A breviary is a liturgical book used in Western Christianity for praying the canonical hours. Different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church. Pope Nicholas III approved a Franciscan breviary, for use in that religious order, this was the first text that bore the title of breviary. However, the "contents of the breviary, in their essential parts, are derived from the early ages of Christianity", consisting of psalms, Scripture lessons, writings of the Church Fathers, as well as hymns and prayers; the ancient breviary of the Bridgettines had been in use for more than 125 years before the Council of Trent and so was exempt from the Constitution of Pope Pius V which abolished the use of breviaries differing from that of Rome. Now translated from Latin, The Syon Breviary has been published in English for the first time, with plainchant music, to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the foundation of Syon Abbey in 1415 by King Henry V.
Following the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Communion, in 1916, the Anglican Breviary was published by the Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation. Liturgy of the Hours Canonical hours and Book of hours Missal The 1911 Roman Breviary in Latin and English The Syon Breviary — Daily Office of Our Lady — Now in English The Anglican Breviary Lewis E 49 Breviary at OPenn Lewis E 50 Breviary, Use of Ghent at OPenn Lewis E 51 Breviary at OPenn Lewis E 52 Breviary at OPenn Lewis E 236 Breviary at OPenn Lewis E 256 Breviary, Cistercian use at OPenn MS 240/15 Breviary, Cistercian Use at OPenn
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Leopold was created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, Baron Arklow, he had haemophilia, which led to his death at the age of 30. Leopold was born on 7 April 1853 at Buckingham Palace, the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. During labour, Queen Victoria chose to use chloroform and thus sanctioned the use of anesthesia in childbirth developed by Professor James Young Simpson; the chloroform was administered by John Snow. As a son of the British sovereign, the newborn was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Leopold at birth, his parents named him Leopold after their common uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium. He was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace on 28 June 1853 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, his godparents were King George V of Hanover. Leopold inherited the disease haemophilia from his mother, Queen Victoria, was a delicate child.
There was speculation during his life that Leopold suffered mildly from epilepsy, like his grand-nephew Prince John. The Prince's intellectual abilities were evident as a boy. In 1872, Prince Leopold entered Christ Church, where he studied a variety of subjects and became president of the Oxford University Chess Club. On coming of age in 1874, he had been made a privy councillor and granted an annuity of £15,000, he left the university with an honorary doctorate in civil law in 1876 travelled in Europe. In 1880, he toured Canada and the United States with his sister, Princess Louise, whose husband John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, was Governor General of Canada, he was a prominent patron of chess, the London 1883 chess tournament was held under his patronage. Incapable of pursuing a military career because of his haemophilia and the need to avoid minor injuries, Leopold instead became a patron of the arts and literature and served as an unofficial secretary to his mother. "Leopold was the favourite son, through him her relations with the Government of the day were kept up."
He pursued vice-regal appointments in Canada and the Colony of Victoria, but his mother refused to appoint him, to his great unhappiness. Despite his inability to pursue an active military role, he had an honorary association with the 72nd Regiment, Duke of Albany's Own Highlanders, from 1881 served as the first Colonel-in-Chief of the Seaforth Highlanders, when that regiment was formed through the merger of the 72nd regiment with the 78th Regiment of Foot. A portrait of Prince Leopold in military uniform is held in the Royal Collection; the Seaforth Highlanders paraded at Prince Leopold's funeral, a fact recorded by William McGonagall in his poem "The Death of Prince Leopold". Prince Leopold was an active Freemason, being initiated in the Apollo University Lodge, whilst resident at Christ Church, he was proposed for membership by his brother, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, at the time the Worshipful Master of the Lodge, was initiated in a joint ceremony with Robert Hawthorne Collins, his friend and tutor, who became Comptroller of his Household.
