California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Joshua Tree, California
Joshua Tree is a census-designated place in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 7,414 at the 2010 census. At 2,700 feet above sea level, Joshua Tree and its surrounding communities are located in the High Desert of California; the center of the business district in Joshua Tree is on California State Route 62. Joshua Tree is located in the Mojave Desert at 34°8′N 116°19′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total all land area of 95.9 km². Joshua Tree, California is home to Joshua Tree National Park. Joshua Tree shares the border to its east with Twentynine Palms, its western border with Yucca Valley, its northwestern border with Landers and its southern border is Coachella Valley, California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Joshua Tree had a population of 7,414. The population density was 200.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Joshua Tree was 6,176 White, 234 African American, 84 Native American, 104 Asian, 18 Pacific Islander, 368 from other races, 430 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,308 persons. The Census reported that 7,263 people lived in households, 30 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 121 were institutionalized. There were 3,088 households, out of which 862 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,209 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 431 had a female householder with no husband present, 162 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 237 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,018 households were made up of individuals and 358 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35. There were 1,802 families; the population was spread out with 1,626 people under the age of 18, 813 people aged 18 to 24, 1,756 people aged 25 to 44, 2,056 people aged 45 to 64, 1,163 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.
There were 3,808 housing units at an average density of 102.8 per square mile, of which 1,872 were owner-occupied, 1,216 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.9%. 4,178 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 3,085 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Joshua Tree had a median household income of $39,492, with 21.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,207 people, 1,765 households, 1,057 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 265.4/km². There were 2,112 housing units at an average density of 133.2/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.38% White, 1.76% African American, 1.57% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.62% Pacific Islander, 4.61% from other races, 3.95% from two or more races. 12.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,765 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families.
33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,535, the median income for a family was $33,333. Males had a median income of $27,465 versus $29,375 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,856. 21.2% of the population and 18.0% of families were below the poverty line. 31.5% of those under the age of 18 and 5.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In the California State Legislature, Joshua Tree is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Republican Chad Mayes.
In the United States House of Representatives, Joshua Tree is located in California's 8th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R+10 and is represented by Republican Paul Cook. Joshua Tree is represented by San Bernardino County 3rd District Supervisor James Ramos – 2012; the Joshua Tree Visitor Center is located at the junction of Highway 62 and Park Boulevard in "downtown" Joshua Tree and the parks West Entrance is located 5 mi south. The community of Joshua Tree is not an incorporated city. Joshua Tree community is represented by the Joshua Tree Municipal Advisory Counsel as the official liaison between the community and the San Bernardino County government. Joshua Tree Chamber of Commerce Joshua Tree: The Complete Guide The Joshua Tree Visitors Guide
The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. Although most saxophones are made from brass, they are categorized as woodwind instruments, because sound is produced by an oscillating reed, traditionally made out of woody cane, rather than lips vibrating in a mouthpiece cup as with the brass instrument family; as with the other woodwinds, the pitch of the note being played is controlled by covering holes in the body tube to control the resonant frequency of the air column by changing the effective length of the tube. The saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and contemporary music; the saxophone is used as a solo and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists. Since the first saxophone was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s, saxophones have been produced in a variety of series distinguished by transpositions within instrument sets and tuning standard.
Sax patented the saxophone on June 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted in alternating transposition; the series pitched in B♭ and E♭ soon became dominant and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the series pitched in C and F never gained a foothold and constituted only a small percentage of instruments made by Sax. High Pitch saxophones tuned sharper than the A = 440 Hz standard were produced into the early twentieth century for sonic qualities suited for outdoor uses, but are not playable to modern tuning and are considered obsolete. Low Pitch saxophones are equivalent in tuning to modern instruments. C soprano and C melody saxophones were produced for the casual market as parlor instruments during the early twentieth century. Saxophones in F never gained acceptance; the modern saxophone family consists of instruments in the B♭ - E♭ series and experimental instruments notwithstanding. The saxophones with widest use and availability are the sopranos, altos and baritones.
In the keyed ranges of the various saxophones, the pitch is controlled by keys with shallow cups in which are fastened leather pads that seal toneholes, controlling the resonant length, thereby frequency, of the air column within the body tube. Small holes called vents, located between the toneholes and the mouthpiece, are opened by an octave key to raise the pitch by eliminating the fundamental frequency, leaving the first harmonic as the frequency defining the pitch. Most modern saxophones are keyed to produce a low B♭ with all keys closed; the highest keyed note has traditionally been F two and a half octaves above low B♭, while the keyed range is extended to F♯ on most recent performance-class instruments. A high G key is most common on modern soprano saxophones. Notes above F are considered part of the altissimo register of any saxophone, can be produced using advanced embouchure techniques and fingering combinations. Keywork facilitating altissimo playing is a feature of modern saxophones.
