man, was not enough to make allowances".
They left Dover on 29 March and arrived at Calais that day. They travelled through Boulogne and Saint-Denis, arriving at Paris on 4 April. Here they met many aristocratic Englishmen. In early June they left Paris for Rheims in September going to Dijon, Dauphiné, Aix-les-Bains and back to Lyons. In October they left for Italy, arriving in Turin in November going to Genoa, Parma, Modena, in December arriving at Florence. Here he struck up a friendship with Horace Mann, an assistant to the British Minister at the Court of Tuscany. In Florence he wrote Epistle from Florence to Thomas Ashton, Esq. Tutor to the Earl of Plymouth, a mixture of Whig history and Middleton's teachings. In February 1740 Walpole and Gray left for Rome with the intention of witnessing the papal conclave upon the death of Pope Clement XII. Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. At social occasions in Rome he saw the Old Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart and his two sons, Charles Edward Stuart and Henry Stuart, although there is no record of them conversing.
Walpole and Gray returned to Florence in July. However, Gray disliked the idleness of Florence as compared to the educational pursuits in Rome, an animosity grew between them leading to an end to their friendship. On their way back to England they had a furious argument. Gray went to Venice. In life Walpole admitted that the fault lay with himself: I was too young, too fond of my own diversions, nay, I do not doubt, too much intoxicated by indulgence and the insolence of my situation, as a Prime Minister's son, not to have been inattentive and insensible to the feelings of one I thought below me. Walpole visited Venice, Antibes, Toul
Ampthill is a town and civil parish in Bedfordshire, between Bedford and Luton, with a population of about 14,000. It is administered by Central Bedfordshire Council. A regular market has taken place on Thursdays for centuries; the name'Ampthill' is of Anglo-Saxon origin. The first settlement was called'Aemethyll', which means either'ant-heap' or'ant infested hill'. In the Domesday Book, Ampthill is referred to as'Ammetelle', with the landholder in 1086 being Nigel de la Vast; the actual entry reads: Ammetelle: Nigel de la Vast from Nigel d'Aubigny. A further variation may be'Hampthull', in 1381. In 1219 King Henry III granted a charter for a weekly market to be held on a Thursday. In 2019 the market will celebrate 800 years. Henry VIII was a frequent visitor to Ampthill Castle, it was there that Catherine of Aragon lived from 1531 until divorced in 1533, when she was moved to Kimbolton; the castle was built in the 15th century by Sir John Cornwall Lord Fanhope, from ransoms after the Battle of Agincourt.
Today a park remains just north of the town centre, site of Ampthill's former castle, where Henry VIII would come and hunt. It was in the castle's Great Dining Room that Queen Catherine defiantly received news of the end of her marriage. A cross erected in the 1770s marks the site of this important building, set within Ampthill Great Park, a “Capability” Brown landscape. In the mid-1780s, John Fitzpatrick, the 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory, led a campaign to improve the town centre, he erected the water pump and built a new clock tower. Lord Upper Ossory was responsible for a cross commemorating Catherine of Aragon, with an inscription by Horace Walpole, a row of thatched cottages built between 1812 and 1816 to house his estate workers. On the death of Lord Upper Ossory in 1818, Ampthill Park became the seat of Lord Holland in whose time Holland House in Kensington, became famous as a gathering place for intellectuals. During WWII there was a farming camp near Ampthill where volunteers recovered sugarbeet and were accommodated in tents in the grounds of a nearby country mansion.
Recent years have witnessed substantial development in the surrounding area. The Bedford Street area was redeveloped in 2006/2007, with the demolition of a Shell petrol station, shopping arcade and small Budgens supermarket, to make way for a new Waitrose supermarket, an improved town car park and a development of shops and apartments known as Oxlet House; the supermarket opened on 29 September 2006, with Oxlet house being completed in late 2007. Since two major new housing estates have been constructed on the south side of town - Ampthill Heights to the west and Ampthill Gardens to the east. Other significant housing developments have been completed behind The Limes, at the former site of Russell House, off Swaffield Close and in the old orchard off Church Street. Together, these developments doubled the population of Ampthill from 7,030 to an estimated 14,000 in 2018. Ampthill is a commercial centre for surrounding villages. A number of small businesses such as solicitors, estate agents, financial services, are located in town, with larger businesses found on the commercial and industrial developments on the outskirts, along the town's bypass.
