A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres
Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 249,470; the demonym for people from the city is'Wulfrunian'. Part of Staffordshire, the city grew as a market town specialising in the woollen trade. In the Industrial Revolution, it became a major centre for coal mining, steel production, lock making and the manufacture of cars and motorcycles; the economy of the city is still based on engineering, including a large aerospace industry, as well as the service sector. The city is named after Wulfrun, who founded the town from the Anglo-Saxon Wulfrūnehēantūn. Prior to the Norman Conquest, the area's name appears only as variants of Heantune or Hamtun, the prefix Wulfrun or similar appearing in 1070 and thereafter. Alternatively, the city may have earned its original name from Wulfereēantūn after the Mercian King, who tradition tells us established an abbey in 659, though no evidence of an abbey has been found; the variation Wolveren Hampton is seen in medieval records, e.g. in 1381.
A local tradition states that King Wulfhere of Mercia founded an abbey of St Mary at Wolverhampton in 659. Wolverhampton is recorded as being the site of a decisive battle between the unified Mercian Angles and West Saxons against the raiding Danes in 910, although sources are unclear as to whether the battle itself took place in Wednesfield or Tettenhall; the Mercians and West Saxons claimed a decisive victory, the field of Woden is recognised by numerous place names in Wednesfield. In 985, King Ethelred the Unready granted lands at a place referred to as Heantun to Lady Wulfrun by royal charter, hence founding the settlement. In 994, a monastery was consecrated in Wolverhampton for which Wulfrun granted land at Upper Arley in Worcestershire, Willenhall, Pelsall, Ogley Hay near Brownhills, Hilton near Wall, Kinvaston, Hilton near Wolverhampton, Featherstone; this became the site for the current St. Peter's Church. A statue of Lady Wulfrun, sculpted by Sir Charles Wheeler, can be seen on the stairs outside the church.
Wolverhampton is recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086 as being in the Hundred of Seisdon and the county of Staffordshire. The lords of the manor are listed as the canons of St Mary, with the tenant-in-chief being Samson, William the Conqueror's personal chaplain. Wolverhampton at this date is a large settlement of fifty households. In 1179, there is mention of a market held in the town, in 1204 it had come to the attention of King John that the town did not possess a Royal Charter for holding a market; this charter for a weekly market held on a Wednesday was granted on 4 February 1258 by Henry III. It is held that in the 14th and 15th centuries that Wolverhampton was one of the "staple towns" of the woollen trade, which today can be seen by the inclusion of a woolpack on the city's coat of arms, by the many small streets in the city centre, called "Fold", as well as Woolpack Street and Woolpack Alley. In 1512, Sir Stephen Jenyns, a former Lord Mayor of London and a twice Master of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, born in the city, founded Wolverhampton Grammar School, one of the oldest active schools in Britain.
From the 16th century onwards, Wolverhampton became home to a number of metal industries including lock and key making and iron and brass working. Wolverhampton suffered two Great Fires: the first in April 1590, the second in September 1696. Both fires started in today's Salop Street; the first fire lasted for five days and left nearly 700 people homeless, whilst the second destroyed 60 homes in the first five hours. This second fire led to the purchase of the first fire engine within the city in September 1703. On 27 January 1606, two farmers, Thomas Smart and John Holyhead of Rowley Regis, were executed on High Green, now Queen Square, for sheltering two of the Gunpowder Plotters, Robert Wintour and Stephen Littleton, who had fled to the Midlands; the pair played no part in the original plot but suffered a traitor's death of being hanged and quartered on butcher's blocks set up in the square a few days before the execution of Guy Fawkes and several other plotters in London. There is evidence that Wolverhampton may have been the location of the first working Newcomen Steam Engine in 1712.
