Hancock Stadium is a 13,391-seat multi-purpose stadium in Normal, Illinois. It opened in 1963, it is home to the Illinois State University Redbirds football team. Opened in 1963 and named after Illinois State's former athletic director Dr. Howard Hancock. In 1969, Hancock Stadium became Illinois' first college stadium that featured artificial turf as its playing surface; the artificial turf was replaced most in 2010 and a new scoreboard was installed. For many years, Hancock Stadium was the home of the Illinois High School football championships; the games moved in 1999. In 2000 the Kaufman Football Building was opened; this facility is now the home to the coaches. In recent years, Redbird football has enjoyed a resurgence of spirit and success, all bringing attention to the ailing facility. Under the leadership of athletic director and university president, plans detailing the Hancock Stadium Stadium renovations were unveiled in 2011; the plans boast upgrades to the design of the new east-side grandstand, bleacher-back seating on the entire new east-side grandstand and spacious concourse new concession and restroom facilities, premium seating options, including 500+ chairback club seats, 5,500 sq. ft, indoor club accessible to club seat holders and 7 suites, state-of-the-art press level above the indoor club, Redbird Team Store, where fans can purchase ISU gear, a brand new ticket office to improve the fan experience on game days, a new sound system and scoreboard.
Newly renovated Hancock Stadium's capacity is 13,391 The estimated cost of the Hancock Stadium renovation is $20 million. In the summer of 2011, the south bleachers of the stadium were removed to start the first phase of renovations. Fiberglass bleachers are a thing of the past, as new metal bleachers were installed on the west side of Hancock Stadium in August 2011; the design of the new east-side grandstand takes into expansion. List of NCAA Division I FCS football stadiums Hancock Stadium - Illinois State Athletics Zenger, Bowman have big plans for Hancock
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Redbird Arena is a 10,200-seat multi-purpose arena located in Normal, Illinois, on the campus of Illinois State University. Built in 1989, the building is notable for its use of a Teflon-coated roof that gives off a "glow" during night events. Three Illinois State Redbirds athletic teams use the facility as their home court: men's basketball, women's basketball, women's volleyball. Illinois State is one of just 10 college volleyball programs to draw more than 250,000 fans in the last decade. Students who enjoy men's basketball and sit in the student section paint their faces red and wear red T-shirts and become part of "Red Alert", the official student spirit group of Illinois State athletics. Redbird Arena boasts new scoreboards installed during the 2006-2007 basketball season; the center-hung scoreboard has four-sided HD video boards. They were initiated at the Bradley game. For the 2011-2012 basketball season an HD video board between opposing benches courtside was installed, it was funded and named after sponsor Frontier Communications Company, that provided new black leather chairs for players and coaches.
Redbird Arena has hosted a variety of Illinois High School Association events. It has been the home of the girls' volleyball tournament since 1990 and the girls' basketball tournament since 1992, it has hosted the dual team portion of the state wrestling tournament and in 2006 hosted the inaugural state competitive cheerleading meet. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Redbird Arena
In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts; the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a historic district fall into one of two types of property: contributing and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th-century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a modern medical clinic, does not.
The contributing properties are key to a historic district's historic associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place. According to the National Park Service, the first instance of law dealing with contributing properties in local historic districts occurred in 1931 when the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enacted an ordinance that designated the "Old and Historic District." The ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street. By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charleston's lead. An amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans; the city passed a local ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, indicate differing dates for the preservation ordinances in both Charleston and New Orleans.
The Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that these two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946; the National Park Service appears to refute this. In 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, the city's original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local design controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design and demolition controls were valid within defined historic districts. Beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures; the United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, D. C. protected in 1950. By 1965, 51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances.
By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns and villages had enacted historic preservation ordinances. Contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a district's historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. In historic preservation law, a contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district that contributes to its historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological qualities of a historic district, it can be any property, structure or object that adds to the historic integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal, significant. Definitions vary. Another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can sever its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. A property listed as a contributing member of a historic district meets National Register criteria and qualifies for all benefits afforded a property or site listed individually on the National Register. A building within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Building property type of NRHP listing. An object within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Object property type of NRHP listing. A structure within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Structure property type of NRHP listing. A site within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Site property type of NRHP listing; the line between contributing and non-contributing can be fuzzy. In particular, American historic districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places before 1980 have few records of the non-contributing structures.
State Historic Preservation Offices conduct surveys to determine the historical character of structures in historic districts. Districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places after 1980 list those structures considered non-contributing; as a general rule, a contributing property helps make a historic district historic. A 19th-century Queen Anne mansion, such as the David Syme House, is a contributing property, while a modern gas station or medical clinic within th
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
The Fell Arboretum is an arboretum located across the campus of Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois. The arboretum began in 1867 when Jesse W. Fell, the university's founder, obtained $3,000 from the state legislature for campus landscaping, he planted 1,740 trees on 107 trees the following year. An enthusiastic tree planter, Fell wished the campus to contain every tree native to Illinois. In 1995 the campus was formally named in Fell's honor; the arboretum contains over 4,000 trees representing over 100 varieties, including Abies concolor, Acer ginnala, Acer griseum, Acer platanoides, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Aesculus glabra, Aesculus x carnea, Alnus glutinosa, Amelanchier arborea, Aralia spinosa, Betula alleghaniensis, Betula nigra, Betula populifolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya illinoensis, Castanea mollissima, Catalpa speciosa, Celtis occidentalis, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Cercis canadensis, Cladrastis kentukea, Cornus mas, Cotinus obovatus, Crataegus crusgalli, Crataegus mollis, Crataegus monogyna, Diospyros virginiana, Eucommia ulmoides, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ginkgo biloba, Gleditsia triacanthos, Gymnocladus dioicus, Halesia carolina, Juglans nigra, Juniperus virginiana, Larix decidua, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia acuminata, Magnolia stellata, Magnolia x soulangiana, Malus coronaria, Malus cultivar, Malus ioensis, Malus sargentii, Morus alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Phellodendron amurense, Picea abies, Picea glauca, Picea pungens, Pinus mugo, Pinus nigra, Pinus resinosa, Pinus strobus, Pinus sylvestris, Platanus occidentalis, Populus alba, Prunus padus, Prunus serotina, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pyrus calleryana, Quercus alba, Quercus bicolor, Quercus coccinea, Quercus hybrid, Quercus imbricaria, Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus palustris, Quercus rubra, Sassafras albidum, Taxodium distichum, Tilia americana, Tilia cordata, Tsuga canadensis, Viburnum prunifolium, Zelkova serrata.
Each tree is numbered and mapped. List of botanical gardens in the United States Fell Arboretum Fell Arboretum Tree Map
Reggie Redbird is the mascot for Illinois State University located in Normal, Illinois. Reggie is present at all home football games, women's' volleyball matches, men's basketball games, women's' basketball games, appears at various other athletic events. Reggie does numerous of appearances at schools and events within the Twin Cities,the state of Illinois, the country. Reggie Redbird is a student bedecked in costume. Reggie was named in 1980 after a contest among Junior Redbird Club Members; the first suit was donated by Rick Percy, general manager of Clemens and Associates Insurance and a longtime member of The Redbird Club. The nickname "Redbirds" for the sports teams was adopted by the Illinois State Normal University in 1923 by the athletic director Clifford E. "Pop" Horton, with an assist from The Daily Pantagraph sports editor Fred Young. Horton liked "Cardinals" because the school colors, established in 1895-96, were cardinal and white, the University teams were known by that nickname for a short period of time.
Young recommended the change to "Redbirds" to avoid confusion in the headlines with the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team. ISU full explanation of "Redbirds"