Preston James Pearson is a former American football running back in the National Football League for the Baltimore Colts, Pittsburgh Steelers, Dallas Cowboys. He played college basketball at the University of Illinois. Pearson attended Freeport High School, where he received All-State honors as the center of the basketball team, he played football. After writing a letter to head coach Harry Combes, he walked on at the University of Illinois. In college, he became a two-year starter, he was known for his tough defense and was one of the few players who blocked a "skyhook" shot by Lew Alcindor. Although he possessed the athletic and leaping ability, he never developed his offensive game, finishing his career with a 6.7 points average in 47 games. In 2017, he was inducted into the Illinois Basketball Coaches Association's Hall of Fame. Pearson was selected by the Baltimore Colts in the twelfth round of the 1967 NFL Draft, despite never playing a down of college football, after the team was impressed with his speed and athleticism.
He was first tried at defensive back and was promoted from the taxi squad to the regular roster on November 1, playing on special teams. The next year, he was moved to running back and became a captain of the special teams units after leading the league in kickoff returns with a 35.1 yards average. He registered the longest return of the year. On May 31, 1970, he was traded along with defensive back Ocie Austin to the Pittsburgh Steelers in exchange for linebacker Ray May and a twelfth round draft choice. In Pittsburgh, he reunited with head coach Chuck Noll, the defensive coordinator with the Baltimore Colts, he became the starter at running back in his first year with the team. In 1971, he was the fifteenth ranked running back in the AFC with 605 yards. In 1972, he was the eighth leading rusher in the AFC through the first 4 games, until he tore his left hamstring against the Houston Oilers, he was replaced with rookie Franco Harris, who would not relinquish the position again on his way to the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
The next year, he was switched to wide receiver during training camp, but was moved back to running back before the start of the season. His relationship with Noll became strained, because of being an outspoken person and his role as one of the Steelers player representatives during the 1974 strike. In 1974, he was the team's third leading rusher though he missed five games with a hamstring injury. On September 16, 1975, the team waived him after deciding to keep rookie running back Mike Collier instead. At the time, only six players in franchise history had run for more yards. On September 19, 1975, after losing Calvin Hill and Walt Garrison, the Dallas Cowboys were looking for an experienced running back, so they signed Pearson as a free agent and in turn waived rookie quarterback Jim Zorn to make room for him on the roster, it hs been noted that the acquisition of Pearson and the success of the Dirty Dozen draft were the key reasons that helped the team reached the Super Bowl that year. His best season came in 1975, when he became a starter and rushed for 509 yards, caught 27 passes for 351 yards, gained another 391 yards on kickoff returns.
He went on to assist the Cowboys to a Super Bowl X appearance by catching 12 passes for over 200 yards and three touchdowns in their two playoff games, including a 7 reception for 123 yards and three receiving touchdowns performance against the favored Los Angeles Rams in the NFC title game. His team ended up losing the Super Bowl to the Pittsburgh Steelers, with Pearson rushing for 14 yards and catching 5 passes for 53 yards. During his time with the Cowboys he was recognized as the player who defined the position of "third-down back", forcing defenses to use nickel schemes to assign a cornerback to cover him, or to double-team him, he was an all-around player, contributing in running, receiving and special teams. Head coach Tom Landry once said: "He's one of the best halfback blockers I've seen". In 1976, he was limited after having knee surgery for a training camp injury. Although he was named the starting running back at the beginning of the year, he was able to start just two games in the regular season.
He appeared in 10 games, posting 68 carries for 233 yards, one rushing touchdown, 23 receptions for 316 yards and 2 receiving touchdowns. In 1977, he began the season as the starter at running back, before giving way to Tony Dorsett after the ninth game, he set the franchise record for receptions by a running back and finished second on the team with 46, while tallying 535 receiving yards. In 1978, he led the team and broke his own club season record for receptions by a running back with 47, while collecting 526 receiving yards. In 1979, he registered 26 receptions for 333 receiving yards, one receiving touchdown, 7 carries for 14 yards and one rushing touchdown. In the 35-34 win against the Washington Redskins, he collected 5 catches for 108 yards, he had a diving 26-yard touchdown reception at the end of the first half, 2 catches for 47 yards in the final drive, including a 25-yarder that set up the winning touchdown at the Redskins' eight yard line. In his last season he was used as a receiver out of the backfield and retired on July 15, 1981.
