Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville
Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville GCB PC, known as Lord Granville Leveson-Gower from 1786 to 1815, as Viscount Granville from 1815 to 1833, as Earl Granville from 1833 onwards, was a British Whig statesman and diplomat from the Leveson-Gower family. Granville was the second son and youngest child of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford from his marriage to Lady Susanna Stewart, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, his elder, paternal half-brother was 1st Duke of Sutherland. Granville was educated at Dr. Kyle's school at Hammersmith, privately by the Revd. John Chappel Woodhouse, he never took a degree. Ten years in 1799, the honorary degree of DCL was conferred upon him. Granville began his career as a member of the House of Commons, representing Lichfield from 1795 to 1799, Staffordshire for the next sixteen years. Granville served as British ambassador to France. In 1815 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Granville of Stone Park in the County of Stafford.
In 1833 during his second stint as ambassador to France, he was created Earl Granville and Baron Leveson of Stone Park in the County of Stafford. A recent historian says that Granville "was a drab figure, the original stuffed-shirt – starch outside, sawdust within."Lord Granville married Lady Harriet Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire and Lady Georgiana Spencer, in 1809. They had two daughters, their eldest son, Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, became a distinguished politician. Their second son the Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower was a politician, their daughter Lady Georgiana married Alexander Fullerton. She was a biographer and great philanthropist. Lord Granville died in January 1846, aged 72; the Countess Granville died in November 1862, aged 77. Lord Granville, prior to marrying Lady Harriet Cavendish, was the lover of Lady Harriet's maternal aunt, Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough, née Lady Henrietta Frances Spencer, with whom he fathered two illegitimate children: Harriette Stewart and George Stewart.
For seventeen years she "loved to idolatry" this younger man, but she understood that he must marry in order to further his career and assure his posterity, so she collaborated in the arrangements for his wedding to Harriet, understandably reluctant to marry her aunt's lover. Chamberlain, Muriel E. "Gower, Granville George Leveson-, second Earl Granville". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16543. Hamilton, John Andrew. "Leveson-Gower, Granville". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Fitzmaurice, Baron Edmond; the life of Granville George Leveson Gower, second earl Granville, K. G. 1815–1891. Longmans, Green. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Granville Peerage, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs. Retrieved on 17 November 2008
John Wrottesley, 2nd Baron Wrottesley
John Wrottesley, 2nd Baron Wrottesley was an English astronomer. Wrottesley was the son of John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley, his first wife Lady Caroline Bennet, daughter of Charles Bennet, 4th Earl of Tankerville, he succeeded his father in the barony on 16 March 1841. Wrottesley is distinguished for his attainments in astronomical science, was a founding member of the Royal Astronomical Society and served as its president from 1841 to 1842. In 1839 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society for his Catalogue of the Right Ascensions of 1,318 Stars. In 1853 he called the attention of the House of Lords to Lieutenant Maury's valuable scheme of meteorological observations and discoveries, on 30 November 1855 succeeded the Earl of Rosse as President of the Royal Society; the crater Wrottesley on the Moon is named in honour of John Wrottesley. Lord Wrottesley died in October 1867, aged 69. On 28 July 1821 Wrottesley married Sophia Elizabeth, third daughter of Thomas Giffard of Chillington in Staffordshire.
By her he had two daughters. His two youngest sons—Henry and Cameron—fell in action, he was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son Arthur Wrottesley. George Wrottesley was his third son. Awarding of RAS gold medal ObituaryAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Wrottesley, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Edward Littleton, 1st Baron Hatherton
Edward John Littleton, 1st Baron Hatherton PC, FRS, was a British politician from the extended Littleton/Lyttelton family, of first the Canningite Tories and the Whigs. He had a long political career, active in each of the Houses of Parliament in turn over a period of forty years, he was involved in a number of major reforms Catholic Emancipation, the Truck Act of 1831, the Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1832 and the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. Throughout his career he was concerned with the Irish question and he was Chief Secretary for Ireland between 1833 and 1834. Hatherton was a major Staffordshire landowner and businessman; as heir to two family fortunes, he had large holdings in agricultural and residential property, coal mines and brick works concentrated around Penkridge and Walsall. Littleton was born Edward Walhouse, was educated at Rugby and at Brasenose College, Oxford. In 1812, he took the name of Littleton to inherit the large landed estates of his great-uncle Sir Edward Littleton, 4th and last of the Littleton Baronets, of Teddesley Hall, near Penkridge, Staffordshire.
In 1835, he inherited large mineral and manufacturing interests in Walsall and Cannock from his uncle, Edward Walhouse. Littleton took over his great-uncle's parliamentary seat. From 1812 to 1832, he was Member of Parliament for Staffordshire and was the MP for the southern division of that county until 1835, he spent most of that time as a Canningite Tory, but moved over to the Whigs after George Canning's death in 1827. In the House of Commons, Littleton was prominent as an advocate of Roman Catholic emancipation. In 1825, as a preliminary to a Catholic Relief Bill promoted by Daniel O'Connell, he introduced an Elective Franchise in Ireland Bill; the objective of this was, paradoxically. However, its underlying aim was to end abuse of a distinctively Irish form of freehold, which had to be renewed by payment to the original landlord, so allowed large landowners to create large numbers of compliant voters. Both the Relief and the Franchise Bills failed. After crossing the floor of the House to join the Whigs in 1827, Littleton voted for the Catholic Emancipation Bill that became law in 1829.
