Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Dartmouth is a coastal town in Bristol County and was the first area of Southeastern Massachusetts settled. Dartmouth itself is part of the Farm Coast New England comprising a chain of historic coastal villages and farms. June 8, 2014 marked the 350th year of Dartmouth's incorporation, it is part of the Massachusetts South Coast. The local daily newspaper is "The Dartmouth Chronicle" and "Dartmouth Weekly"; the northern part of Dartmouth has the town's large commercial districts. Although it does not abut Buzzard's Bay, there are several waterways including Lake Noquochoke, Cornell Pond, Shingle Island River and Paskamansett River. There are several working farms in vineyard. All vineyards in the town are part of the Coastal Wine Tour; the town has a thriving agricultural heritage and many of the working farms are protected. The town's food staple is french toast casserole; the southern part of Dartmouth borders Buzzards Bay where a lively fishing and boating community thrives. The New Bedford Yacht Club in Padanaram hosts a bi-annual Regatta.
With unique historic villages and selection of coastal real estate, it has for many generations been a summering community. Notable affluent sections within South Dartmouth are Nonquitt, Round Hill, Barney's Joy, Mishaum Point. Still it has its fair share of year-round residents lending to thriving seasonal activities all year. Dartmouth is the third-largest town in Massachusetts, after Middleborough; the distance from Dartmouth's northern most border with Freetown to Buzzards Bay in the south is 16 miles. The villages of Hixville, Bliss Corner, Smith Mills, Russells Mills are located within the town. Dartmouth shares borders with Westport to the west and Fall River to the north, Buzzards Bay to the south, New Bedford to the east with boat shuttles traveling multiple times daily to Martha's Vineyard and Cuttyhunk. Dartmouth was first settled in 1650 and was incorporated in 1664. Dartmouth's history was that of an agricultural and seafaring community, but during the late 19th century its coastline became a resort area for the wealthy members of New England society.
It was named for the town of Dartmouth, England, from where the Puritans intended to depart for America. The land was purchased with trading goods from the Wampanoag chiefs Massasoit and Wamsutta by elders of the Plymouth Colony, it was sold to the Religious Society of Friends or Quakers, who wished to live outside the stringent religious laws of the Puritans in Plymouth. There are still Quaker meeting houses in town, including the Smith Neck Meeting House, the Allens Neck Meeting House, the Apponegansett Meeting House, on the National Register of Historic Places; the town's borders were named in the charter as the lands of "Acushnea and Coaksett." This includes the land of the towns of Westport and Acushnet, the city of New Bedford. In 1789, the towns of Westport and New Bedford, which included Fairhaven and Acushnet and were incorporated as towns themselves; the Lloyd Center for Environmental Studies, located in South Dartmouth, is a non-profit organization that provides educational programs on aquatic environments in southeastern New England.
It is across the mouth of the Slocums River from Demarest Lloyd State Park, a popular state beach known for its shallow waters. The Dartmouth Natural Resource Trust in South Dartmouth, holds over 1,500 conserved acres of land with 35 miles of hiking trails and river walks, photography tours, summer outdoor yoga series, bird watching, plant identification. It's summer evening winter fundraising auction are held annually. Round Hill was the site of early-to-mid 20th century research into the uses of radio and microwaves for aviation and communication by MIT researchers, it is the site of the Green Mansion, the estate of "Colonel" Edward Howland Robinson Green, a colorful character in his own right, son of the more colorful and wildly eccentric Hetty Green, said to be the richest woman in the world in her time, listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the "world's greatest miser". In 1936, the Colonel died, the estate fell into disrepair as litigation between his wife and his sister continued for eight years over his vast fortune.
