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John W. Dower

John W. Dower is an American author and historian, his 1999 book Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II won the U. S. National Book Award for Nonfiction, the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction, the Bancroft Prize, the Los Angeles Times Book Prize, the Mark Lynton History Prize, the John K. Fairbank Prize of the American Historical Association. Dower earned a bachelor's degree in American Studies from Amherst College in 1959, a Ph. D. in History and Far Eastern Languages from Harvard University in 1972, where he studied under Albert M. Craig, he expanded his doctoral dissertation, a biography of former Japanese Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, into the book Empire and Aftermath. His other books include a selection of writings by E. Herbert Norman and a study of mutual images during World War II entitled War Without Mercy. Dower was the executive producer of the Academy Award-nominated documentary Hellfire: A Journey from Hiroshima, was a member of the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, sitting on the editorial board of its journal with Noam Chomsky, Herbert Bix.

He has taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and the University of California, San Diego, is a Ford International Professor of History, Emeritus, at MIT. "Visualizing Cultures", a course that Dower has taught at MIT since 2003 with Shigeru Miyagawa, discusses how images shape American and Japanese societies. The Visualizing Cultures website features some 18 scholars in over 40 units based on digitized image sets from the visual record; the project was recognized by MIT with the "Class of 1960 Innovation in Education Award" in 2004 and in 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected VC for inclusion on "EDSITEment" as an online resource for education in the humanities. The curriculum on the website for the Canton Trade unit won the 2011 "Franklin R. Buchanan prize from the Association of Asian Studies for best curricular materials concerning Asia."The first Visualizing Cultures unit, "Black Ships & Samurai," written by John Dower, juxtaposed the visual record from the two sides of the 1853–1854 encounter when Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States arrived in Japan aboard the "Black Ships" to force that long-secluded country to open its borders to the outside world.

In April 2006, the OpenCourseWare website of "Visualizing Cultures" was announced on the main page of the MIT website, causing a stir among some Chinese students at MIT that found the material offensive. The material included woodblock prints produced in Japan as propaganda during the Chinese-Japanese War of 1894–1895 that portrayed Japanese soldiers beheading "violent Chinese soldiers." The Japanese-born Miyagawa received death threats. In response, the authors temporarily removed the course from OpenCourseWare and released a statement, as did the MIT Administration. After a week, the course authors agreed to include additional context in controversial sections, put the course back online. 1986 National Book Critics Circle Award, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War 2000 L. L. Winship/PEN New England Award, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II 2000 Bancroft Prize, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II Mellon Distinguished Achievement Award Origins of the Modern Japanese State: Selected Writings of E.

H. Norman War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese experience, 1878–1954 Japan in War and Peace: Selected Essays "The Bombed: Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese Memory", Diplomatic History 19, no. 2 Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II — winner of the National Book Award, John K. Fairbank Prize of the American Historical Association, Pulitzer Prize Cultures of War: Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, 9-11, Iraq. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern World The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II. John W. Dower on IMDb Faculty website New York Times Magazine interview Amherst College Honorary Doctorate announcement Visualizing Cultures: Website created by Dower On the "Visualizing Cultures" Controversy and Its Implications, by MIT CSSA Reflections on the "Visualizing Cultures" Incident, by Peter C. Perdue Appearances on C-SPAN

Ahmad Ebadi

Ahmad Ebādi was an Iranian musician and setar player. Born in Tehran, he was a member of the most extraordinary family of Iranian music. Ahmad's father, Mirza Abdollah, is arguably the most influential figure in Persian traditional music, his paternal uncle, Mirza Hossein Gholi, is well known for his mastery in playing the tar. Ahmad's paternal grandfather, Ali Akbar Farahani, was a talented musician. Ahmad started learning music at an early age. At the age of seven, he was able to play tombak to accompany his father, he lost his father soon thereafter, but continued his education with his sisters Moloud Khanom. He became one of the best setar players of all time. For years he played on Iranian radio in a program called Golha, produced by Davood Pirnia. Ebadi had a unique style in playing the setar, he invented a variety of different tunings for setar. He is buried in Emamzadeh Taher Cemetery in Karaj. Haghighat, A. Honarmandān-e Irani az Āghāz tā Emrooz, Koomesh Publications, 2004. Khaleghi, R. Sargozasht-e Musighi-e Iran, Ferdowsi Publications, 1955.