The young Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent is known to have visited Wolverhampton in the 1830s and described it as "a large and dirty town" but one which received her "with great friendliness and pleasure". In Victorian times, Wolverhampton grew to be a wealthy town due to the huge amount of industry that occurred as a result of the abundance of coal and iron deposits in the area; the remains of this wealth can be seen in local houses such as Wightwick Manor and The Mount, Tettenhall Towers. All three are located in the western fringe of Wolverhampton, in the areas known as Wightwick and Tettenhall. Many other houses of similar stature were demolished in the 1970s. Wolverhampton gained its first parliamentary representation as part of the Reform Act 1832, when it was one of 22 large towns that were allocated two members of parliament. A local mob attacking electors who voted or intended to vote for the Tory candidate led to the 1835 Wolverhampton riot, with Dragoons called in to end the intimidation.
Wolverhampton was incorporated as a municipal borough on 15 March 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1
The Iron Bridge
The Iron Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Severn in Shropshire, England. Opened in 1781, it was the first major bridge in the world to be made of cast iron, was celebrated after construction owing to its use of the new material. In 1934 it was closed to vehicular traffic. Tolls for pedestrians were collected until 1950, when ownership of the bridge was transferred to Shropshire County Council, it now belongs to Wrekin Borough Council. The bridge, the adjacent settlement of Ironbridge and the Ironbridge Gorge form the UNESCO Ironbridge Gorge World Heritage Site; the bridge is a Grade I listed building, a waypoint on the South Telford Heritage Trail. Abraham Darby I first smelted local iron ore with coke made from Coalbrookdale coal in 1709, in the coming decades Shropshire became a centre for industry due to the low price of fuel from local mines; the River Severn was used as a key trading route, but it was a barrier to travel around the deep Severn Gorge between the important industrial parishes of Broseley and Madeley, the nearest bridge being at Buildwas two miles away.
The iron bridge was therefore proposed to link the industrial town of Broseley with the smaller mining town of Madeley and the industrial centre of Coalbrookdale. The use of the river by boat traffic and the steep sides of the gorge meant that any bridge should ideally be of a single span, sufficiently high to allow tall ships to pass underneath; the steepness and instability of the banks was problematic for building a bridge, there was no point where roads on opposite sides of the river converged. The Iron Bridge was the first of its kind to be constructed, although not the first to be considered or the first iron bridge of any kind. An iron bridge was constructed at Lyons in 1755, but was abandoned for reasons of cost, a 72-foot-10-inch span wrought iron footbridge over an ornamental waterway was erected in Kirklees, Yorkshire in 1769. In 1773, architect Thomas Farnolls Pritchard wrote to his'iron mad' friend and local ironmaster, John Wilkinson of Broseley, to suggest building a bridge out of cast iron.
Pritchard had previous experience with the design of both wooden and stone bridges, it is possible that he had integrated into these designs elements of iron. During the winter of 1773–74, local newspapers advertised a proposal to petition Parliament for leave to construct an iron bridge with a single 120-foot span. In 1775, a subscription of between three and four thousand pounds was raised, Abraham Darby III, the grandson of Abraham Darby I and an ironmaster working at Coalbrookdale, was appointed treasurer to the project. In March 1776, the Act to build a bridge received Royal Assent, it had been drafted by Thomas Addenbrooke, secretary of the trustees, John Harries a London barrister presented to the House of Commons by Charles Baldwyn, MP for Salop. Abraham Darby III was commissioned to build the bridge. In May 1776, the trustees withdrew Darby's commission, instead advertised for plans for a single arch bridge to be built in "stone, brick or timber". No satisfactory proposal was made, the trustees agreed to go with Pritchard's design, but there was continued uncertainty about the use of iron, conditions were set on the cost and duration of the construction.