From this point, the style and content of his contributions changed completely. For twenty years he had been content to make short contributions delivering himself of his considered opinions or changed notions in the chamber of the house in a few unmemorable phrases. From 1830 he became involved in committee work on important reforms; as his opinions became more radical, he adopted an trenchant and discursive style, speaking in long, argued statements, laden with factual detail. On one day in September 1831, for example, he made eight speeches of varying length in the House. One of the important factors in this change of style and focus seems to have been his close contact with middle and working class opinion in the growing Staffordshire towns – Stoke on Trent and Walsall, he presented petitions and deployed arguments and reports drawn directly from these disfranchised towns and people. As he became more combative and forensic in his contributions, he was regarded as a Radical rather than a Whig.
After the 1830 General Election ended Tory domination, brought in a minority Whig government under Earl Grey, Littleton took up the campaign against the truck system. This was the practice by which employees were forced to accept payment or advances in kind becoming enslaved to the company store. First he presented numerous petitions against the system from workers in Staffordshire and Gloucestershire, he obtained leave to introduce a bill against the truck system at the end of the year. The 1831 general election changed the electoral landscape, ushering in a reforming Whig ministry under Grey, allowing Littleton to proceed with his bill with a fair certainty of success. Moving the vote on the bill in September 1831, he pointed out that "it was notorious that the universal feeling of the working classes was in favour of some attempt to put down this odious system." He summarised its main purpose as that "the workmen must be paid in money." Consolidating and extending numerous earlier acts on the subject, the Truck Act of 1831 was a landmark piece of social legislation, invoked as still relevant in Parliament as as 2003.
The campaign for the Truck Act had revealed an important weakness in Littleton's character, to have major consequences for his career. To get the reform through, he had made the concession that Ireland be excluded from it for the time being. At one point he had let slip the unguarded comment; this was overheard by one of the members for Waterford – Lord George Beresford, hated by the Radicals and Irish Repealers, who proceeded to broadcast the remark. Littleton took up the challenge in Parliament and, accepting that the report of his comment was accurate, pointed out that it was reported out of context. In fact, it was well known. However, the damage was done; as the Truck Act passed into Law, Littleton was drafted into detailed work on the Great Reform Bill, intended to create an new system of parliamentary representation. The reform had two main thrusts: a simplification of the Franchise qualification and a complete redrawing of the Constituency boundaries to abolish the rotten boroughs a
George Anson (British Army officer, born 1769)
General Sir George Anson, GCB, was a British officer and politician from the Anson family. He commanded a British cavalry brigade under the Duke of Wellington during the Peninsular War and sat for many years as a Whig Member of Parliament. Anson was the second son of George Anson and his wife The Hon. Mary Vernon, daughter of the first Lord Vernon, he had an elder brother, Thomas Anson, 1st Viscount Anson, a younger brother, Sir William Anson, 1st Baronet. He was the uncle of Thomas's sons: Thomas Anson, 1st Earl of Lichfield, George Anson, he was uncle of Frederick's son: George Edward Anson, Keeper of the Privy Purse, who died a few days before him in 1849. Admiral George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, was his great-uncle.. He entered the British Army in 1786 and served under the Duke of York and Sir Ralph Abercromby in Holland, it was to be in the Peninsular War. He served in all the campaigns between 1809 and 1813 and gained distinction in his command of the 16th Light Dragoons at the Second Battle of Porto.
His reputation was further enhanced by his command of a brigade of light cavalry at the Battles of Talavera, Busaco and Vittoria. He fought in the Battle of Venta del Pozo during the retreat from Burgos. For his services in the Battles of Talavera and Vittoria he received a medal and two clasps. So prominent was he during these campaigns that the House of Commons thanked him in November 1816 for his services during the Peninsular Wars. In August 1814, he was appointed to the colonelcy of the 23rd Regiment of Dragoons and in February 1827 to the colonelcy of the 4th Dragoon Guards, he was promoted to the rank of full general on 10 January 1837. Aside from his military career he sat as Member of Parliament for Lichfield from 1806 to 1841, he was the Groom of the Bedchamber to Prince Albert from 1836 to September 1841. In 1846 he was appointed the lieutenant-governor of the Royal Hospital and became governor in May 1849. Anson married Frances, daughter of John William Hamilton, in 1800, she was the sister of Sir Frederick Hamilton.
They had five daughters. Their son Talavera Vernon Anson became an Admiral in the Royal Navy. Another son, Thomas Anson, was a first-class cricketer, their daughter Julia married Sir Arthur Brinsley Brooke and served as a lady in waiting to Queen Victoria. Lady Anson died in 1834. Anson survived her by fifteen years and died at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, in November 1849. In Who Do You Think You Are?, transmitted on the BBC on 18 October 2007, it was discovered that Sir Matthew Pinsent, the multiple gold medal Olympic rower, is a direct descendant of Sir George Anson. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page www.thepeerage.com Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by George Anson
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC