Women in Love (film)
Women in Love is a 1969 British romantic drama film directed by Ken Russell and starring Alan Bates, Oliver Reed, Glenda Jackson, Jennie Linden. The film was adapted by Larry Kramer from D. H. Lawrence's novel of the same name, it is the first film to be released by Brandywine Productions. The plot follows the relationships between two sisters and two men in a mining town in post-World War I England; the two couples take markedly different directions. The film explores the nature of love; the film was nominated for four Academy Awards, with Jackson winning the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role, the film receiving other honours. The film takes place in 1920, in the Midlands mining town of Beldover. Two sisters and Gudrun Brangwen, discuss marriage on their way to the wedding of Laura Crich, daughter of the town's wealthy mine owner, Thomas Crich, to Tibby Lupton, a naval officer. At the village's church, each sister is fascinated by a particular member of the wedding party – Gudrun by Laura's brother and Ursula by Gerald's best friend, Rupert Birkin.
Ursula is a school teacher and Rupert is a school inspector. The four are brought together at a house party at the estate of Hermione Roddice, a rich woman whose relationship with Rupert is falling apart; when Hermione devises, as entertainment for her guests, a dance in the "style of the Russian ballet", Rupert becomes impatient with her pretensions and tells the pianist to play some ragtime. This angers Hermione, she leaves. When Birkin follows her into the next room, she smashes a glass paperweight against his head, he staggers outside, he discards his wanders through the woods. At the Criches' annual picnic, to which most of the town is invited and Gudrun find a secluded spot, Gudrun dances before some Highland cattle while Ursula sings "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles"; when Gerald and Rupert appear, Gerald calls Gudrun's behaviour "impossible and ridiculous", says he loves her. "That's one way of putting it", she replies. Ursula and Birkin wander away discussing love, they make love in the woods.
The day ends in tragedy when Tibby drown while swimming in the lake. During one of Gerald and Rupert's discussions, Rupert suggests Japanese-style wrestling, they wrestle in the firelight. Rupert enjoys their closeness and says they should swear to love each other, but Gerald cannot understand Rupert's idea of wanting to have an emotional union with a man as well as an emotional and physical union with a woman. Ursula and Birkin decide to marry while Gerald continue to see each other. One evening exhausted after his father's illness and death, Gerald sneaks into the Brangwen house to spend the night with Gudrun in her bed leaves at dawn. After Ursula and Birkin's marriage, Gerald suggests that the four of them go to the Alps for Christmas. At their inn in the Alps, Gudrun irritates Gerald with her interest in Loerke, a gay German sculptor. An artist herself, Gudrun is fascinated with Loerke's idea that brutality is necessary to create art. While Gerald grows jealous and angry, Gudrun only derides and ridicules him.
He can endure it no longer. After attempting to strangle her, he trudges off into the snow and cold to commit suicide and die alone. Rupert and Ursula and Gudrun return to their cottage in England. Rupert grieves for his dead friend; as Ursula and Rupert discuss love, Ursula says. He explains that she is enough for love of a woman but there is another eternal love and bond for a man; the plan for the film adaptation of Lawrence's novel came from Silvio Narizzano, who had directed the successful Georgy Girl. He suggested the idea to Larry Kramer, who bought the book's film rights. Narizzano, intended as director, had to leave the project after suffering a series of personal setbacks, he divorced his wife for a man. Kramer commissioned a screenplay from David Mercer. Mercer's adaptation differed too much from the original book and he was bought out of the project. Kramer himself wrote the script. After Narizzano's departure, Kramer considered a number of directors to take on the project, including Jack Clayton, Stanley Kubrick and Peter Brook, all of whom declined.
Kramer's fourth choice was Ken Russell, who had directed only two films and was better known for his biographical projects about artists for the BBC. Ken Russell made important contributions to the script. According to producer Larry Kramer the film came in under budget. Alan Bates, who had the leading male role in Georgy Girl, was interested from the start in the role of Birkin, D. H. Lawrence's alter ego. Bates sported a beard, giving him a physical resemblance to D. H. Lawrence. Kramer wanted Edward Fox for the role of Gerald. Fox fitted Lawrence's description of the character, but United Artists, the studio financing the production, imposed Oliver Reed, a more bankable star, as Gerald though he was not physically like Lawrence's description of the character. Kramer was adamant to give the role of Gudrun to Glenda Jackson, she was well recognised in theatrical circles. As a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company she had gained a great deal of attention as Charlotte Corday in Marat/Sade. United Artists was unconvinced, considering her not conventionally beautiful enough for the role of Gudrun, who drives Gerald to suicide.