Throughout his NFL career, Pearson was used as a rusher and kickoff returner on special teams. He played for some of the most famous teams of his era, played in five Super Bowls – tied for second most all-time. In his 14 NFL seasons, he rushed for 3,609 y
Super Bowl III
Super Bowl III was the third AFL–NFL Championship Game in professional American football, the first to bear the trademark name "Super Bowl". The game, played on January 12, 1969, at the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida, is regarded as one of the greatest upsets in both American football history and in the recorded history of sports; the 18-point underdog American Football League champion New York Jets defeated the National Football League champion Baltimore Colts by a score of 16–7. This was the first Super Bowl victory for the AFL. Before the game, most sports writers and fans believed that AFL teams were less talented than NFL clubs, expected the Colts to defeat the Jets by a wide margin. Baltimore posted a 13–1 record during the 1968 NFL season before defeating the Cleveland Browns, 34–0, in the 1968 NFL Championship Game; the Jets finished the 1968 AFL season at 11–3, defeated the Oakland Raiders, 27–23, in the 1968 AFL Championship Game. Jets quarterback Joe Namath famously made an appearance three days before the Super Bowl at the Miami Touchdown Club and guaranteed his team's victory.
His team backed up his words by controlling most of the game, building a 16–0 lead by the fourth quarter off of a touchdown run by Matt Snell and three field goals by Jim Turner. Colts quarterback Earl Morrall threw three interceptions before being replaced by Johnny Unitas, who led Baltimore to its only touchdown, during the last few minutes of the game. With the victory, the Jets were the only winning team to score only one touchdown until the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LIII. Namath, who completed 17 out of 28 passes for 206 yards, was named as the Super Bowl's most valuable player, making him the first player in Super Bowl history to be declared MVP without achieving a touchdown; the game was awarded to Miami at the owners meetings held in Atlanta. The National Football League had dominated professional football from its origins after World War I. Rival leagues had crumbled or merged with it, when the American Football League began to play in 1960, it was the fourth to hold that similar name to challenge the older NFL.
Unlike its earlier namesakes, this AFL was able to command sufficient financial resources to survive. The junior league proved successful enough, in fact. After the 1964 season, in fact, there had been a well-publicized bidding war which culminated with the signing, by the AFL's New York Jets, of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for an unprecedented contract. Fearing that bidding wars over players would become the norm increasing labor costs, NFL owners, ostensibly led by league Commissioner Pete Rozelle, obtained a merger agreement with the AFL, which provided for a single draft, interleague play in the pre-season, a championship game to follow each season, the integration of the two leagues into one in a way to be agreed at a future date; as the two leagues had an unequal number of teams, realignment was advocated by some owners, but was opposed. Three NFL teams agreed to move over to join the original AFL franchises of 1960 in what became the American Football Conference. Despite the ongoing merger, it was a held view that the NFL was a far superior league.
This was confirmed by the results of the first two interleague championship games, in January 1967 and 1968, in which the NFL champion Green Bay Packers, coached by the legendary Vince Lombardi defeated the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs and Oakland Raiders. Although publicized as the inter-league championship games, it was not until that the moniker for this championship contest between the now two conferences began having the nickname of "Super Bowl" applied to it by the media and began being counted by using Roman numerals, the creation of the term being credited to the founder of the AFL, Lamar Hunt; the Baltimore Colts had won the 1959 NFL championships under Coach Weeb Ewbank. In the following years, the Colts failed to make the playoffs, the Colts dismissed Ewbank after a 7–7 record in 1962, he was soon hired by New York's new AFL franchise, which had just changed its name from the Titans to the Jets. In Ewbank's place, Baltimore hired an untested young head coach, Don Shula, who would go on to become one of the game's greatest coaches.
