Attorney General of Ontario
The Attorney General of Ontario is the chief legal adviser to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Ontario and, by extension, the Government of Ontario. The Attorney General is a senior member of the Executive Council of Ontario and oversees the Ministry of the Attorney General – the department responsible for the oversight of the justice system in the province of Ontario; the Attorney General is an elected Member of Provincial Parliament, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario on the constitutional advice of the Premier of Ontario. The goal of the Ministry of the Attorney General is to provide a fair and accessible justice system which reflects the needs of the diverse communities it serves across government and the province; the Ministry represents the largest justice system in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It strives to manage the justice system in an equitable and accessible way throughout the province; as of June 29, 2018, the Attorney General of Ontario is Caroline Mulroney and is assisted by Lindsey Park as Parliamentary Assistant to the Attorney General.
The Attorney General has the authority to represent the provincial government in court but this task is always delegated to crown attorneys, or to crown counsel in civil cases. Ian Scott, a prominent courtroom lawyer prior to entering politics, chose to plead the crown's case in court for several cases related to constitutional law. Most holders of the office had legal training. Marion Boyd was the only Attorney General, not a lawyer until Caroline Mulroney appointment. Although Mulroney studied and practiced law in the United States, she is not able to practice law in Canada; the Ministry of the Attorney General delivers and administers a wide range of justice services, including: administering 115 statutes. The Ontario Crown Attorney's Office, the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, the Children's Lawyer, the Special Investigations Unit all fall within the Ministry's responsibilities; the Ministry funds Legal Aid Ontario, administered by an independent board. In 2008, Office of the Independent Police Review Director was established under the authority of the AG, as a civilian body with powers invested through Public Inquiries Act to investigate complaints about municipal police forces and the Ontario Provincial Police.
Following the 2013 release of former Supreme Court judge Frank Iacobucci's report on the relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Ontario justice system, a position of deputy attorney general with responsibility for Aboriginal issues was created. 1. John White 1791–1800 2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 1800–1801 3. Thomas Scott 1801–1806 4. William Firth 1807–1812 5. G. D'Arcy Boulton 1814–1818 6. Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto 1818–1829, acting AG 1812–1814 7. Henry John Boulton 1829–1832 8. Robert Sympson Jameson 1833–1837, last British-appointed AG 9. Christopher Alexander Hagerman 1837–1840, first Canadian-born AG of Upper Canada 10. William Henry Draper 1840–1841, last AG of Upper Canada In 1841, the Province of Upper Canada became the Province of Canada 11. William Henry Draper 1841–1843 12. Robert Baldwin 1843–1848 13. William Buell Richards 1848–1854 14. John A. Macdonald 1854–1862, 1864–1867 15. John Sandfield Macdonald 1862–1864 After 1867, the Attorney General position was split into federal and provincial counterparts: Attorney General of OntarioAttorney General of Quebec Attorney General of Canada Government of Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General website
Isaac Benson Lucas
Isaac Benson Lucas, was a Canadian lawyer and politician. He served as a Conservative Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario for Grey Centre from 1898 to 1919. Lucas was born in Warwick Township, Lambton County, the son of George Lucas, who had come to Canada from Ireland, he was educated at the University of Toronto. He graduated from Osgoode Hall in 1899 and entered practice in Owen Sound moving to Markdale, he married the daughter of Matthew Kendal Richardson. In 1908, he was named King's Counsel, he served one of the shortest terms as provincial treasurer, serving from 1913 to 1914. Lucas was Attorney General from 1914 to 1919. During his time in office, Lucas was responsible for steering the Workmen's Compensation Act through the provincial legislature, he served as government representative on the Hydro-Electric Commission and helped promote the development of a park in the area surrounding the Horseshoe Falls at Niagara. He died in Toronto, Ontario in 1940. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history History of Dufferin County, S Sawden A History of the county of Grey, EL Marsh Isaac Benson Lucas fonds, Archives of Ontario
William Edgar Raney, K. C. was a lawyer and judge in Ontario, Canada, in the early twentieth century. Born on a farm near Aultsville, Ontario, to Herman and Mary Raney, Raney was descended from Huguenot and United Empire Loyalist stock. Raney received his education first at a traditional log schoolhouse at St. Catherines Collegiate Institute, Trinity College in Kingston and Osgoode Hall, Toronto. Raney was a well known lawyer in the first decades of the last century and came to the public eye through his opposition to gambling on horse racing, against which he had authored a series of reports, his son, Paul Hartley Raney, a fighter pilot in the First World War, was killed in action, shot down over Roulers, Belgium on August 21, 1917. After the War, Raney made a number of appeals to the War Graves Commission to locate his son's final resting place. No grave could be located. Raney was a Liberal running unsuccessfully for the Ontario legislature in the 1914 provincial election. After the United Farmers of Ontario unexpectedly won the 1919 provincial election the agrarian party — pursuing an unusual matter of principle — had no lawyers in its caucus and so the new government of E.