In July 1777 the span of the bridge was decreased to 90 feet, increased again to 100 feet 6 inches in order to accommodate a towpath. The site, adjacent to where a ferry had run between Madeley and Benthall, was chosen for its high approaches on each side and the relative solidity of the ground; the Act of Parliament described how the bridge was to be built from a point in Benthall parish near the house of Samuel Barnett to a point on the opposite shore near the house of Thomas Crumpton. Pritchard died on 21 December 1777 in his towerhouse at Eyton on Severn, only a month after work had begun, having been ill for over a year; the masonry and abutments were constructed between 1777 and 1778, the ribs were lifted into place in the summer of 1779 by the use of wooden derricks and cranes. The bridge first spanned the river on 2 July 1779, it was opened to traffic on 1 January 1781. More information about how the bridge was built came from the discovery in 1997 of a small watercolour by Elias Martin in a Stockholm museum, which shows the bridge under construction in 1779.
A half-size replica of the main section of the bridge was built in 2001 as part of the research for the BBC's Timewatch programme, shown the following year. The bridge is to a carpenters' design used for wood structures, built from five sectional cast-iron ribs that give a span of 100 feet 6 inches. 378 long tons 10 cwt of iron was used in the construction of the bridge, there are 1,700 individual components, the heaviest weighing 5.5 long tons. Components were cast individually to fit with each other, rather than being of standard sizes, with discrepancies of up to several centimetres between'identical' components in different locations. Decorative rings and ogees between the structural ribs of the bridge suggest that the final design was Pritchard's, as the same elements appear in a gazebo he rebuilt. A foreman at the foundry, Thomas Gregory, drew the detailed designs for the members, resulting in the use of carpentry jointing details such as mortise and tenon joints and dovetails. Two supplemental arches, of similar cast iron construction, carry a towpath on the southern bank and act as flood arches.
A stone arch carries a small path on the northern bank. The Iron Bridge is made of cast iron, not a good structural material for handling tension or bending moments becaus
Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils; the borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county. The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, culturally and important and close to the centre of the county; the county has many market towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport northeast of Telford and Market Drayton in the northeast of the county. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and a part of Madeley. There are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal.
The Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county in the south. Shropshire is one of England's most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2; the Wrekin is one of the most famous natural landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills and the Long Mynd. Wenlock Edge is another significant geological landmark. In the low-lying northwest of the county overlapping the border with Wales is the Fenn's, Whixall and Bettisfield Mosses National Nature Reserve, one of the most important and best preserved bogs in Britain; the River Severn, Great Britain's longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley. Shropshire is landlocked and with an area of 3,487 square kilometres is England's largest inland county; the county flower is the round-leaved sundew. The area was once part of the lands of the Cornovii, which consisted of the modern day counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of Powys.
This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom. Their capital in pre-Roman times was a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule and one of the largest settlements in Britain. After the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys, it was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, at which time he built two significant dykes there to defend his territory against the Welsh or at least demarcate it. In subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Viking incursions, fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. After the Norman conquest in 1066, major estates in Shropshire were granted to Normans, including Roger de Montgomerie, who ordered significant constructions in Shrewsbury, the town of which he was Earl. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle and Shrewsbury Castle.
The western frontier with Wales was not determined until the 14th century. In this period, a number of religious foundations were formed, the county falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford and that of Coventry and Lichfield; some parishes in the north-west of the county in times fell under the Diocese of St. Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, when they were ceded to the Lichfield diocese; the county was a central part of the Welsh Marches during the medieval period and was embroiled in the power struggles between powerful Marcher Lords, the Earls of March and successive monarchs. The county contains a number of significant towns, including Shrewsbury and Ludlow. Additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution; the village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England and Wales. Shropshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 1006.