The Colts did well under Shula, despite losing to the Cleveland Browns in the 1964 NFL Championship Game and, in 1965, losing in overtime to the Green Bay Packers in a tie-breaking game to decide the NFL Western Division championship. The Colts finished a distant second in the West to the Packers in 1966, in 1967, with the NFL divided into four divisions of four teams each, went undefeated with two ties through their first 13 games, but lost the game and the Coastal Division championship to the Los Angeles Rams on the final Sunday of the season—under newly instituted tiebreakers procedures, L. A. won the division championship as it had better net points in the two games the teams played. The Colts finished 11–1–2, out of the playoffs. In 1968, Shula and the Colts were considered a favorite to win the NFL championship again, which carried with it an automatic berth what was now becoming popularly known as the "Super Bowl" against the champion of the younger AFL; the NFL champion, in both cases the Green B
Los Angeles Rams
The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team based in Los Angeles and compete in the National Football League's NFC West division. The franchise won three NFL championships, is the only one to win championships representing three different cities; the Rams play their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The franchise began in 1936 as the Cleveland Rams in Ohio; the club was owned by Homer Marshman and featured players such as William "Bud" Cooper, Harry "The Horse" Mattos, Stan Pincura, Mike Sebastian. Damon "Buzz" Wetzel joined as general manager; the franchise moved to Los Angeles in 1946 following the 1945 NFL Championship Game victory, making way for Paul Brown's Cleveland Browns of the All-America Football Conference and becoming the only NFL championship team to play the following season in another city. The club played their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving into a reconstructed Anaheim Stadium in Orange County, California, in 1980.
The Rams left California and moved to St. Louis, following the 1994 NFL season. Five seasons after relocating, the team won Super Bowl XXXIV in a 23–16 victory over the Tennessee Titans, they appeared in Super Bowl XXXVI, where they lost 20–17 to the New England Patriots. The Rams played in St. Louis until the end of the 2015 NFL season, when they filed notice with the NFL of their intent to relocate back to Los Angeles; the move was agreed at an owners' meeting in January 2016, the Rams returned to the city for the 2016 NFL season. The Rams appeared in Super Bowl LIII where they lost to the New England Patriots 13-3 in a rematch of Super Bowl XXXVI; the Cleveland Rams were founded in 1936 by Ohio attorney Homer Marshman and player-coach Damon Wetzel, a former Ohio State star who played for the Chicago Bears and Pittsburgh Pirates. Wetzel, who served as general manager, selected the "Rams", because his favorite college football team was the Fordham Rams from Fordham University; the team was part of the newly formed American Football League and finished the 1936 regular season in second place with a 5–2–2 record, trailing only the 8–3 record of league champion Boston Shamrocks.
The Rams joined the National Football League on February 12, 1937, were assigned to the Western Division. The Rams would be the fourth in a string of short-lived teams based in Cleveland, following the Cleveland Tigers, Cleveland Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians. From the beginning, they were a team marked by frequent moves, playing in three stadiums over several losing seasons. However, the team featured the Most Valuable Player of rookie halfback Parker Hall. In June 1941, the Rams were bought by Dan Reeves and Fred Levy Jr. Reeves, an heir to his family's grocery-chain business, purchased by Safeway, used some of his inheritance to buy his share of the team. Levy's family owned the Levy Brothers department store chain in Kentucky and he came to own the Riverside International Raceway. Levy owned part of the Rams, with Bob Hope another of the owners, until Reeves bought out his partners in 1962; the franchise suspended operations and sat out the 1943 season because of a shortage of players during World War II and resumed playing in 1944.
The team achieved success in 1945, their last season in Ohio. Adam Walsh took over as head coach that season. Quarterback Bob Waterfield, a rookie from UCLA, passed and place-kicked his way to the league's Most Valuable Player award and helped the Rams achieve a 9–1 record and winning their first NFL Championship, a 15–14 home field victory over the Washington Redskins on December 16; the margin of victory was provided by a safety: Redskins great Sammy Baugh's pass bounced off the goal post backward, through his team's own end zone. The next season, NFL rules were changed to prevent this from again resulting in a score. On January 12, 1946, Reeves was denied a request by the other NFL owners to move the Cleveland Rams to Los Angeles and the then-103,000-seat Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, he threatened to end his relationship with the NFL and get out of the professional football business altogether unless the transfer to Los Angeles was permitted. A settlement was reached and, as a result, Reeves was allowed to move his team to Los Angeles.