Modern saxophone players have extended the range to over four octaves on alto. Music for most saxophones is notated using treble clef; because all saxophones use the same key arrangement and fingering to produce a given notated pitch, it is not difficult for a competent player to switch among the various sizes when the music has been suitably transposed, many do so. Since the baritone and alto are pitched in E♭, players can read concert pitch music notated in the bass clef by reading it as if it were treble clef and adding three sharps to the key signature; this process, referred to as clef substitution, makes it possible for the Eb instruments to play from parts written for baritone horn, euphonium, string bass, trombone, or tuba. This can be useful if a orchestra lacks one of those instruments; the straight soprano and sopranino saxophones consist of a straight conical tube with a flared bell at the end opposite the mouthpiece. The interior of the tube is called the bore. Alto and larger saxophones include a detachable curved neck above the highest tone hole, directing the mouthpiece to the player's mouth and, with rare exceptions, a U-shaped bow that directs the bell upward and a curve in the throat of the bell directing it forward.
The set of curves near the bell has become a distinctive feature of the saxophone family, to the extent that soprano and sopranino saxes are sometimes made in the curved style. The baritone and contrabass saxophones accommodate the length of the bore with extra bows and right-angle bends between the main body and the mouthpiece; the left hand operates keys from the upper part of the body tube while the right hand operates keys from the lower part. The right thumb sits under a thumb hook and left thumb is placed on a thumb rest to stabilize and balance the saxophone, while the weight of most saxophones is supported by a neckstrap attached to a strap ring on the rear of the body of the instrument; the left thumb operates the octave key. With soprano and smaller saxophones weight tends to be borne by the right thumb while a neckstrap provides security for the instrument. Keys consist of the cups, and
Estradasphere was an experimental band that originated in Santa Cruz, during the late 1990s. The band, which in its last incarnation was based in Seattle, consisted of six multi-instrumentalists from a variety of musical backgrounds trained in disciplines ranging from classical music and jazz to heavy metal. In November 2007, members of Estradasphere started touring with Amanda Palmer of The Dresden Dolls, as well as helping to produce her debut solo album Who Killed Amanda Palmer; the band is on a "permanent hiatus" since 2010. Estradasphere were influenced by many different artists from many different subgenres, such as jazz, techno, classical music, heavy metal, New Age, Balkan and gypsy, they were influenced by artists such as The Beach Boys and Secret Chiefs 3, have been compared to Mr. Bungle, Frank Zappa and John Zorn. To Mr. Bungle and Secret Chiefs 3, the band mixes several genres in its songs; the band was a self-proclaimed inventor of bizarre genres such as "Bulgarian Surf", "Romanian Gypsy-Metal", "Spaghetti Eastern" and sounded like "Psychedelic-Sci-fi", "Gypsy-Metal-Jazz" and "Epic-Cinema-Thon", according to its MySpace.
In 1997, members of the group released an avant-garde metal album called Koolaid Moustache in Jonestown under the name Don Salsa. According to www.estradasphere.com: Tim Smolens - standup bass, electric bass, audio production/engineering Timb Harris - violin, mandolin, vocals Jason Schimmel - guitar, banjo, vocals Lee Smith - drums Kevin Kmetz - tsugaru shamisen, keyboards Adam Stacey - accordion, vocals David Murray - drums John Whooley - saxophone, vocals Estradasphere's official website Estradasphere MySpace The End Records - website of Estradasphere's current record label. Web of Mimicry - website for Estradasphere's former record label. Obnoxious Listeners: Estradasphere
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Timba Harris is a violinist, trumpet player, composer. He is an active touring and recording member of Trey Spruance's Secret Chiefs 3, a founding member of the band Estradasphere, one half of the electroacoustic chamber duo Probosci, his large ensemble works have been recorded for John Zorn's Tzadik Records, his playing and orchestral arrangements can be found on recordings throughout the experimental rock world and on video games and film. Harris has performed in theaters, halls and festivals in over 45 countries throughout North America, South America, the Middle East and Australia, he has been based in several locations during his career, including Los Angeles, Santa Cruz, New York and France. Timothy "Timba" Bruce Harris was born in 1977 in California. During his childhood and teenage years, he studied and performed classical music, wind ensemble music, played iconic rock clubs on the Sunset Strip in Hollywood with his heavy metal band Insanity. From 1995-2000, he attended the University of California, Santa Cruz, studying trumpet performance and violin performance, the latter under Roy Malan.