On, United Artists' executives accepted Jackson as the right person for Gudrun's role, as Jackson had the spontaneous and
Greater London is a ceremonial county of England, located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, located within the region but is separate from the county; the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils. Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986; the county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994; the Greater London Authority was formed in 2000. The region had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census.
The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region. The term Greater London has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics and common parlance. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London; this arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding metropolitan area, its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965; the term Greater London was used well before 1965 to refer to the Metropolitan Police District, the area of the Metropolitan Water Board, the London Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation.
The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. Although the London County Council was created covering the County of London in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area West Ham and East Ham, many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries; the LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue; the LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties. Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority; the Commission made its report in 1923.
Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was next considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert, which issued the'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960; the commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right. Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex and London, including the City of London, where the London County Council had limited powers, absorbing parts of Essex, Hertfordshire and Surrey. Greater London had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils.
The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London formed the London region in 1994; the London referendum, 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. In 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary; the 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson; the 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan. Greater London includes the most associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers and includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks.
The closest and furthest boundaries are with Essex to the northeast between Sewardstonebury next to Epping Forest and Chingford and with the Mar
Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell was a British film director, known for his pioneering work in television and film and for his flamboyant and controversial style. His films in the main were liberal adaptations of existing texts, or biographies, notably of composers of the Romantic era. Russell began directing for the BBC, where he made creative adaptations of composers' lives which were unusual for the time, he directed many feature films independently and for studios. He is best known for his Oscar-winning film Women in Love, The Devils, The Who's Tommy, the science fiction film Altered States. Russell directed several films based on the lives of classical music composers, such as Elgar, Tchaikovsky and Liszt. Film critic Mark Kermode, speaking in 2006, attempting to sum up the director's achievement, called Russell, "somebody who proved that British cinema didn't have to be about kitchen-sink realism—it could be every bit as flamboyant as Fellini. In his life he turned to making low-budget experimental films such as Lion's Mouth and Revenge of the Elephant Man, they are as edgy and'out there' as ever".
Critics have accused him of being obsessed with the Catholic Church. Russell was born in Southampton, England, on 3 July 1927, the elder of two sons of Ethel and Henry Russell, a shoeshop owner, his father was distant and took out his rage on his family, so Russell spent much of his time at the cinema with his mother, mentally ill. He cited The Secret of the Loch as two early influences, he was educated at private schools in Walthamstow and at Pangbourne College, studied photography at Walthamstow Technical College. He harboured a childhood ambition to be a ballet dancer but instead joined the Royal Air Force and the Merchant Navy as a teenager. On one occasion he was made to stand watch in the blazing sun for hours on end while crossing the Pacific, his lunatic captain feared an attack by Japanese midget submarines despite the war having ended. He moved into television work after short careers in photography, his series of documentary'Teddy Girl' photographs were published in Picture Post magazine in 1955, he continued to work as a freelance documentary photographer until 1959.
After 1959, Russell's amateur films secured him a job at the BBC. Between 1959 and 1970, Russell directed art documentaries for Omnibus, his best known works during this period include: Elgar, The Debussy Film, Isadora Duncan, the Biggest Dancer in the World, Song of Summer and Dance of the Seven Veils, a film about Richard Strauss. He once said that the best film he made was Song of Summer, that he would not edit a single shot. Elgar was the first time that a televised arts programme broadcast a feature-length film about an artistic figure, rather than a series of shorter segments, it was the first time that re-enactments were used. Russell fought with the BBC over using actors to portray different ages of the same character, instead of the traditional photograph stills and documentary footage, his television films became flamboyant and outrageous. Dance of the Seven Veils sought to portray Richard Strauss as a Nazi: one scene in particular showed a Jewish man being tortured while a group of SS men look on in delight, with Strauss's music as the score.
The Strauss family was so outraged by the film. The film is banned from being screened until Strauss's copyright expires in 2019. Russell's next film after Altered States was The Planets, about Gustav Holst's musical suite of the same name; this 53-minute film was made in 1983 specially for The South Bank Show, the weekly arts programme of the ITV network in Britain. It is a wordless collage that matches stock footage to each of the seven movements of the Holst suite. John Coulthart wrote "familiar Russell obsessions appear: Nazis, naked women and the inevitable crucifixion." After disappearing for decades, in 2016 the film was re-released on DVD by Arthaus Musik. Russell's first feature film was French Dressing, a comedy loosely based on Roger Vadim's And God Created Woman. One of his films there, in 1965, was Always on Sunday, a bio-pic of the late 19th century French naive painter Henri Rousseau; this was followed by Dante's Inferno about the painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his tortuous relationship with his wife Elizabeth.