The NFL became the first professional coast-to-coast sports entertainment industry. From 1933, when Joe Lillard left the Chicago Cardinals, through 1946, there were no black players in professional American football. After the Rams had received approval to move to Los Angeles, they entered into negotiations to lease the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum; the Rams were advised that a precondition to them getting a lease was that they would have to integrate the team with at least one African-American. Subsequently, the Rams signed Kenny Washington on March 21, 1946; the signing of Washington caused "all hell to break loose" among the owners of the NFL franchises. The Rams added a second black player, Woody Strode, on May 7, 1946, giving them two black players going into the 1946 season; the Rams were the first team in the NFL to play in Los Angeles, but they were not the only professional football team to play its home games in the Coliseum between 1946 and 1949. The upstart All-America Football Conference had the Los Angeles Dons compete there as well.
Reeves was taking a gamble that Los Angeles was ready for its own professional football team – and there were two in the City of Angels. Reeves was proven to be correct when the Rams played their f
Tackle (gridiron football position)
Tackle is a playing position in American and Canadian football. In the one-platoon system prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a tackle played on both offense and defense. In the modern system of specialized units, offensive tackle and defensive tackle are separate positions, the stand-alone term "tackle" refers to the offensive tackle position only; the offensive tackle is a position on the offensive line and right. Like other offensive linemen, their job is to block: to physically keep defenders away from the offensive player who has the football and enable him to advance the football and score a touchdown; the term "tackle" is a vestige of an earlier era of football in which the same players played both offense and defense. A tackle is the strong position on the offensive line, they power their blocks with quick steps and maneuverability. The tackles are in charge of the outside protection. If the tight end goes out for a pass, the tackle must cover everyone that his guard does not, plus whoever the tight end is not covering.
They defend against defensive ends. In the NFL, offensive tackles measure over 6 ft 4 in and 300 lb. According to Sports Illustrated football journalist Paul "Dr. Z" Zimmerman, offensive tackles achieve the highest scores, relative to the other positional groups, on the Wonderlic Test, with an average of 26; the Wonderlic is taken before the draft to assess each player's aptitude for learning and problem solving. The right tackle is the team's best run blocker. Most running plays are towards the strong side of the offensive line; the right tackle will face the defending team's best run stoppers. He must be able to gain traction in his blocks so that the running back can find a hole to run through; the left tackle is the team's best pass blocker. Of the two tackles, the left tackles will have better footwork and agility than the right tackle in order to counteract the pass rush of defensive ends; when a quarterback throws a forward pass, the quarterback's shoulders are aligned perpendicular to the line of scrimmage, with the non-dominant shoulder closer to downfield.
Right-handed quarterbacks, the majority of players in the position, thus turn their backs to defenders coming from the left side, creating a vulnerable "blind side" that the left tackle must protect. A 2006 book by Michael Lewis, The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game, made into a 2009 motion picture, sheds much light on the workings of the left tackle position; the book and the film's introduction discuss how the annual salary of left tackles in the NFL skyrocketed in the mid-1990s. Premier left tackles are now sought after, are the second highest paid players on a roster after the quarterback. Recent examples include Eric Fisher, Luke Joeckel, Lane Johnson, Matt Kalil, Trent Williams, Jake Long, Joe Thomas
The Indianapolis Colts are an American football team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Colts compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference South division. Since the 2008 season, the Colts have played their games in Lucas Oil Stadium; the team had played for over two decades at the RCA Dome. Since 1987, the Colts have been the host team for the NFL Scouting Combine; the Colts have been a member club of the NFL since their founding in Baltimore in 1953. They were one of three NFL teams to join those of the American Football League to form the AFC following the 1970 merger. While in Baltimore, the team advanced to the playoffs 10 times and won three NFL Championship games in 1958, 1959, 1968; the Colts played in two Super Bowls while they were based in Baltimore, losing to the New York Jets in Super Bowl III and defeating the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl V. The Colts relocated to Indianapolis in 1984 and have since appeared in the playoffs 16 times, won two conference championships, won one Super Bowl, in which they defeated the Chicago Bears in Super Bowl XLI.