The origin of the name is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, which means "Shrewsburyshire". The name may, therefore, be derived indirectly from a personal name such as Scrope. Salop is an old name for Shropshire used as an abbreviated form for post or telegrams, it is thought to derive from the Anglo-French "Salopesberia", it is replaced by the more contemporary "Shrops" although Shropshire residents are still referred to as "Salopians". Salop however, is used as an alternative name for the county town, which shares the motto of Floreat Salopia; when a county council for the county was first established in 1889, it was called Salop County Council. Following the Local Government Act 1972, Salop became the official name of the county; the name was not well-regarded locally however, a subsequent campaign led by a local councillor, John Kenyon, succeeded in having both the county and council renamed as Shrops
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Little Clifton is a village and civil parish in the district of Allerdale located on the edge of the Lake District in the county of Cumbria, England. In 2001, it contained 170 households; the village of Little Clifton is 0.3 miles south of Bridgefoot and 3.5 miles east of Workington. The river Derwent is 1 mile north of Little Clifton. In 1887, John Bartholomew, whilst writing for the Gazetteer of the British Isles, described Little Clifton as a township of 489 persons within a parish 3½ miles SE of Workington. Workington was, at a district within the former county of Cumberland. Cumbria is formed of the older counties of Cumberland, parts of North Lancashire and North Yorkshire. There are signs of human inhabitancy as early as 5000 years ago with stone circles discovered under 20 miles east of Little Clifton at Long Meg and Castlerigg amongst other places; the early settlements are in areas suitable for crafting tools such as stone axes and became the source for quarrying in the area. Celtic immigration developed in Cumbria as Brigantes.
Celtic Brigantians had a major settlement at Carlisle and inhabited the area known as Rheged around 100CE. The Celts flourished following Roman rule after the transitional period of Roman rule to Celtic rule c350-420AD. Anglo Saxon invasion absorbed Rheged into the powerful Anglo Saxon kingdom of Northumbria c.630AD. It is From the Anglo Saxons; the suffix ` ton' in Little Clifton is ` old English' for enclosure, estate or homestead. Mining in Cumbria plays a large role in its history. Lead, zinc, haematite, graphite and coal have all been mined at different times since as early as the 12th century. Western parts of Cumbria, in particular the Whitehaven area, proved to contain haematite in large shallow deposits which were exploited by early miners; the first documented mining in the Cumrbian area was in Bigrigg mine 15 miles south of Little Clifton in the parish of Egremont. It is believed that Romans mined this area and on by early British and Norse settlers. In 1881 31% of the inhabitants of Little Clifton were involved in mineral extraction, the highest single occupation in the parish at that time.
Force Crag mine in Keswick was the closest mine to Little Clifton, mined for lead and barytes from 1839 to its closure in 1991. Force Crag mine is now open to the public; the site of St Luke's Church dates back to Norman times and has various Norman artefacts such as a Norman archway and Norman cross shaft in the graveyard. The current church dates back to 1901 and contains some superb stained glass windows and other furnishings donated by local families; the church holds concerts and open days. Punderland farm featured on the BBC, amongst other British news mediums, due to a'tragic mistake' which caused the unnecessary slaughter of 200 ewes, 300 lambs and a pet pig; the mishap occurred because of a grid reference error of one digit during the foot and mouth outbreak in 2001. The intended farm for destruction was in Durham 100 miles away. No more compensation was granted than the standard for loss of livestock at the time and no legal firm would go to court for what would be a costly battle; the farm and its associated barn are the only listed building in the parish, being designated at Grade II.
It is dated 1739, the farmhouse is roughcast with a green slate roof, has two storeys and three bays, there is a lower right-angled barn to the right
Wolverhampton Art Gallery
Wolverhampton Art Gallery is located in the City of Wolverhampton, in the West Midlands, United Kingdom. The building was funded and constructed by local contractor Philip Horsman, built on land provided by the Council, it opened in May 1884. The two-storey building of Wolverhampton Art Gallery was designed by prominent Birmingham architect Julius Chatwin, it was built of Bath stone, an Oolitic Limestone from Bath, with six red granite columns indicating the main entrance. The decorative sculptural frieze on the facade is composed of sixteen characters representing the Arts and Crafts, including sculpture, architecture, pottery and wrought-iron work, it is a Grade II* listed building. In 2006–07 the building was refurbished by Purcell modernized and extended to create additional exhibition spaces; the most outstanding artwork of international importance in the collection is the large-scale painting Peace and Plenty Binding the Arrows of War by the Flemish Baroque painter Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen.