Mrs. Hetty Sylvia Wilks, the Colonel's sister, was ruled the sole beneficiary. In 1948, she bequeathed the entire estate to MIT, which used it for laser experiments; the giant antenna, a landmark to sailors on Buzzards Bay, was erected on top of a 50,000-gallon water tank. Another antenna was erected next to the mansion and used in the development of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. MIT continued to use Round Hill through 1964, it was sold to the Society of Jesus of New England and was used as a retreat house. The upper floors were divided into 64 individual rooms; the main floor was fitted with a library and meeting rooms. In 1970 the Jesuits sold the land and buildings to Gratia R. Montgomery. In 1981, Mrs. Montgomery sold most of the land to a group of developers who have worked to preserve the history and natural environment; the property is now a gated summer residential community on the water featuring a nine-hole golf course. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 97.5 square miles
Charles A. Otis
Charles Augustus Otis, Sr. was a businessman and mayor of Cleveland from 1873 until 1874. Otis was born in Ohio, to William Augustus Otis and Eliza Proctor. Otis was a direct descendant of James Otis Jr.. William was a Massachusetts-born manufacturer who worked in Pittsburgh before traveled to Bloomfield, Trumbull County, Ohio, to start a primitive mercantile business and a tavern. In 1836, William moved to Cleveland to return to ironworks. Charles would follow his father in this line of work. William became a steamboat purser in 1848. Otis shipped wheat from Ohio to New York en route the Erie Canal, he manufactured high-quality flour and potash thirty-five miles to Ashtabula River, where it was loaded on a schooner and shipped to Buffalo and New York City. Otis established the Lake Erie Iron Company in 1852, he sold the business in 1866. The Otis Iron and Steel Company was established upon Otis' return in Industrial Valley, it was the first American company to manufacture acid open-hearth steel. Otis founded American Wire Company, which became the American Steel and Wire Company, was connected with the Standard Sewing Machine Company.
He founded the American Steel Screw Company, the Cleveland Electric Railway Company, the Society for Savings. Otis worked with Dr. Everett and Samuel T. Wellman in the old East Cleveland line, it was said. Otis was both a prominent industrial developer and municipal leader of Cleveland; the Democrats nominated him in his absence and without his knowledge, as their candidate for mayor by 1872. He defeated Republican candidate, John Huntington, it was said that Otis' lack of consent for the nomination allowed him to show respectable individuality in his political career. On October 17, 1873, Ulysses S. Grant passed through the city. Gossip and a telegram reached Otis. Grant's presidential train arrived to a city decorated with American flags; the group drove down Euclid Avenue to meet the President at Kennard House. In February, 1874, Otis visited Indiana. Much like Cleveland, Indianapolis saw its growth in the last decades of the nineteenth-century. Otis toured the city for less than a month to see much of the early growth.
Charles' brother, William H. Otis, was a prominent resident of Indianapolis. On March 19, 1874, forty members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union marched on Ontario Street, Public Square, the Young Men's Christian Association. Assaults were made against the women in the eleventh ward on Lorain Avenue; the WTC returned to their protest on Garden Street on the following day. Mayor Otis ordered a sidewalk ordinance. Mayor Otis argued that the few who could afford to use the Cleveland Water Works "should aid in extending" the service to the rest of the city. Written on page xxi of the City Documents of 1874, Otis advocated a 33.3% increase in the cost of public waterworks, to fund construction. Otis left as mayor in the following year due to business reasons, his political career was described as successful. His party found that his business was too successful; the work took much of his attention, so he declined to seek reelection. Otis had a strong wish to serve the people. Otis became a member of the Board of Imprisonments in 1878.
He served for one year. Otis became a member of the House of Correction Board in 1882 until 1884, he established Cleveland's first Board of Fire Board of Police Commissioners. Otis married Mary Shepard in 1853; the couple had two daughters and Nelly. Mary died in 1860. Otis married Mary's sister, Anna Elizabeth Shepard in 1863, they had 3 sons, Charles A. Jr. Harrison G. and William A. He moved to New York in 1890. Otis was a member of the Ohio Society of New York. In 1894, he became president of New Commercial National Bank, he retired from Otis Iron and Steel Company in 1899. By 1901, the Otis Iron and Steel Company merged with the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company into US Steel; the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company bought the former Otis Steel company along the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland was purchased in 1942. Otis retired from the New Commercial National Bank in 1904. Commercial Bank merged with the Mercantile National Bank, forming the present National Commercial Bank, his retirement left him unnoticed by the public in the 20th-Century.