C. Drury approached Raney to accept the position of Attorney-General, he accepted and contested a by-election entering the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as the Member of the Legislative Assembly for Wellington East. He was sworn in as the Attorney General of Ontario on November 14, 1919, he became a leading force in the UFO-Labour government. In his ministerial capacity, he set out to abolish party patronage methods in the Ontario Ministry of Justice, had the administration of the Ontario Temperance Act transferred to his office. Indeed, he became best known for what has been described as his'zealous' application of Ontario's prohibition laws; when police and liquor officials were authorized to search automobiles and private yachts for illegal liquor, The Toronto Telegram observed that the only means of transportation where citizens could be free from Raney's agents were "balloons and submarines."However, one of Attorney General Raney's alcohol inspectors, the Reverend J O L Spracklin, was tried for manslaughter.
The Government's and Raney's administration of the Province's liquor laws thus came under significant scrutiny. The Government's strict enforcement of the Ontario Temperance Act served to alienate voters from the cities, who felt that the party was too inclined towards rural causes and hostile towards urban issues; the return of only 17 UFO and 4 Labour MLAs in the provincial election of 1923 saw Premier Drury lose his own seat along with his government. The Progressives unanimously elected Raney as their leader at a caucus meeting January 20, 1925 following the retirement of acting leader Manning Doherty. Despite the unanimous vote, two UFO MPPs, Leslie Oke and Beniah Bowman refused to accept Raney as leader as he was not a farmer and refused to join the Progressives. Raney led the opposition against the Ferguson government's plan to replace the Ontario Temperance Act with a Liquor Control Act which allowed alcohol sales through a government run Liquor Control Board, it was on this issue that he clashed with Ferguson and campaigned unsuccessfully against the loosening of Ontario's liquor laws as Progressive leader in the 1926 election, which returned only 17 Progressive, UFO or Labour MLAs.
In 1927, Raney resigned his seat to accept an appointment to the Supreme Court of Ontario, where he served until his death in 1933. He is buried in Riverside Cemetery in Ontario. J O L Spracklin#Dubious supporters Ian Bushnell; the Captive Court. McGill-Queen's University Press. Pp. 169ff. ISBN 0-7735-0851-1. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Kingston is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the beginning of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River; the city is midway between Toronto and Montreal, Quebec. The Thousand Islands tourist region is nearby to the east. Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone. Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post and military fort at a site known as "Cataraqui" in 1673; this outpost, called Fort Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, became a focus for settlement. Cataraqui would be renamed Kingston after the British took possession of the fort and Loyalists began settling the region in the 1780s. Kingston was named the first capital of the United Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. While its time as a capital city was short, the community has remained an important military installation.
Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is now a separate municipality from the County of Frontenac. A number of origins of "Cataraqui", Kingston's original name, have been postulated. One is it is derived from the Iroquois word that means "the place where one hides"; the name may be derivations of Native words that mean "impregnable", "muddy river", "place of retreat", "clay bank rising out of the water", "where the rivers and lake meet", or "rocks standing in water". Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III; the name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788. Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road, where a village which took that name was located. Cataraqui is the name of a municipal electoral district. Archaeological evidence suggests. Evidence of Late Woodland Period early Iroquois occupation exists; the first more permanent encampments by aboriginal people in the Kingston area began about 500 AD.