Ahmad Ebadi entry in the Encyclopædia Iranica A sample of solo music on Setār by Ahmad Ebadi in the following Dastgahs: Segāh, Chahārgāh, Homāyoun, Esfahān, Afshāri. A sample of orchestral Persian traditional music in Segāh Dastgah, with Ahmad Ebadi playing the Setār, from the Barg-e Sabz, no. 306. The singer is Mohammad Reza Shajarian, singing a ghazal by Saadi. Other players are Assadollah Malek and Jahangir Malek, Tonbak; the poems, by Jami and Kamal Esmail, are read by Roshanak

Stanleytown, Virginia

Stanleytown is a census-designated place in Henry County, United States. The population was 1,422 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Martinsville Micropolitan Statistical Area. Edgewood and Stoneleigh houses are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Stanleytown is located at 36°45′6″N 79°56′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,515 people, 662 households, 442 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 564.3 people per square mile. There were 723 housing units at an average density of 269.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.32% White, 2.57% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 7.46% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.49% of the population. There were 662 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families.

27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.73. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,386, the median income for a family was $36,927. Males had a median income of $26,164 versus $17,063 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,959. About 12.4% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 19.6% of those age 65 or over

Eva Frommer

Eva Ann Frommer, was a German-born British consultant child psychiatrist, working at St Thomas' Hospital in South London. Her specialism was to apply the arts and eurythmy to the treatment of pre-school child patients, inspired by the work of the Austrian anthroposophist, Rudolf Steiner. Early in her career she attracted criticism through association with her senior colleague, the controversial psychiatrist, William Sargant, whom she followed for a time in the application of sleep therapy and antidepressant prescription to children; as a child, she became part of the Jewish exodus fleeing from persecution in Nazi Germany. Frommer was modestly a philanthropist. Frommer was born in Berlin into a cultured German-Polish-Jewish family, the elder of two children, her father, was a research scientist and friend of the crystallographer and philosopher, Rudolf Steiner. He is the author of a standard textbook on chemical engineering still in use, her mother, was a professional violinist and came from the Polish Diamant family.

It is possible that Frommer's date of birth was altered to make her two or three years younger, to facilitate the family's move to England in 1934, since she maintained she had sat on Steiner's knee as a baby and Steiner died in 1925. Once settled in London and her brother attended the Steiner-inspired New School in Streatham, South London, which moved to Sussex and became known as Michael Hall. Both children had inherited their mother's musical talent, but Eva chose to study medicine, while her brother, dedicated himself to music. After graduating from the Royal Free Hospital in 1952, she obtained a diploma in Child Health with a view to becoming a paediatrician. However, she pursued a different specialism at the celebrated Maudsley Hospital gaining her DPM in 1962. After a spell working in Sutton in Surrey, she was appointed consultant child psychiatrist at St Thomas' Hospital in London where, for a time, she collaborated with the controversial psychiatrist, William Sargant, applying some of his treatments in modified form to child patients.

She contributed to one of his publications. This gained her a level of notoriety, she became a Foundation Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1972 and a Fellow in 1982. At St Thomas' along with running the out-patient clinic for children, she conducted research and gathered around her a multidisciplinary group of practitioners. Frommer was one of the earliest in the field to identify childhood depression. Part of it she believed was due to parental experiences of separation from their own parents; when she was practising, many World War II evacuees had become parents and their children were displaying the disturbances Frommer had discovered. In some cases, she prescribed newly developed antidepressant medications in small doses; this was a controversial approach that attracted both international interest and local criticism from some colleagues. Another innovation was to establish formal links with the burgeoning Art Therapy movement. Frommer offered internships in her department to art therapy students from the original St Alban's School of Art course, followed by students from other London courses.