Following World War II, a competing professional football league was organized known as the All America Football Conference which began to play in the 1946 season. In its second year the franchise assigned to the Miami Seahawks was relocated to Maryland's major commercial and manufacturing city of Baltimore. After a fan contest the team was renamed the Baltimore Colts and used the team colors of silver and green; the Colts played for the next three seasons in the old AAFC. until they agreed to merge with the old National Football League when the NFL was reorganized. The Baltimore Colts were one of the three former AAFC powerhouse teams to merge with the NFL at that time, the others being the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns; this new Colts team, now in the "big league" of professional American football for the first time, although with shaky financing and ownership, played only in the 1950 season of the reorganized "third" NFL, was disbanded and moved. Two years in 1953, a new Baltimore-based group supported by the City's municipal government and with a large subscription-base of fan-purchased season tickets, led by local owner Carroll Rosenbloom won the rights to a new Baltimore NFL franchise.
Rosenbloom was awarded the remains of the former Dallas Texans team, who themselves had a long and winding history starting as the Boston Yanks in 1944, merging with the Brooklyn Tigers, who were known as the Dayton Triangles, one of the original old NFL teams established before the League itself, in 1913. With the organization in 1920 of the original "American Professional Football Conference" two years in 1922, renamed a second time, now permanently as the "National Football League"; that team became the New York Yanks in 1950, many of the players from the New York Yankees of the former competing All-America Football Conference were added to the team to begin playing in the newly merged League for the 1950 season. The Yanks moved to Dallas in Texas after the 1951 season having competed for two seasons, but played their final two "home" games of the 1952 season as a so-called "road team" at the Rubber Bowl football stadium in Akron, Ohio; the NFL considers the Texans and Colts to be separate teams, although many of the earlier teams shared the same colors of blue and white.
Thus, the Indianapolis Colts are considered to be a 1953 expansion team. The third version of the Colts football team played their first season in Baltimore in 1953, where the team compiled a 3–9 record under first-year head coach Keith Molesworth; the franchise struggled during the first few years in Baltimore, with the team not achieving their first winning record until the 1957 season. However, under head coach Weeb Ewbank and the leadership of quarterback Johnny Unitas, the Colts went on to a 9–3 record during the 1958 season and reached the NFL Championship Game for the first time in their history by winning the NFL Western Conference; the Colts faced the New York Giants in the 1958 NFL Championship Game, considered to be among the greatest contests in professional football history. The Colts defeated the Giants 23–17 in the first game to utilize the overtime rule, a game seen by 45 million people. Following the Colts first NFL championship, the team posted a 9–3 record during the 1959 season and once again defeated the Giants in the NFL Championship Game to claim their second title in back to back fashion.