Otis spent his last years as an avid tourist of Europe. Otis died at his son's house in 1905, in which his obituary stated that Cleveland lost one of the builders. Otis was described as a pioneer in the creative industrial enterprises which made the possibility of modern Cleveland, he was described as "one of the most active forces in the growth of Cleveland." Otis is buried in Lake View Cemetery
Robert Blee was the mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1893 to 1894. For Robert Blee, all of the following information is from "Annals of the Early Settlers Association of Cuyahoga County" Volume IV. Published by order of the Executive Committee in 1899; this association was open to all settlers who came to the Western Reserve by 1859 and resided in Cuyahoga County. Blee was born in the eastern part of what is now Cleveland, in 1839, was a son of Hugh Blee, one of the early settlers of this county. Mr. Blee was prepared for Shaw Academy, a Collinwood educational institution, at a district school, located near the Lake Shore railway tracks in Glenville; the Blee family was moderately large. While a student at the preparatory school he watched the construction of the railroad, his intense interest in railroads had an important influence in molding his career. "Some way or other I got my lessons," said ex-mayor to a reporter several weeks prior to his death, "but I was looking out the window four-fifths of the time.
The teacher would come down and strike me across the hands with a heavy ruler. At recess and at noon I would rush down to where the men were working on the railroad and remain there until I was forced to leave. "When we were graduated one of the school officials took the railroad as a subject of his address. One of his statements made a forcible impression at the time; the speaker referred to the building of the new means of transporting goods and passengers, said that if the boys were smart some of them would be brakemen. Continuing, he said that one of us might some day be elected Mayor of the big city growing up on the west of us. "Well, I became a brakeman, a conductor and a manager, served one term as Mayor of Cleveland. But I guess that the presidency, which it was said that one of us might reach, is far beyond me." When he became about 17 years of age Mr. Blee came to Cleveland to look for work, he succeeded in finding a position. For a year he served as a brakeman on the Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad.
He served under John Miller, now superintendent of the Pan Handle road, a part of the western lines of the Pennsylvania system. When civil war broke out he was filling the position of passenger conductor, he enlisted, was assigned to look after transportation of troops between Cleveland, Camp Chase and Camp Denison. Following the close of the war, he was appointed assistant superintendent of the railroad for which he worked. Three years Mr. Blee was advanced to general superintendent of the road known as the Bee Line, he continued in that position until 1888, when a second consolidation produced the Big Four system, as at present constituted. Mr. Blee's authority was extended over the entire system. After thirty-six years of railroading, Mr. Blee resigned in 1891. Mr. Blee organized the "Bee Line Insurance Company," and served as president for twenty-two years. During his incumbency the distributions footed up several hundred thousand dollars. In 1875, Mr. Blee, who had always been a democrat, was made a police commissioner.
In 1893 he was a successful candidate for the mayoralty, served one term, being succeeded by Mayor McKisson. The former mayor's business interests were many. "Every penny I possess I earned honestly," he said in discussing his success. "I took advantage of opportunities, I was a successful speculator. If any person can show that I defrauded him out of a dollar I will return the money with good interest." Mr. Blee was a president of the Ohio National Building and Loan Company, a director in the State National Bank, the Grafton Stone Company, several other companies. In the railroad world he was known as "Honest Bob Blee." Mr. Blee never married, he lived at No. 2084 Euclid Avenue with a maiden sister. Robert E. Blee, ex-mayor of Cleveland, died February 26, 1898, at his home, No. 2084 Euclid Avenue, the immediate case of his death being pneumonia. Mr. Blee had an interesting career, he was buried at Woodland Cemetery in Cleveland. The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4
John W. Allen
John William Allen was a lawyer and politician from Ohio. John W. Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut in August, 1802, he was the son of Representative John Allen. He attended preparatory schools and moved to Chenango County, New York in 1818, he studied law. Allen moved to Cleveland, Ohio in 1825, studied law under judge Samuel Cowles and became a leader of the bar, he was president of the village from 1831 to 1835, a member of the board of directors of the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie in 1832, one of the incorporators of the Cleveland and Newburgh Railroad Company in 1834. Allen was an organizer of the Ohio Railroad in 1836, served in the Ohio State Senate 1836–37, he was elected to the 25th and 26th Congresses as a Whig, served March 4, 1837 – March 3, 1841. He was elected Mayor of Cleveland in 1841. In 1845, Allen was elected president of the Cleveland and Cincinnati Railroad, was a delegate to the first convention on river and harbor improvement, held in Chicago in 1847; when the Whig party dissolved in the 1850s, he joined with the Republicans.