As part of her repertoire of treatments, she developed the hospital's children's out-post in Black Prince Road, about half a mile from the main hospital, as a treatment centre, headed by a senior nurse, Mrs Mary Reid. Frommer's view was that children needed to acquire the skills of understanding and self-expression according to an age-appropriate adjustment to the outside world, to stand a chance of avoiding depression or falling into antisocial behaviours, her treatment model consisted of exposing her pre-school patients to colour, eurythmy, story-telling and plays. The treatment was predicated on Rudolf Steiner's educational system. There was an emphasis on staff training and special retreat days with invited guest facilitators, such as the Royal Shakespeare Company's voice-coach, Cicely Berry, a friend of Frommer's; the institution attracted wide interest including from abroad. For instance, Professor Kemal Çakmakli, MD has applied Day Hospital techniques in Turkey. Frommer was an avid lover and supporter of opera.

She was a well-known figure at both of London's opera houses and was for many years a Friend of the Royal Opera House. She was active in the charity sector, making links with City Livery companies to benefit her patients, she became Chairman of the Cicely Northcote Trust for a number of years. Frommer travelled and gave numerous papers at international conferences, she travelled for pleasure. It was after the strain of a trip to China in the mid-1980s, that she returned to England, to face a diagnosis of non-kinetic Parkinson's disease and an auto-immune condition. In spite of these afflictions, she carried on with her clinics and Steiner Study groups until 1989, when she retired to Sussex, where her mother had had a home; the Children's Day Hospital was closed in 1990. Eva Frommer aged 77, at Michael Hall, a Steiner community and school in Forest Row, England. Eva Frommer was one of the earliest practitioners to establish an out-patient therapeutic milieu for young children and their parents but not only, those from deprived backgrounds.

She not only afforded them exposure to the arts, but she invited students and members of the art establishment to contribute to that milieu. The arts in health settings have become commonplace. A successful businessman in antiquities has paid express tribute to her. Outside the clinical field, Frommer intended that Steiner's writings become better known in English-speaking countries, for that purpose she left a sum of money


MahaQuizzer is an annual solo quiz contest held across several Indian cities. It was instituted in 2005 by the Karnataka Quiz Association; the event is now held in Bangalore, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Pune, New Delhi, Guwahati, Panjim, Bhubaneshwar and Coimbatore. It is now a collaborative effort between KQA and other quizzing organisations such as Quiz Foundation of India, Chennai, K-Circle, The Hyderabad Quiz Club, Bombay Quiz Club, The Boat Club Quiz Club, Grey Cells Kerala, Bhubaneshwar Quiz Club, Kutub Quizzers, New Delhi, Trivia Bytes Creations and Oo Aa Ka Kha, Sunday Evening Quiz Club and Coimbatore Quiz Circle and has thus evolved into being the national quizzing championships. MahaQuizzer was envisaged as a quiz that would test the contestant's ability to make informed guesses rather than his/her memory, it features 150 text-questions, which must be answered in 90 minutes. The questions run into several sentences and may contain clues as well as misdirections. Participants fill in their answers, no negative marking is applied.

The quiz is set by a team of four senior quiz-masters. Prizes are awarded to the best contestant in the School, College and Open categories in each venue; the overall winner takes the title of Mahaquizzer and is awarded the Wing Commander G. R. Mulky Memorial Trophy for Quizzing Excellence. A list of the top 100 contestants is published; the inaugural edition was held on 12 June 2005 at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram and Mumbai. 335 contestants attempted the quiz. Anustup Datta, a quizzer from Bangalore, took the title in a fought contest. 1. Anustup Datta 60 2. Rajiv Rai 59 3. Gopal Kidao 59 4. Vikram Joshi 58 5. Debashree Mitra 58 Three new venues were added during this edition). 350 contestants attempted the quiz. The overall winner, across the eight venues, was the Chennai-based quizzer Swaminathan G. who appeared for the quiz from Kolkata. 1. Swaminathan G 75 2. Saranya Jaikumar 70 3. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka 69 4. Samanth Subramanian 69 5. Shouvik Guha 68 6. Anustup Datta 68 7. Rajiv Rai 67 8.