His second major commercial film was Billion Dollar Brain, starring Michael Caine, based on author Len Deighton's Harry Palmer spy cycle. In 1969, Russell directed what is considered his "signature film", Women In Love, an adaptation of D. H. Lawrence's novel of the same name about two artist sisters living in post-World War I Britain; the film starred Oliver Reed, Jennie Linden and Alan Bates. The film is notable for its nude wrestling scene, which broke the convention at the time that a mainstream movie could not show male genitalia. Women in Love connected with the sexual bohemian politics of the late 1960s, it received several Oscar nominations, including his only nomination for Best Director. The film was BAFTA-nominated for the costume designs of Russell's first wife, Shirley; the colour schemes of Luciana Arrighi's art direction and Billy William's cinematography, which Russell used for metaphorical effect, are often referred to by film tex
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
D. H. Lawrence
David Herbert Lawrence was an English writer and poet. His collected works represent, among other things, an extended reflection upon the dehumanising effects of modernity and industrialisation; some of the issues Lawrence explores are sexuality, emotional health, vitality and instinct. Lawrence's opinions earned him many enemies and he endured official persecution and misrepresentation of his creative work throughout the second half of his life, much of which he spent in a voluntary exile he called his "savage pilgrimage". At the time of his death, his public reputation was that of a pornographer who had wasted his considerable talents. E. M. Forster, in an obituary notice, challenged this held view, describing him as "the greatest imaginative novelist of our generation." The literary critic F. R. Leavis championed both his artistic integrity and his moral seriousness; the fourth child of Arthur John Lawrence, a literate miner at Brinsley Colliery, Lydia Beardsall, a former pupil teacher, forced to perform manual work in a lace factory due to her family's financial difficulties, Lawrence spent his formative years in the coal mining town of Eastwood, Nottinghamshire.
The house in which he was born, 8a Victoria Street, is now the D. H. Lawrence Birthplace Museum, his working-class background and the tensions between his parents provided the raw material for a number of his early works. Lawrence roamed out from an early age in the patches of open, hilly country and remaining fragments of Sherwood Forest in Felley woods to the north of Eastwood, beginning a lifelong appreciation of the natural world, he wrote about "the country of my heart" as a setting for much of his fiction; the young Lawrence attended Beauvale Board School from 1891 until 1898, becoming the first local pupil to win a county council scholarship to Nottingham High School in nearby Nottingham. He left in 1901, working for three months as a junior clerk at Haywood's surgical appliances factory, but a severe bout of pneumonia ended this career. During his convalescence he visited Hagg's Farm, the home of the Chambers family, began a friendship with Jessie Chambers. An important aspect of this relationship with Chambers and other adolescent acquaintances was a shared love of books, an interest that lasted throughout Lawrence's life.
In the years 1902 to 1906 Lawrence served as a pupil teacher at the British Eastwood. He went on to become a full-time student and received a teaching certificate from University College, Nottingham, in 1908. During these early years he was working on his first poems, some short stories, a draft of a novel, to become The White Peacock. At the end of 1907 he won a short story competition in the Nottinghamshire Guardian, the first time that he had gained any wider recognition for his literary talents. In the autumn of 1908, the newly qualified Lawrence left his childhood home for London. While teaching in Davidson Road School, Croydon, he continued writing. Jessie Chambers submitted some of Lawrence's early poetry to Ford Madox Ford, editor of the influential The English Review. Hueffer commissioned the story Odour of Chrysanthemums which, when published in that magazine, encouraged Heinemann, a London publisher, to ask Lawrence for more work, his career as a professional author now began in earnest.
Shortly after the final proofs of his first published novel, The White Peacock, appeared in 1910, Lawrence's mother died of cancer. The young man was devastated, he was to describe the next few months as his "sick year", it is clear that Lawrence had an close relationship with his mother, his grief became a major turning point in his life, just as the death of Mrs. Morel is a major turning point in his autobiographical novel Sons and Lovers, a work that draws upon much of the writer's provincial upbringing. Concerned with the emotional battle for Lawrence's love between his mother and "Miriam", the novel documents Paul's brief intimate relationship with Miriam that Lawrence had initiated in the Christmas of 1909, ending it in August 1910; the hurt caused to Jessie by this and by her portrayal in the novel caused the end of their friendship and after it was published they never spoke to each other again. In 1911, Lawrence was introduced to Edward Garnett, a publisher's reader, who acted as a mentor, provided further encouragement, became a valued friend, as did his son David.