He was appointed postmaster of Cleveland April 4, 1870, by President Grant, was re-appointed in 1874, serving until he resigned January 11, 1875. He died in Cleveland on October 5, 1887, was interred at Erie Street Cemetery. List of railroad executives United States Congress. "John W. Allen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John W. Allen at Find a Grave
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
William R. Hopkins
William Rowland Hopkins was an American politician of the Republican Party who served as the first city manager of Cleveland, Ohio from 1924 to 1929, during the brief period that Cleveland had a council-manager government instead of a mayor-council government. Hopkins was born in Johnstown, the son of David J. and Mary Jeffreys Hopkins. In 1874, the family moved to Cleveland. Hopkins attended Western Reserve Academy by working in the Cleveland Rolling Mills to pay his way through and graduated in 1892. At Western Reserve University, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1896. In 1897, he began studying law at Case, while serving in Cleveland City Council as a Republican. In 1899, he left city council. Hopkins laid out new industrial plant developments and promoted construction of the Cleveland Short Line Railroad in 1905; the following year, he went into business. Hopkins entered local politics by becoming chairman of the Republican county committee and a member of the election board. By 1924, Cleveland had seen several controversial political figures in office such as Frederick Kohler and Harry L. Davis.
Voters decided to try to extricate municipal government from partisan politics by adopting the city manager plan. Hopkins was selected by local Republican boss Maurice Maschke, former postmaster William J. Murphy, business manager of the news George Moran as the man who could hold the job as the city's manager, he was elected to the position by a coalition. As city manager, Hopkins brought new development to Cleveland, he pushed for the development of parks, improved welfare institutions, wider boulevards, more playgrounds, air pollution control, the construction of both the Van Sweringen brothers' Terminal Tower and Cleveland Stadium. However, because the balance between city council and the city's central government was outweighed due to Hopkins' efficiency, council was always at war with the city manager the newly elected Peter Witt. Now with the city manager plan, council's role was diminished to such an extent and it became irrelevant. This, did not stop Hopkins' ambition for development.
His first plan was to fill behind jetties. When first announced, the idea seemed incomprehensible. By the time he left office, the land saw development and today the landfill is occupied by Cleveland Browns Stadium, its predecessor Cleveland Stadium, much of the eastern portion of Cleveland Memorial Shoreway and the Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport. Hopkins was recognized as being charismatic. An excellent speaker, he was nicknamed by Witt as "Chautauqua Bill." He won support of Cleveland's large ethnic population, receiving praise in Hebrew, Hungarian, Czech and other foreign-language papers. In 1925, Hopkins proposed a bold new initiative. At the time, the idea seemed like a pipe dream with the introduction of the airplane being new. Still, Hopkins was fascinated by aviation and felt that if Cleveland were to modernize itself, an airport would be a solid starting point; when Hopkins urged the purchase of piece of land from Brook Park, sounding off ideas of planes flying from Cleveland to Paris and London with thousands of people on board, Witt ridiculed the idea.
The rest of council, avoided opposing it so the land was purchased. However, council still felt that Hopkins had acquired too much control and removed him from office in January 1930, his replacement was the second and final city manager of Cleveland. In 1931, Hopkins became a member of council again and fought unsuccessfully to keep the city manager system. However, it was soon overturned and the city returned to a mayor-council government. In 1933, Hopkins retired from politics. In his honor, the Cleveland Municipal Airport was renamed Cleveland Hopkins International Airport in 1951. Hopkins suffered from declining health in his last years, he died at the Wade Park Manor apartments in Cleveland on February 9, 1961. He was buried at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland; the Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4 The Cleveland 200: The Most Noted and Notorious in the First 200 Years of a Great American City by Thomas Kelly ISBN 0-9644509-2-5 Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw by Philip W. Porter ISBN 0-8142-0264-0 Vigil, Vicki Blum.
Cemeteries of Northeast Ohio: Stones, Symbols & Stories. Cleveland, OH: Gray & Company, Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59851-025-6