Here he formed the band Estradasphere with schoolmates, which became his first international touring ensemble and led to working relationships with the larger professional worlds of contemporary classical music, avant-garde jazz, experimental rock. Timba Harris is a longtime multi-instrumentalist in Trey Spruance's musical exploration into mysticism, Secret Chiefs 3, an offshoot of Mr. Bungle. Since performing with the band during a US tour with Harris's band Estradasphere in the summer of 2000, he has been a perpetual presence on Secret Chiefs 3's recordings and in performances, including the Xaphan: Book of Angels Volume 9 ensemble, which performs and records interpretations of John Zorn's Masada music. Estradasphere, formed in 1999, toured the Europe during the 2000s, they released several recordings and movies on Mimicry Records and The End Records before disbanding in 2009. In 2007, the band met Amanda Palmer and collaborated on Palmer's projects including her 2007 album Who Killed Amanda Palmer and her duo with Jason Webley, Evelyn Evelyn, culminating in an invite-only, multi-day live performance at the band's Seattle compound.
Harris's work, beginning in the mid-2000s, with composer and guitarist Gyan Riley in the Gyan Riley Trio, first with drummer Scott Amendola and Ches Smith, led to an enduring musical relationship with Riley, which in 2014 became a duo named Probosci. The duo, comprised of Harris and Riley, composes pieces for each other, which are performed electro-acoustically on violin and classical/electric guitar. Since 2014, the group has performed throughout North America, South America, Europe, released their first recording, Time to Feed, on Mimicry Records. After becoming involved with the New York Arabic Orchestra in 2012, both as a performer and an administrator, Harris subsequently formed Arabic/rock fusion band Al Madar with the NYAO's directors, Lebanese multi-instrumentalist Basam Saba and percussionist April Centrone. Al Madar has performed at the Beirut Jazz Festival in Lebanon, the Sines Festival Músicas do Mundo in Portugal, Joe's Pub in Manhattan. Timba Harris has appeared with the contemporary music ensemble New Music Works in Santa Cruz, California.
As "guest artist" and "featured artist," he has performed NMW director Phil Collins live music scores for Metropolis and Nosferatu, as well as the world premiere of Harris's own composition, neXus I: Cascadia with the New Music Works ensemble and the Ariose Singers. Harris toured and recorded with the Seattle-based band led by Randall Dunn, Master Musicians of Bukkake, during their Totem Trilogy era. Timba Harris's composition neXus I: Cascadia, for choir and electroacoustic instrumental ensemble, is a "musical representation of the natural environment of the Pacific Northwest with a focus on transitional processes." The musical narrative focuses on the life cycle of the monarch butterfly, the seasonal behavior of the black bear, the eruption of Mount Saint Helens. The 45-minute piece is a set of compositions and controlled improvisations informed by data concerning the subject matter and recorded and composed in a back-and-forth process that defined the ultimate musical result; the choral movements were recorded by the 85-member CSULB University Choir under the baton of Dr. Jonathan Talberg.
Harris other compositional and playing styles make use of elements of Arabic, contemporary classical, rock music. An essay written by Harris on this subject was published in John Zorn's Arcana III: Musicians on Music. Timba Harris composes and records solo and large ensemble collaborations with other artists such as Eyvind Kang, Stephen O'Malley and Grails; as a session musician and performer, Harris has contributed to composers' work such as John Zorn, Peter Garland, Eyvind Kang, Toby Driver. He appears on recordings by Mr. Bungle, Amanda Palmer, several projects produced by Randall Dunn, including albums by Wolves in the Throne Room and Sunn O))), he provided the violin and trumpet performances on the soundtracks for the popular Valve Corporation video games Left 4 Dead 2 and Team Fortress 2. NeXus I: Cascadia Tzadik Records Time to Feed Mimicry Records Ishraqiyun: Perichoresis Mimicry Records FORMS: Apocryphon of Jupiter / Danse Macabre Mimicry Records UR: Medium Aevum / FORMS: Stars and Stripes Forever Mimicry Records Book of Souls: Folio A Mimicry Records La Chanson de Jacky / The Western Exile Mimicry Records Satellite Supersonic Mimicry Records Tradit