Ampthill is one of the most expensive places to buy a house in Bedfordshire in comparison with other mid-Bedfordshire towns such as neighbouring Flitwick, Cranfield. In a survey, it was found that the majority of Ampthill's workers are employed locally, with around 20% working in Ampthill itself, most of the remainder travelling to nearby centres of employment such as Bedford and Milton Keynes. Around 13% of workers commute from Ampthill to London daily; the survey found that the turnover of residents was low, most having been in Ampthill for well over a decade. Ampthill has a non-League football team, Ampthill Town F. C. who play at Ampthill Park. Ampthill Super7s is the local 7-a-side football league, it takes place every Thursday at Redborne Upper School. The town's rugby union club Ampthill RUFC was established in 1881 and plays in National League 1 the third from top tier league in the English rugby union system and are one of the top 40 sides in the country; the Rugby Club has over 1000 registered members, fields teams from every age group from U6's up to U18's.
They have 2 ladies sides and 6 adult men sides. Ampthill Town Cricket Club has been established since 1890 and have teams playing in the Hertfordshire league and the Bedfordshire league putting out at least four teams on Saturdays and Sunday, they host a Bedfordshire CCC match yearly and host an annual friendly game with London Zoo. Their home is in Ampthill Great Park with a scorebox near the west carpark; the Greensand Ridge Walk and the Greensand Cycle Way pass through the lower end of the town. There is a Center Parcs site at Warren Wood to the west of Ampthill. Ampthill is host to an annual Ampthill Festival weekend which includes a live rock music event "AmpRocks", it includes "Ampthill Park Proms", with orchestra and guest singers, highlighted by fireworks. This event is held in Ampthill Great Park, where a temporary soundstage is erected to entertain local residents. Ampthill has a high concentration of public amenities, including schools, doctors surgeries, a fire and ambulance station.
As part of Central Bedfordshire, Ampthill's schools are organised in a three-tier system. There are two lower schools, one middle school and one upper school, which is
Charlton House is a Jacobean building in Charlton, today part of south-east London, but until 1889 in the county of Kent. A residence for a nobleman associated with the Stuart royal family, it served as a wartime hospital a museum and library, is now a community centre; the house was built in 1607–12 of red brick with stone dressing, has an "H"-plan layout. The interior features contemporary staircases, panelled rooms, ornamental ceilings and chimney pieces, it was built by the crown to house his royal charge. He was Dean of Durham and tutor to Prince Henry, the son of James I, older brother of the future Charles I. Greenwich Palace, where their mother lived much of the time, was nearby, but the prince died as soon as the house was finished, in 1612. Newton became Receiver-General, sold his office as dean, in 1620 became a baronet; the diarist John Evelyn, who knew the house and was well acquainted with Newton's son, Sir Henry Newton, stated that the house had been built for Prince Henry. Because of Sir Adam's court connections, the designer of the house is presumed to be John Thorpe, one of the first professional English architects, who had served as Clerk of Works for the royal palace at nearby Greenwich — the Palace of Placentia.
Thorpe had left the Office of Works in 1601 for private practice. Other royal connections are seen at Charlton House in the form of the Prince of Wales's feathers above the east door to the hall and in the saloon, where there is the royal monogram, "JR"; the garden-house, or orangery, converted into a public toilet, is optimistically attributed to Inigo Jones, not otherwise connected with the house. Behind the orangery is a mulberry tree said to be the oldest of its species in the country, thought to have been planted in 1608 at the order of James I. A wing was added by Norman Shaw in 1877. During World War I, Charlton House was the divisional headquarters of the Red Cross for Greenwich and Woolwich, around the end of the war, from 14 October 1918 to 30 April 1919, it served as an auxiliary hospital with around 70 beds; the house and grounds were bought by the Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich in 1925. The Chapel Wing was bombed during the Blitz and was subsequently rebuilt albeit with non-matching bricks such as were available in the immediate post-war period.
Housing a museum and library, the house is now a community centre, much of the former pleasure grounds are parks, although remnants of the house gardens survive as does a short section of Ha-Ha. The walled gardens and some of the perennial borders were redesigned and re-planted by the landscape designer Andrew Fisher Tomlin in 2003–2004 for the London, now Royal Borough of Greenwich with perennial meadow planting to the main walled kitchen garden retaining three ancient Prunus app. trees. One of the spaces includes an Amnesty International Peace Garden with planting designed by Fisher Tomlin; the house is looked after by Royal Greenwich Heritage Trust. In 1996 the house was the main location for the feature film Monarch, released in 2000, produced and directed by local film maker John Walsh. Royal Greenwich Heritage Trust