Throughout these months, the young author revised Paul Morel, the first draft of what became Sons and Lovers. In addition, a teaching colleague, Helen Corke, gave him access to her intimate diaries about an unhappy love affair, which formed the basis of The Trespasser, his second novel. In November 1911, he came down with a pneumonia again. In February 1912, he broke off an engagement to Louie Burrows, an old friend from his days in Nottingham and Eastwood. In March 1912 Lawrence met Frieda Weekley. Six years older than her new lover, she was married to Ernest Weekley, his former modern languages professor at University College and had three young children, she eloped with Lawrence to her parents' home in Metz, a garrison town in Germany near the disputed border with France. Their stay there included Lawrence's first encounter with tensions between Germany and France, when he was arrested a
Beckenham is a post town and district of London in the London Borough of Bromley, England. It borders Beckenham Place Park and Bellingham in the London Borough of Lewisham and is centred 8.4 miles south east of Charing Cross. Part of Kent, Beckenham was, until the coming of the railway in 1857, a small village, with most of its land being rural and private parkland. John Cator and his family began the building of villas which led to a rapid increase in population, between 1850 and 1900, from 2,000 to 26,000. Housing and population growth has continued at a lesser pace since 1900; the town has areas of commerce and industry, principally around the curved network of streets featuring its high street and is served in transport by three main railway stations — nine within the post town — plus towards its western periphery two Tramlink stations. In common with the rest of Bromley, the largest borough of London by area, Beckenham has several pockets of recreational land which are a mixture of sports grounds, fishing ponds and parks.
The place-name'Beckenham' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 862 as Biohhahema mearc. The settlement is referred to as Bacheham in the Domesday Book of 1086, in the Textus Roffensis as Becceham; the name is thought to derive from Beohha's homestead. The name of the small stream here – the River Beck – is most to have been named after the village. Although early written history tells little of the area, archaeological evidence at Holwood Park, where Stone Age and Bronze Age artifacts have been found, reveals some evidence of early settlers. A Roman camp was sited here, a Roman road, the London to Lewes Way passed through the district. With the arrival of the Normans, the Manor of Beckenham took on added importance, controlled much of what is modern Beckenham. St George's Church was built in the 12th century. In the Middle Ages, the manor lands were divided: at this time the estates of Kelsey and Langley came into being. Beckenham still remained a small village until well into the 19th century.
The beginning of its growth began when, in 1773, John Cator built Beckenham Place and became Lord of the Manor. After he died in 1807, his sons soon became aware that the area in such close proximity to London was ripe for development once the railway had arrived in 1857. Wide roads and large gardens epitomised these properties. Between and the early 20th century, further growth of Beckenham took place: the Shortlands area in 1863; the Manor of Foxgrove was broken up at some point: its name is commemorated in a local road. Beckenham is a suburb and a town in its own right with a non-bypassed non-pedestrianised high street on a route between the rest of the borough and South London and has spread about its centre on 15 pre-1850 houses which are listed buildings. See also: Municipal Borough of Beckenham The Municipal Borough of Beckenham came into being in 1935, it took over from what had been, since 1894, Beckenham Urban District Council and included parts of Hayes and West Wickham part of Bromley Rural District Council.
The new Borough status reflected the growth of Beckenham in less than fifty years. In 1965, as part of the creation of the Greater London Council, the Borough council was disbanded and Beckenham came under control of the newly constituted London Borough of Bromley. Councillors represent various parts of the Borough of Beckenham. Beckenham Town Centre Management coordinates business interests in the town; the original village of Beckenham was a cluster of development in its own fields at what is now the north. Around it were the great manorial estates: Beckenham and Langley Halls and Parks; the River Ravensbourne flows northwards at the eastern side of the town, towards its confluence with the River Thames. A small stream, the River Beck, passes through the town before joining the Ravensbourne further north; the area consists of many small hills. Despite its leafy image, its close proximity to Central London and nine railway stations within the post town, make Beckenham a good business location.
The town's busy high street contains many restaurants and upmarket chains, as well as family-run independents, the area has a good selection of well performing schools. Beckenham is the headquarters to Capita Registrars Limited who provide share registration services for more than half of the UK’s quoted companies, Proper Records, the UK's biggest independent music distributor and Vizual, a leading HR software developer. One of the interesting landmarks in Beckenham is the Chinese Garage, now a listed building, it is built in an unusual Japanese pagoda style and operated as a car dealership selling Peugeot and Kia cars. Its future is being decided. There is St George's Church, dating back to 1100 but rebuilt at the end of the 19th century; the lych gate dates from the 13th century, is one of the oldest in England. There are two old pubs, Ye Olde George Inn, the Three Tuns. Kelsey Park is another landmark, it was part of the Kelsey Estate. The only surviving buildings are the two Grade II listed lodge cottages at the entrance, which are over 200 years old.
Beckenham is served by nine rail stations - Beckenham Junction, Clock House, New Beckenham, Kent House, Elmers End, Eden Park and Beckenham Hill. Beckenham Jun
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges