University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario, corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Canada. The main campus is located on 455 hectares of land, surrounded by residential neighbourhoods and the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion; the university operates twelve academic schools. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario". It incorporated Huron University College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. The Western University of London became non-denominational in 1908. Beginning in 1919, the university has affiliated with several denominational colleges; the university grew in the post-World War II era, as a number of faculties and schools were added to university. Western is a co-educational university, with more than 24,000 students, with over 306,000 living alumni worldwide.
Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, distinguished fellows. Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as The Western University of London Ontario, its first chancellor was Chief Justice Richard Martin Meredith. It incorporated Huron College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. There were only 15 students when classes began in 1881. Although the university was incorporated in 1878, it was not until 20 June 1881 that it received the right to confer degrees in Arts and Medicine. In 1882, the name of the university was revised to The Western University and College of London, Ontario; the first convocation of graduates was held on 27 April 1883. Affiliated with the Church of England, Western became non-denominational in 1908.
In 1916, the university's current site was purchased from the Kingsmill family. There are two World War I memorial plaques in University College; the first lists the 19 students and graduates of the University of Western Ontario who lost their lives. A third plaque lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. In 1923, the university was renamed The University of Western Ontario; the first two buildings constructed by architect John Moore and Co. at the new site were the Arts Building and the Natural Science Building. Classes on the university's present site began in 1924; the University College tower, one of the university's most distinctive features, was named the Middlesex Memorial Tower in honour of the men from Middlesex County who fought in World War I. In 1919, the Ursuline Sisters had established Brescia College as a Roman Catholic affiliate, in the same year Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the university.
Before the end of the affiliation, Assumption College was one of the largest colleges associated with the university. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with Western in 1925. St. Peter's College seminary of London, Ontario was became affiliated with Western in 1939, it became King's College, an arts college. Today, King's, Brescia colleges are all still affiliates of Western. Two World War II memorial honour rolls are hung on the Physics and Astronomy Building: the first lists the UWO students and graduates who served in the Second World War, the second lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. Although enrollment was small for many years, the university began to grow after World War II, it added a number of faculties in the post-war period, such as the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of Business Administration, the Faculty of Engineering Science, the Faculty of Law, Althouse College for education students and the Faculty of Music.
In 2012, the university rebranded itself as "Western University" to give the school less of a regional or national identity. "We want to be international," president Dr. Amit Chakma told The Globe and Mail; the university's legal name, remains "The University of Western Ontario" and is used on transcripts and diplomas. The University of Western Ontario is in the city of London, Ontario, in the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the majority of the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods, with the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion. Western Road is the university's major transportation artery, going north to south; the central campus of Western, which includes most of the University's student residences and teaching facilities is 170.8 hectares. Student residences make up the largest portion of Western's building area, with 31 percent of all building space allocated for residential use. Teaching and research facilities take up the second largest portion of building space, with 28 percent of all buildin
Ministry of Finance (Ontario)
The Ministry of Finance is a portfolio in the Executive Council of Ontario known as the cabinet. The Finance Minister is responsible for managing the fiscal and related regulatory affairs of the Canadian province of Ontario; the cabinet posted used to be called the Treasurer of Ontario and was changed to be in line with other post in other Canadian provinces. For most of the period from 1867 until 1993, the minister was called the treasurer or provincial treasurer. Https://tvo.org/blog/current-affairs/here-comes-the-budget The ministry were renamed the Ministry of Economics in 1956 and the minister became known as Minister in charge of Economics instead of treasurer. From January to December 1961, the ministry became the Ministry of Economics and Federal and Provincial Relations; the title of treasurer was revived in December 1961 with the minister often holding the secondary title of minister of economics or some variation after 1968. Frank Miller had the sole title of minister of economics from 1978 until 1981 when he was given the additional title of treasuruer.
At various times in the 1960s and 1970s the minister held the titles of chairman of the management board of cabinet, chairman of the treasury board and/or minister of revenue. This practice was revived in recent years with Greg Sorbara acting as finance minister and chair of both the management board and the treasury board, it has ended as there is now a different person holding the position of chair of the management and treasury board. In 1993, the positions of treasurer and minister of economics were formally combined and renamed the minister of finance. In early 2007, Premier Dalton McGuinty split the province's revenue collection function from the Ministry of Finance and resurrected the Ministry of Revenue, a ministry/portfolio that had not been used since the Ontario New Democratic Party government of Bob Rae in 1993. Following the 2011 Ontario general election, the Ministry of Revenue was merged back into the Ministry of Finance. Since 1985, the Provincial Treasurer or Minister of Finance has but not always, concurrently held the appointment Deputy Premier of Ontario.