Following the two championships in 1958 and 1959, the Colts did not return to the NFL Championship for four seasons and replaced the head coach Ewbank with the young Don Shula in 1963. In Shula's second season the Colts compiled a 12–2 record, but lost to the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship. However, in 1968 the Colts returned with the continued leadership of Unitas and Shula and went on to win the Colts' third NFL Championship and made an appearance in Super Bowl III. Leading up to the Super Bowl and following the 34–0 trouncing of the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship, many were calling the 1968 Colts team one of the "greatest pro football teams of all time" and were favored by 18 points against their counterparts from the American Football League, the New York Jets; the Colts, were stunned by the Jets, who won the game 16–7 in the first Super Bowl victory for the young AFL. The result of the game surprised many in the sports media as Joe Namath and Matt Snell led the Jets to the Super Bowl victory under head coach Weeb Ewbank, who had won
Richard Robert Volk is a former American football player who played for the Baltimore Colts, New York Giants, Miami Dolphins. He retired with 38 career interceptions and 13 fumble recoveries, totaled 574 yards on interception returns and 548 yards on punt returns. Volk played college football for the University of Michigan from 1964 to 1966 and was a member of the 1964 team that won the Big Ten Conference championship and defeated Oregon State in the 1965 Rose Bowl, he played as a defensive back for Michigan's defensive unit and as a halfback and quarterback for the offensive unit. Volk was selected by the Sporting News as a first-team All-American in 1967. In 1989, he was inducted into the University of Michigan Athletic Hall of Honor. Volk went on to a successful 12-year career as a safety in the National Football League, he played nine years with the Baltimore Colts from 1967 to 1975. He was a member of the Colts' teams that lost Super Bowl III to the New York Jets and won Super Bowl V against the Dallas Cowboys.
Volk was played in three Pro Bowls. After being released by the Colts in April 1976, Volk concluded his playing career with the New York Giants in 1976 and the Miami Dolphins from 1977 to 1978. In 1977, Volk was selected by Baltimore fans as a starter for the Colts' 25th anniversary team. Volk was born in Toledo, Ohio, in 1945, he attended Wauseon High School in Wauseon, where he was a three-sports star. He was an all-league basketball and baseball player and played quarterback on the football team. Volk enrolled at the University of Michigan in 1963, his decision to attend Michigan rather than Ohio State was influenced by family ties, including Bob Chappuis, Volk's uncle and finished second in the Heisman Trophy voting while playing for the undefeated 1947 Wolverines. Volk noted:"I had all these stories growing up, he was my hero, so I always wanted to go to Michigan.... And I didn't like Woody anyway, it was just my Grandpa telling me because he didn't like Woody, he hoped Woody would choke on his Thanksgiving turkey....
Because of Uncle Bob going to Michigan, that's. You know, I loved the helmets, loved the uniforms. I said'Hey, if I could just sit on the bench, that's all I care about.'" At Michigan, Volk was a three-year starter from 1964 to 1966. Prior to the start of the 1964 season, he was given jersey no. 49, the same number worn by his uncle when he played for Michigan. During the 1964 season, Volk played at the halfback position on both offense and defense and served as a backup at quarterback to Bob Timberlake. In his first game for the Wolverines, he intercepted a pass in the end zone against Air Force. In his second game, he helped the Michigan defense hold scoreless a high-scoring Navy team led by Hall of Fame quarterback Roger Staubach, he threw a 33-yard touchdown pass against Northwestern in October 1964. In a close victory over Minnesota, after the Golden Gophers had cut Michigan's lead to five points and advanced the ball to Michigan's 7-yard line, Volk "smashed through to down the Gopher ball carrier, save the game on fourth down."
Volk was described by sports writer Joe Hendrickson as "instinctive — in the right place to mess things up for the opposition." Volk helped the 1964 Michigan team win the Big Ten Conference championship and defeat Oregon State in the 1965 Rose Bowl by a score of 34–7. As a junior in 1965, Volk started all 10 games for Michigan at cornerback and started four games on offense as the left halfback, he was selected by both the Associated Press and the United Press International as a first-team All-Big Ten defensive back at the end of the 1965 season. As a senior in 1966, Volk started all 10 games at safety and started 2 games at fullback, started one game as quarterback. At the conclusion of the 1966 season, he was selected as a first-team All-American by the Sporting News. At the conclusion of his college football career at Michigan, the Newspaper Editors Association distributed a feature story on Volk, describing him as follows:"Rick Volk is a safety man who conjures up an image of homemade apple pie and pancakes smothered in maple syrup, Saturday night movies and picnics in a wooded grove.