He served as Master of the Lodge from 1876-1877, was the Provincial Grand Master for Oxfordshire, still holding that office at the time of his death. Prince Leopold was created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow on 24 May 1881. Prince Leopold, stifled by the desire of his mother, Queen Victoria, to keep him at home, saw marriage as his only hope of independence. Due to his haemophilia, he had difficulty finding a wife. Heiress Daisy Maynard was one of the women, he was acquainted with Alice Liddell, the daughter of the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford for whom Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, was godfather of Alice's second son, named after him. It has been suggested that he considered marrying her, though others suggest that he preferred her sister Edith. Leopold considered his second cousin Princess Frederica of Hanover for a bride. Other aristocratic women he pursued included Victoria of Baden, Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg.
Leopold was fond of Mary Baring, daughter of Lord Ashburton, though she was fond of him too, at 19, she felt she was too young to marry. After rejection from these women, Victoria stepped in to bar what she saw as unsuitable possibilities. Insisting that the children of British monarchs should marry into other reigning Protestant families, Victoria suggested a meeting with Princess Helena Friederike, the daughter of Georg Viktor, reigning Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont, one of whose daughters had married King William III of the Netherlands. On 27 April 1882, Leopold and Helena were married, at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, his income was raised by parliament to £25,000. Leopold and Helena enjoyed a happy (although bri
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Royal College of Surgeons of England
The Royal College of Surgeons of England, is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London, it publishes multiple medical journals including the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Faculty Dental Journal, the Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The origins of the College date to the fourteenth century with the foundation of the "Guild of Surgeons Within the City of London". Certain sources date this as occurring in 1368. There was ongoing dispute between the surgeons and barber surgeons until an agreement was signed between them in 1493, giving the fellowship of surgeons the power of incorporation; this union was formalised further in 1540 by Henry VIII between the Worshipful Company of Barbers and the Guild of Surgeons to form the Company of Barber-Surgeons. In 1745 the surgeons broke away from the barbers to form the Company of Surgeons.
In 1800 the Company was granted a Royal Charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons in London. A further charter in 1843 granted it the present title of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; the correct way to address a member or fellow of The Royal College of Surgeons is to use the title Mr, Mrs, or Ms. This system has its origins in the 16th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons and did not have a medical degree, unlike physicians, who, by the 18th century, held a university medical degree and could thus be referred to as "Doctor". By the time the College of Surgeons received its Royal Charter in 1800, the Royal College of Physicians were insisting that candidates for membership for the college of Surgeons must have a medical degree first. Therefore, the ensuing years saw aspiring surgeons having to study medicine first and hence receive the title Doctor. Thereafter, having obtained the diploma of Member or Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons he would revert to the title "Mr" as a snub to the RCP.
Nowadays the title "Mr" is used by Members of the College who have passed the diploma MRCS examination and the College addresses Members as "Mr" or "Ms". In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles, the distinction is made in the following conversation: "Come, come, we are not so far wrong after all," said Holmes. "And now, Dr. James Mortimer--" "Mister, Mister--a humble M. R. C. S." Despite Mortimer's correction, he is referred to as "Dr. Mortimer" throughout the story. A biographical register of fellows is available on Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online The Company of Surgeons moved from Surgeon's Hall in Old Bailey to a site at 41 Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1797. Construction of the first College building, to a design by George Dance the Younger, James Lewis, took from 1805 to 1813. In 1833 Sir Charles Barry won the public competition to design a replacement; the library and portico of this building are all that remain today after a German incendiary bomb hit the College in 1941. The exterior of the building was one of the filming location of Agatha Christie's Poirot episode The Mystery of the Spanish Chest.
In 1799 the government purchased the collection of John Hunter. This formed the basis of the Hunterian Collection, which has since been supplemented by others including an Odontological Collection and the natural history collections of Richard Owen; the Hunterian Museum is a member of The London Museums of Health & Medicine group, displays thousands of anatomical specimens, including the Evelyn tables and the skeleton of the "Irish giant" Charles Byrne, surgical instruments, paintings and sculptures about medical individuals and medicine. Faculty of Dental Surgery Faculty of General Dental Practice Faculty of Anaesthetists - Until 1988, now the Royal College of Anaesthetists; the Cheselden Medal was instituted in 2009 in honour of William Cheselden "to recognise unique achievements in, exceptional contributions to, the advancement of surgery". The award is made at irregular intervals to reflect the outstanding qualities required of recipients and is deemed one of the College’s highest professional honours.