Ontario Ministry of Finance website
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city had a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census. London is at the confluence of the Thames River 200 km from both Toronto and Detroit; the city of London is a separated municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County, though it remains the county seat. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, who proposed the site for the capital city of Upper Canada; the first European settlement was between 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855. Since London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canada's 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a regional centre of healthcare and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College, several hospitals; the city hosts a number of musical and artistic exhibits and festivals, which contribute to its tourism industry, but its economic activity is centred on education, medical research and information technology.
London's university and hospitals are among its top ten employers. London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto and Sarnia, it has an international airport and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral and Ojibwe villages. Archaeological investigations in the region show aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years; the current location of London was selected as the site of the future capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, who named the village, founded in 1826. It did not become the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was an administrative seat for the area west of York. Locally, it was part of the Talbot Settlement, named for Colonel Thomas Talbot, the chief coloniser of the area, who oversaw the land surveying and built the first government buildings for the administration of the Western Ontario peninsular region.
Together with the rest of Southwestern Ontario, the village benefited from Talbot's provisions, not only for building and maintaining roads but for assignment of access priorities to main routes to productive land. At the time and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill Hungerford Hill. In 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, notwithstanding a brief rebellion led by Charles Duncombe; the British government located its Ontario peninsular garrison there in 1838, increasing its population with soldiers and their dependents, the business support populations they required. London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, at the time constructed of wooden buildings. One of the first casualties was the town's only fire engine.
The fire burned nearly 30 acres of land, destroying 150 buildings, before burning itself out the same day. One-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the province's first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speech, they were: the location of the court and administration in London in 1826. The population in 1846 was 3,500. Brick buildings included a jail and court house, large barracks. London had a fire company, a theatre, a large Gothic church, nine other churches or chapels, two market buildings. In 1845, a fire destroyed 150 buildings but most had been rebuilt by 1846. Connection with other communities was by road using stages that ran daily. A weekly newspaper was published and mail was received daily by the post office. On 1 January 1855, London was incorporated as a "city". In the 1860s, a sulphur spring was discovered at the forks of the Thames River while industrialists were drilling for oil; the springs became a popular destination for wealthy Ontarians, until the turn of the 20th century when a textile factory was built at the site, replacing the spa.
Records from 1869 indicate a population of about 18,000 served by three newspapers, churches of all major denominations and offices of all the major banks. Industry included several tanneries, oil refineries and foundries, four flour mills, the Labatt Brewing Company and the Carling brewery in addition to other manufacturing. Both the Great Western and Grand Trunk railways had stops here. Several insurance companies had offices in the city; the Crystal Palace Barracks, built in 1861, an octagonal brick building with eight doors and forty-eight windows, was used for events such the Provincial Agricultural Fair of Canada West held in London that year. It was visited by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor-General John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar and Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald.. Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a 3 month long military courses from 1865 at the School of Military Instruction in London.
Established by Militia General Order in 1865, the school enabled Officers of Militia or Candidates for Commission or promotion in the M
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
The Ministry of Training and Universities is the ministry of the government of Ontario responsible for administration of laws relating to post-secondary education and skills training. This ministry is one of the other being the Ministry of Education; the Ministry's offices are in downtown Ontario. The current minister is Merrilee Fullerton. In May, 1964, the Department of University Affairs Act was passed establishing the Department of University Affairs; the department was charged with administering the government's support programs for higher education the responsibility of the Department of Education. Bill Davis, the inaugural minister, was the Minister of Education at the time and continued to hold the position after the department's establishment. In addition to jurisdiction over higher education, The department had financial jurisdiction over the Royal Ontario Museum, the Royal Botanical Gardens and the Art Gallery of Ontario. In October 1971, the department's size was doubled by the addition of the Applied Arts and Technology Branch of the Department of Education.
In light of this expansion of functions, the name of the department was changed to the Department of Colleges and Universities. It was renamed the Ministry of Colleges and Universities in 1972 as part of a government-wide restructuring. In 1975, various cultural programs and institutions of the ministry were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Culture and Recreation. In 1985, a separate Ministry of Skills Development was created. In 1993, the Ministry of Colleges and Universities, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Skills Development were combined to form the Ministry of Education and Training. In June 1999, the responsibilities for post-secondary education and skills development were again given to a standalone ministry, named the Ministry of Training and Universities. Between 2016 and 2018, it was renamed the Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development; the Minister of Training and Universities is a member of the Executive Council of Ontario reporting to the Premier and held accountable by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
The deputy minister manages the operations of the ministry. As a whole, the ministry has responsibility for administration of laws relating to postsecondary education and skills training in Ontario; the divisions cover employment and training, postsecondary education, strategic policy and programs, corporate management and services, French-language education and educational operations. The divisions report to the deputy minister who reports to the minister; the ministry works with several external advisory bodies to assist in the governance of the higher education system in Ontario. The Rae Report titled Ontario: A Leader in Learning, called for deregulation of tuition fees, income-contingent loan repayments, an increase in public funding. Higher education in Ontario