Commissioned and paid for by the Antwerp Guild of Old Crossbowmen, it was a pendant to the Rubens’s Crowning of the Victor. In the 1800s, the city’s guilds were broken up and their treasures dispersed. Janssen’s picture found its way to a Mrs Thornley of Birmingham. In 1885, she sold it to Wolverhampton Art Gallery; this is the only painting by Janssens in British public collections and a splendid example of Flemish Baroque art. Apart from the Janssens' painting, the collection of Old Masters is small, it includes a version of "A Spinner's Grace" by Gerard Dou, "Bouquet of Flowers" by Jan van Huysum. There is a collection of Old Master drawings, which includes graphic work by Wenceslas Hollar and Alessandro Allori. A significant part of the gallery's collection was formed from bequests and gifts given by local benefactors and patrons of art; these include those from the tin-toy manufacturer Sidney Cartwright, Philip Horsman and hardware manufacturer Paul Lutz. They collected contemporary and early 19th-century British art and today the holdings of the Gallery are still strong in artworks from the Victorian period.
In the 1920s-1950s, a large number of artworks by Frank Brangwyn were given to the gallery by the artist himself, by his friend and member of Wolverhampton Art Committee Matthew Biggar Walker. In 1924, a significant collection of Eastern weapons was secured. During the first decades of the 20th century many specimens of Eastern applied art and British and Eastern ceramics and glass were given to the gallery by the members of the prominent local Bantock family and several other collectors; the Gallery has substantial collection of japanned Bilston enamels. These collections represent trades and manufactures for which Wolverhampton was famous in the 18th and 19th centuries; the purposeful collecting policy of the 1970s brought to the Gallery a number of high quality artworks by leading British artists of the 18th-century Georgian period. The gallery has strong holdings of artworks by local artists, such as John Fullwood, Joseph Vickers de Ville, George Phoenix, Alfred Egerton Cooper. In 1990s, following the re-structure of museum services across the area, the art and local history collections of the Bilston Museum and Art Gallery were transferred to Wolverhampton.
They brought to the Gallery artworks by Edwin Butler Bayliss, another local painter of the industrial landscape of the Black Country. Since the late 1960s, Wolverhampton Art Gallery has been amassing a substantial collection of pop art. A special feature of the gallery is the collection of artworks which document and analyse the time of Troubles in Northern Ireland. At present, the gallery's collection consists of about 12,000 artefacts: oil paintings and works on paper from 17th-20th centuries. Dr John Fraser's collection of geological specimens has been preserved at the gallery. A selection of objects from the collection are on permanent show in several display rooms. Selected paintings by the 18th-century artists from the gallery's collection include the'Portrait of the Lee Family' by Joseph Highmore,'David Garrick in'The Provoked Wife' by Johann Zoffany,'Portrait of Erasmus Darwin' by Joseph Wright of Derby,'Apotheosis of Penelope Boothby' by Henry Fuseli,'Arrival of Louis XVIII at Calais' by Wolverhampton-born Edward Bird.
In addition, portrait miniatures, Bilston enamels depicting famous actors of the era, some examples of the 18th-century Eastern and British ceramics are on display. The display in the two Victorian rooms present British 19th-century art in its relation with wider world, it includes landscapes by Henry Mark Anthony, David Cox, James Baker Pyne, David Roberts, narrative paintings by the Cranbrook Colony artists, religious paintings by Pre-Raphaelite artist Frederic Shields, japanned ware by local manufacturers which were shown at The Great Exhibition, examples of local Myatt pottery, Eastern objects - Chinese ceramics and mirror paintings, Japanese woodblock prints, Indian pottery and weapons, Persian metalware - collected by local people. The pop art gallery is a retro-themed, interactive space which allows visitors to explore the world of pop art with its vibrant mix of popular culture, social commentary, nostalgia and celebrity; the contents of the Gallery changes every six months to reflect a different theme found within the pop art movement.
The display has contained works by influential pop artists Andy Warhol, Peter Blake, Roy Lichtenstein and David