The group that first occupied the area before the arrival of the French was the Wyandot people, who were displaced by Iroquoian groups. At the time the French arrived in the Kingston area, Five Nations Iroquois had settled along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Although the area around the south end of the Cataraqui River was visited by Iroquois and other groups, Iroquois settlement at this location only began after the French established their outpost. By 1700, the north shore Iroquois had moved south, the area once occupied by the Iroquois became occupied by the Mississaugas who had moved south from the Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe regions. European commercial and military influence and activities centred on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the Kingston area in 1615. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local indigenous people, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui in 1673.
The fort served as a trading post and military base, attracted indigenous and European settlement. In 1674, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was appointed commandant of the fort. From this base, de La Salle explored south as far as the Gulf of Mexico; the fort was experienced periods of abandonment. The Iroquois siege of 1688 led to many deaths, after which the French destroyed the fort, but would rebuild it; the British destroyed the fort during the Battle of Fort Frontenac in 1758 and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was renamed Tête-de-Pont Barracks in 1787, it is still being used by the military. It was renamed Fort Frontenac in 1939. Reconstructed parts of the original fort can be seen today at the western end of the La Salle Causeway. In 1783, Frederick Haldimand, governor of the Province of Quebec directed Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins to lay out a settlement for displaced British colonists, or "Loyalists", who were fleeing north because of the American Revolutionary War and "minutely examine the situation and site of the Post occupied by the French, the land and country adjacent".
Haldimand had considered the site as a possible location to settle loyal Mohawks. The survey would determine whether Cataraqui was suitable as a navy base since nearby Carleton Island on which a British navy base was located had been ceded to the Americans after the war. Holland's report about the old French post mentioned "every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it", that it had "advantageous Situations" and that "the harbour is in every respect Good and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario". Major John Ross, commanding officer of the King's Royal Regiment of New York at Oswego rebuilt Fort Frontenac in 1783; as commander, he played a significant role in establishing the Cataraqui settlement. To facilitate settlement, the British Crown entered into an agreement with the Mississaugas in October 1783 to purchase land east of the Bay of Quinte. Known as the Crawford Purchase, this agreement enabled se
Law Society of Ontario
The Law Society of Ontario is the law society responsible for the self-regulation of lawyers and paralegals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Founded in 1797 as The Law Society of Upper Canada, the society adopted its current name after a majority vote by its governing body in November 2017; the change was formalized on May 2018 by amendment to provincial legislation. The Law Society was created in 1797 to regulate the legal profession in the British colony of Upper Canada and is the oldest self-governing body in North America, its first home was at Wilson's Hotel at Newark from 1799 to 1832 at various temporary locations at York until Osgoode Hall was built. The Law Society continued to retain its original name though Upper Canada ceased to exist as a political entity in 1841; the Society governed the legal profession in the coterminous Canada West from 1841 to 1867, in Ontario since confederation in 1867. The Law Society of Upper Canada's creation by an act of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada came some 20 years before the earliest such self-governing association in any other Canadian province or territory.
Its creation was an innovation in the English-speaking world, it became the model for law societies across Canada and the United States. It is one of the oldest law societies in the English-speaking world. In 1994, the Law Society affirmed its role by adopting this Role Statement: "The Law Society of Upper Canada exists to govern the legal profession in the public interest by ensuring that the people of Ontario are served by lawyers who meet high standards of learning and professional conduct, upholding the independence and honour of the legal profession, for the purpose of advancing the cause of justice and the rule of law." The Law Society faced calls to change the name Upper Canada. Benchers have voted to replace it with a new one. On November 2, 2017, the Society's governing body chose "Law Society of Ontario" as the new name; the name change was made official following amendments to the Law Society Act as part of the 2018 provincial budget implementation bill. The Law Society regulates the more than 50,000 lawyers in Ontario.