Aadisht Khanna 66 9. Debashree Mitra 59 10. Suresh Ramasubramaniam 54 Bhubaneshwar was added to the list of venues in the third edition of MahaQuizzer. 426 contestants attempted the quiz. Samanth Subramanian from Chennai won the title. 1. Samanth Subramanian 71 2. Saranya Jayakumar 68 3. Swaminathan G 68 4. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka 67 5. Anustup Datta 67 6. Shouvik Guha 66 7. Debashree Mitra 65 8. Rajiv Rai 64 9. Gopal Kidao 64 10. Vinoo Sanjay 61 A new team of question-setters was nominated after the prior team announced its decision to retire; the contest was held in 9 cities on 18 May 2008. 366 contestants attempted this quiz, won by Arul Mani from Bangalore. 1. Arul Mani 99 2. Shouvik Guha 88 3. Anustup Datta 85 4. Rajiv Rai 81 5. Jayashree J Mohanka 81 6. Dr. S. Bhattacharya 74 7. Adittya Nath Mubayi 73 8. G Swaminathan 73 9. Kiran Vijayakumar 72 10. Mukund Sridhar 72 The fifth edition of MahaQuizzer was held on 24 May 2009; the contest was extended to four new venues in India—Guwahati, Mysore and Panaji—and to Singapore.

715 contestants attempted the quiz. Anustup Datta, the 2005 champion, was adjudged the winner. 1. Anustup Datta 90 2. Shouvik Guha 89 3. Adittya Mubayi 88 4. Mukund Sridhar 84 5. Samanth Subramanian 84 6. Swaminathan G 83 7. Rajiv Rai 83 8. Navin Jayakumar 78 9. Aniruddha Sen Gupta 78 10. Vinoo Sanjay 77 The sixth edition of MahaQuizzer was held on 30 May 2010. Coimbatore was added as a venue, bringing the number of host-cities to 14. 700 contestants attempted the quiz. Shouvik Guha of Kolkata won the 2010 title. 1. Shouvik Guha 88 2. Mukund Sridhar 84 3. Rajiv Rai 83 4. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka 83 5. Samanth Subramanian 76 6. Anustup Datta 76 7. Swaminathan G 76 8. Dr. S. Bhattacharya 75 9. Sreeram B 75 10. Ravi Mundoli 73 The seventh edition of MahaQuizzer—put together by a new team of setters—was held on 29 May 2011. 750 contestants attempted the quiz from 14 cities across India. Arul Mani of Bangalore won the 2011 title. 1. Arul Mani 86 2. Anustup Datta 84 3. Swaminathan G. 81 4. Shouvik Guha 78 5. Srikant Parameswaran 78 6.

Samanth Subramanian 78 7. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka 76 8. Rajiv Rai 75 9. Harikrishnan Menon 73 10. Lathish V. 72 The eighth edition of Mahaquizzer was held on 27 May 2012. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka from Kolkata won. 1. Jayashree Jayakar Mohanka 81 2. Adittya Nath Mubayi 74 3. G Swaminathan 71 4. Samanth Subramanian 69 5. Anustup Dutta 68 6. Ravi Mundoli 68 7. Mukund Sridhar 67 8. Saranya Jayakumar 66 9. P. Srikant 66 10. Rajiv Rai 65 The ninth edition of Mahaquizzer was held on 26 May 2013. Anustup Datta from Bangalore won. There was a three-way tie for the first place, resolved on the basis of starred questions. 1. Anustup Datta 80 2. P Srikant

Kishwaukee River

The Kishwaukee River, locally known as "The Kish", is a 63.4-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Illinois. The Kishwaukee River flows from Woodstock, Illinois to Rockford, Illinois where it is a tributary to the Rock River; the river begins near Route 14 in Woodstock. It meanders across northern Illinois to the Rock River; this part of the river is known as the Main Branch. This stretch of stream has an average width of 50 feet but it becomes wider and deeper near the Boone County line; the South Branch of the Kishwaukee River originates near Shabbona on the Cropsey Moraine. The river flows north to Genoa where it turns westward and flows north-northwest and joins the North Branch near Cherry Valley; the South Branch's average width is 55 feet. The Kishwaukee River drainage area includes McHenry, Kane, DeKalb and Winnebago Counties. Crop lands occupy two-thirds of the watershed's surface area; the Kishwaukee has been used by humans for thousands of years. The Native Americans were the first to use it to transport goods for trade.