He is smooth-cheeked, with a short tilted nose and a smile that shows white. He couldn't be more pure mid-Americana if he were framed by a billboard." Volk was invited to play on the College All-Star team following his senior year. At the camp for the All-Star team, he was rated by the scouts as "the best all-around athlete among the high-priced talent preparing for pro debuts."In 1989, Volk was inducted into the University of Michigan Athletic Hall of Honor. He joined his uncle, Bob Chappuis, inducted into the Hall of Honor five years earlier in 1984. Volk and Ron Johnson, both inducted in 1989, were the first two football players from the 1960s to be inducted into the Hall of Honor. Volk played as a free safety for twelve seasons in the NFL, he was played three times in the Pro Bowl. Volk played in the Super Bowl twice for the Baltimore Colts as a member of the Super Bowl III team and the Super Bowl V winning team, he made a name for himself as a rookie in 1967 by recovering an onside kick to help the Colts defeat the Packers.
He set a Colts team record for the longest interception runback with a 94-yard touchdown return against Chicago in November 1967. Volk's interception of the pass intended for Brian Piccolo was his third interception in four games. For his performance against the Bears, he was named the NFL's Defens
Jackson the City of Jackson, is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County, along with Mississippi; the city of Jackson includes around 3,000 acres comprising Jackson-Medgar Evers International Airport in Rankin County and a small portion of Madison County. The city's population was estimated to be 165,072 in 2017, a decline from 173,514 in 2010; the city sits on the Pearl River and is located in the greater Jackson Prairie region of Mississippi. Founded in 1821 as the site for a new state capital, the city is named after General Andrew Jackson, honored for his role in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and would serve as U. S. president. Following the nearby Battle of Vicksburg in 1863 during the American Civil War, Union forces under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman began the Siege of Jackson and the city was subsequently burned. During the 1920s, Jackson surpassed Meridian to become the most populous city in the state following a speculative natural gas boom in the region.
The current slogan for the city is "The City with Soul". It has had numerous musicians prominent in blues, gospel and jazz. Jackson is the anchor for Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the state's largest metropolitan area with a 2016 population of 579,332, about one-fifth of Mississippi's population. The region, now the city of Jackson was part of the large territory occupied by the Choctaw Nation, the historic culture of the Muskogean-speaking indigenous peoples who had inhabited the area for thousands of years before European colonization; the Choctaw name for the locale was Chisha Foka. The area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, by which The United States acquired the land owned by the Choctaw Native Americans. After the treaty was ratified, American settlers moved into the area, encroaching on remaining Choctaw communal lands. One of the original Choctaw members, in 1849, described what he and his people experienced during this turbulent time when the Europeans had come to take their land.
"We have had our habitations torn down and burned" as well as their "fences burned" while they themselves faced personal abuse and have been "scoured and fettered". Under pressure from the U. S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all of their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although most of the Choctaw moved to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, along with the other of the Five Civilized Tribes, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, they became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi have reorganized and are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, they live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 miles northeast of Jackson. Located on the historic Natchez Trace trade route, created by Native Americans and used by European-American settlers, on the Pearl River, the city's first European-American settler was Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader.
The village became known as LeFleur's Bluff. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, this site had a trading post, it was connected to markets in Tennessee. Soldiers returning to Tennessee from the military campaigns near New Orleans in 1815 built a public road that connected Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana to this district. A United States treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-Native American settlers. LeFleur's Bluff was developed; the Mississippi General Assembly decided in 1821. They commissioned Thomas Hinds, James Patton, William Lattimore to look for a suitable site; the absolute center of the state was a swamp, so the group had to widen their search. After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in today's Hinds County, their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, proximity to the Natchez Trace.
The Assembly passed an act on November 28, 1821, authorizing the site as the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. On the same day, it passed a resolution to instruct the Washington delegation to press Congress for a donation of public lands on the river for the purpose of improved navigation to the Gulf of Mexico. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state; the capital was named for General Andrew Jackson, to honor his victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He was elected as the seventh president of the United States; the city of Jackson was planned, in April 1822, by Peter Aaron Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson. City blocks alternated with other open spaces. Over time, many of the park squares have been developed rather than maintained as green space; the state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822. In 1839, the Mississippi Legislature passed the first state law in the U.
S. to permit married women to administer their own property. Jackson was connected by public road to Vicksburg and