It is responsible for ensuring that lawyers are both competent. The Society has the power to set standards for admission into the profession, it is empowered to discipline lawyers. Available sanctions range from admonitions to disbarment, it is based at Osgoode Hall. Effective May 1, 2007, as a result of amendments to Ontario's Law Society Act, the Law Society regulates more than 8,000 paralegal licensees in Ontario. Paralegals are licensed to provide limited legal services, such as providing representation before provincial tribunals; the Law Society Tribunal is an independent adjudicative tribunal within the Law Society of Ontario that processes and decides regulatory cases about Ontario lawyers and paralegals. It was formally created on March 2014 to improve the Law Society's hearing process; the Tribunal’s core values are fairness, quality and timeliness. It decides a variety of kinds of cases, including alleged misconduct by lawyers and paralegals, whether applicants to be lawyers and paralegals have the required good character to be granted a licence, alleged incapacity due to health reasons.
Tribunal adjudicators, who include benchers and other lawyer and lay appointees, are tasked with coming to decisions that are fair, just and in the public interest. Orders, upcoming hearings, reasons for decisions are all publicly available. David A. Wright is the current Chair of the Law Society Tribunal. Vice-Chairs are Christopher D. Bredt; the Law Society is headed by a Treasurer. He or she is selected by the benchers, who comprise "Convocation" – in effect, the Society's board of directors, as the Society is an Ontario Corporation without share capital. All lawyer-benchers are elected by the Society's members, eight lay benchers are appointed by the provincial government; the current Treasurer is Malcolm M. Mercer, the current CEO of the Law Society is Diana Miles. Section 12 of the Law Society Act, R. S. O. 1990, provides that the Attorney General of Ontario is a bencher of Convocation, while section 13 provides that the Attorney General is the "Guardian of the Public Interest" and, as such, may require the production of any document or thing possessed by the regulator.
The regulator falls under the supervision of the Ministry of the Attorney General, according to the ministry's web site. As of 2018, the Law Society has more than 600 staff, it is named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc. most in 2018. CCH Canadian Ltd v Law Society of Upper Canada Federation of Law Societies of Canada Official website
Sir James Pliny Whitney, KCMG was a Canadian politician in the province of Ontario. Whitney was a lawyer in eastern Ontario, Conservative member for Dundas from 1888 to 1914, the sixth Premier of Ontario from 1905 to 1914. Whitney was born in Williamsburgh Township in 1843 and attended Cornwall Grammar School before articling the law office of John Sandfield Macdonald in the 1860s, but did not resume his legal studies until 1871, he was called to the bar in 1875, practiced law in Morrisburg. Whitney was elected to the Ontario legislature in 1888, he became leader of the Conservative Party in 1896 taking it from a narrow, bigoted rump into a forward-looking party determined to build the province. In the 1905 election, he led the Tories to victory for the first time in 33 years by defeating the Liberal government of George William Ross. Whitney's government laid the basis for Ontario's industrial development by creating the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, with Sir Adam Beck as its chairman and driving force.
His government passed significant temperance and workmen's compensation legislation. He supported the anti-Catholic, anti-French-Canadian sentiments of supporters of the Orange Order in his caucus by passing Regulation 17, which banned the teaching of French in schools beyond the first three years of school; the measure inflamed French-Canadian opinion across Canada in Quebec, split the country as it entered World War I. Whitney died in office shortly after winning the 1914 election. A 1920s government building across from Queen's Park is named the Whitney Block after him. A statue of him stands on the Queen's Park grounds. Whitney Hall, a residential building at nearby University College, of the University of Toronto, is named after him. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history Humphries, Charles W.. "Whitney, Sir James Pliny". In Cook, Ramsay. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XIV. University of Toronto Press. Ontario Plaques - Sir James Pliny Whitney Sir James Whitney fonds, Archives of Ontario
Robert Baldwin was a Canadian lawyer and politician who, with his political partner Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, led the first responsible ministry in Canada. "Responsible Government" marked the country's democratic independence, without a revolution, although not without violence. This achievement included the introduction of municipal government, the introduction of a modern legal system and the Canadian Jury system, the abolishing of imprisonment for debt. Baldwin is noted for resisting a decades-long tradition of Orange Order terrorism of political reform in the colony, that went so far as to burn the Parliament buildings in Montreal in 1849. Robert Baldwin's grandfather Robert Baldwin moved to Upper Canada from Ireland in 1799, his father was William Warren Baldwin. The Baldwin family was a prominent one. Robert Baldwin counted among his cousins such influential Upper Canadians as the Anglican bishop Maurice Scollard Baldwin, Toronto mayor Robert Baldwin Sullivan and the Irish-Catholic leader Connell James Baldwin.