The Royal Colleges' Bronze Medal was instituted in 1957 and is awarded jointly with the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. It is awarded annually "on the nomination of the Medical Group of the Royal Photographic Society for the outstanding example of photography in the service of medicine and surgery"; the Wood Jones Medal was instituted in 1975 to commemorate Frederic Wood Jones. It is awarded by a Committee "for contributions to anatomical knowledge or the teaching of anatomy in the tradition of Frederic Wood Jones"; the Clement-Price Award was founded in 1958 with a gift of 1,000 guineas from members of the staff of the Westminster Hospital in honour of Sir Clement Price Thomas. It is awarded triennially, or at such other interval as the President may decide, by the Council on the recommendation of the Fellowship Election and Prize Committee, "in recognition of meritorious contributions to surgery in its widest sense, without restriction of candidature".
The Lister Medal has been awarded since 1924, after the College was entrusted in 1920 with administrating the Lister Memorial Fund, in memory of pioneering British surgeon Joseph Lister. The award is decided in conjunction with the Royal Society
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England
Francisco de Quiñones
Francisco de Quiñones, O. F. M. was a Spanish Franciscan friar and cardinal, responsible for some reforms in the Catholic Church in Spain. He was the son of Diego Fernandez de Quiñones, Count of Luna, was educated as a page of Cardinal Ximenes, at the age of sixteen entered the Order of Friars Minor in the friary of St. Mary of the Angels in Alcalá de Henares, taking the name of Francis of the Angels. Having completed his studies, he successively discharged all the various offices of his Order as Custos, Commissary General, Vicar General of the Observant branch of the Order. In 1521 he had obtained special permission and faculties from Pope Leo X to go to the missions in the Americas, together with Friar Jean Glapion, confessor of Emperor Charles V. Glapion died in the same year and Quiñones was elected Commissary General of the Ultramontane Franciscans—those north of the Alps. At the General Chapter of the Order held in Burgos in 1523, he was elected Minister General of the Order; as Minister General, he visited the friaries of Spain, as well as a great part of Italy and the Spanish Netherlands.
He promoted studies, maintained general discipline, was not less active in behalf of missions. In 1524 he sent twelve missionaries to Mexico, among them Friar Juan Juárez, who became the first bishop within the present territory of the United States. After the sack of Rome in 1527 and the imprisonment of Pope Clement VII, Quiñones, distantly related to the Emperor, was his confidant, seemed the man best able to effect the release of the pope, a full reconciliation between him and the emperor, he was thrice sent to the emperor for this purpose, his efforts were crowned with success by the deliverance of Pope Clement, the Treaty of Barcelona and Cambrai. As these embassies rendered his effective government of the Order impossible, Quiñones renounced the generalship in December 1527, in September of the following year he was created cardinal of the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, hence his name "Cardinal of the Holy Cross". From 1530 to 1533 he was Bishop of Coria, in Spain, for a short time, in 1539, administrator of Acerno, but he was never Cardinal Bishop at Palestrina, as some authors assert.
As a cardinal, Quiñones always occupied a distinguished position in the Sacred College and followed the movement of the Reformation in Germany. When Pope Paul III contemplated assembling a general Council at Mantua, he sent the Cardinal of the Holy Cross to Emperor Ferdinand I, King of the Romans and of Hungary, to promote that cause; the cardinal, died in 1540 and did not live to see the opening of the Council of Trent in 1545. His body was brought from Veroli to Rome and buried in his titular church, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, in a tomb which he had prepared himself. Quiñones left some legislative compilations for his Order, but is best known for his reform of the Roman Breviary undertaken by the order of Pope Clement; this he began in 1535 and it was issued in that year by Pope Paul III. A second recension followed in 1536, it was intended for private use but it began to be used in many religious houses and more than 100 editions were printed between 1536 and 1566. However it was subject to much criticism for its disregard of tradition and Pope Paul IV banned it in 1558.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Marie-Nicolas Bouillet & Alexis Chassang « Francisco de Quiñones » in: Dictionnaire universel d’histoire et de géographie, 1878