The name Kishwaukee is derived from the Potowatomi word meaning the "river of the sycamore." The Potowatomi used the large sycamore trees in the river valley for dugout canoes. Incidentally the river demarks the northern most natural range of the sycamore tree. Native Americans began to arrive in the area in the closing years of the last Ice Age. Near the mouth of the Kishwaukee, not too far from the Rock River valley are several mound sites from the Mississippian period, around 900 CE or the Upper Mississippian period around 1400 CE. No archaeological sites have been identified from the Native American period, said to be around 1650. Despite this, it is known that several groups occupied the area during that time and the Mascouten were in the Kishwaukee region at the time of the first contact with Europeans, around 1655. On Wednesday April 20, 1988 the employees of Lincoln Land Hog Farm, north of Sycamore, were working on a pipe on the farm's retention pond; the berm wall gave way allowing two million gallons of hog waste to spill into the Kishwaukee River.

The result, aquatic life downstream was utterly vanquished. The Illinois Department of Natural Resources stated that 37.2 miles of the river were affected and an estimated 70,000 fish were killed along with aquatic plants, insects and crustaceans. This, however was not the first fish kill along the Kishwaukee and the city of DeKalb has been the location of more than half of the fish kills since 1954. Of the 19 documented fish kills since that 11 of them have occurred within DeKalb city limits. Another well documented fish kill along the Kishwaukee was in 1984. According to IDOC reports the 1984 fish kill and a number of others were in direct correlation with heavy canning activities at the Del Monte canning facility that once operated on Taylor Street in DeKalb; the 1984 fish kill affected a portion of the river from a bend north of Lucinda Avenue, near Annie's Woods to Lincoln Highway. IDOC gathered evidence that proved a faulty pipe at Del Monte was responsible for this particular fish kill.

Del Monte cut the state a check for the value of lost fish and took steps to prevent a similar mishap after they found out they were culpable. The United States Geological Survey maintains four monitoring stations, in cooperation with National Weather Service, along the Kishwaukee River and has extensive data on low records and high crests and other information, hydrologically pertinent; the four stations are in DeKalb, Fairdale and Perryville Road in Rockford. The DeKalb and Fairdale stations are along the South Branch Kishwaukee while the other two are both along the main branch. Flood stages vary at each of the monitoring stations. At DeKalb flood stage is 10 feet with major set at 12.5 feet. In Belvidere major flood stage is at 12 feet, while moderate is at 10 and flood stage is at nine feet. In Perryville, near the mouth of the Kishwaukee, flood stage is 12 feet, moderate flood stage is 18 and major flood stage is 22 feet; as of July 2010. Belvidere February 20, 1994: 14.19 feet June 14, 1999: 13.97 feet March 16, 1943: 13.1 feet January 6, 1946: 12.9 feet July 3, 1978: 12.88 feet DeKalb July 2, 1983: 15.80 feet August 24, 2007: 15.34 feet July 18, 1996: 12.97 feet February 21, 1997: 12.64 feet June 12, 1929: 12.33 feet Perryville July 18, 1996: 23.54 feet February 21, 1994: 20.71 feet March 21, 1979: 20.48 feet February 22, 1997: 19.76 feet April 22, 1973: 19.65 feet On August 24, 2007, the Kishwaukee River at DeKalb, Illinois crested at 15.27 feet causing major flooding.

This was only the second time the river rose above 15 feet since the level of the river has been recorded. Much of the region around the Kishwaukee was shaped by glaciation. Early citizens of DeKalb County noticed surface boulders dotting the area. Rounded and granite, these boulder ranged in size from a cannonball to giant rocks weighing more than a ton; these boulders were dubbed "hard heads" by the locals and were used in the underpinning of barns and for the stoning of wells. The glaciation was responsible for these boulders as well. Two major ice sheets advanced over the Kishwaukee basin in its past; the first, the Illinoian covered the area 300,000 to 125,000 years ago. Though the Illinoian covered the entire area evidence of the coverage is found only in a few sediments at the surface in select sites; the reason for this is the second ice sheet, the Wisconsinan advanced over the area 25,000 to 13,500 years ago and covered over most of th