The Russell-Willcocks-Baldwin family formed an elite "compact" much like the infamous "Family Compact" led by John Beverley Robinson against whom they fought. Robert Baldwin, Barrister, of York married his cousin Augusta Elizabeth Sullivan, daughter of Daniel Sullivan, on May 3, 1827; the couple had two sons and two daughters. Augusta Elizabeth died January 11, 1836. Robert Baldwin died December 9, 1858. Robert Baldwin is the grandfather of Frederick Walker Baldwin, a Canadian aviation pioneer and partner of the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell. Robert Baldwin is the grandfather of Robert Baldwin Ross, a French born journalist and art critic and literary executor of Oscar Wilde. Baldwin’s political principles must be viewed in the context of the eighteenth century British “Country Party,” a loose coalition of Parliamentarians whose influence was felt in the American Revolution and subsequent Jacksonian politics; the Country party embodied a civic humanism that drew on ancient Greek and Roman conceptions of citizenship, the value of selfless political participation for the public good.
The civic humanism of the Country party rejected the commercial ideology of the royal "Court” party. The Country party had a republican emphasis that sought to preserve the power of a democratic parliament from the encroachments of the crown during the vast expansion of state administration, public credit, the financial and commercial revolutions in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth centuries, it was similar to American conceptions of “civic republicanism” as they developed after the revolution among Jacksonian Democrats, as well as in the Chartist movement in Britain in the late 1830s. The concept of "responsible government" has been attributed to Dr William W. Baldwin and his son, Robert. Although the idea of colonial ministerial responsibility to a colonial parliament had been touted since the late 18th century, the Baldwins were the first to implement the principle; the meaning of the phrase evolved over time. In an 1828 Upper Canadian petition to the British Parliament on colonial ills, it was an assertion that the Constitutional Act was a treaty between the British Parliament and the colonial peoples, could not be arbitrarily altered by one or the other party.
In 1836, when Baldwin convinced the members of the Executive Council to resign over Lt. Governor Bond-Head's refusal to consult them on administrative appointments, it did not mean ministerial accountability to the elected Assembly but the Crown's obligation to consult that Council; the slipperiness of the phrase points to its real goal,'sovereignty by stealth,' without rebellion. It was not until after the Rebellions of 1837, the implementation of Lord Durham's Report, that the Executive Council became a cabinet of ministers that were heads of departments, the phrase "responsible government" came to mean their responsibility to the elected Assembly, not the appointed Governor. Municipal government in Upper Canada was under the control of appointed magistrates who sat in Courts of Quarter Sessions to administer the law within a District. A few cities, such as Toronto, were incorporated by special acts of the legislature. After the Union of the Canadas, the new governor, Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham, spearheaded the passage of the District Councils Act which transferred municipal government to District Councils.
His bill allowed for two elected councilors from each township, but the warden and treasurer were to be appointed by the government. This thus allowed for strong administrative control and continued government patronage appointments. Sydenham’s bill reflected his larger concerns to limit popular participation under the tutelage of a strong executive. Baldwin was one of the few Reformers; the Baldwin Act made municipal government democratic rather than an extension of central control of the Crown. It delegated authority to the municipal governments so they could enact by-laws, it established a hierarchy of types of municipal governments, starting at the top with cities and continued down past towns and townships. This system was to prevail for the next 150 years. Robert Baldwin was not a natural politician, he was described as melancholy, awkward in public. He gave speeches in a whispering. Although elec