Norval is an unincorporated community in the town of Halton Hills, Canada. Situated on the Credit River, it is located 55 km west of Toronto and is part of the Regional Municipality of Halton. Norval is believed to take its name from the Scottish play Douglas by poet John Home. Around 1820 James McNab and his family arrived; the family built a grist and a saw mill on the Credit River. Some of their wood was shipped to England for use as masts on naval ships. Flour mills opened in this area. In 1836 the post office was established; the settlement had been called McNabsville and McNab's Mill. In 1838, the mills were sold to Peter Adamson. In 1851, the Guelph Plank Road passed through this area and by 1856 the Grand Trunk Railroad had arrived; the latter was useful for shipping goods from this area. In 1846, the settlement had a population of about 200 inhabitants, served by two churches, various tradesmen, a gristmill, an oatmeal mill, a distillery, two stores and a tavern. Norval became a thriving village, complete with a broom factory, bakery and flax mills, carriage works, a blacksmith and harness shops, brass foundry, general stores, several hotels, a Mechanics' Institute and an Orange Lodge.
It was a main stop on the stagecoach ride from Guelph to Toronto. Upper Canada College's Norval Outdoor School is located at 10444 Winston Churchill Boulevard. Acquired in 1913, it was established in the property after 1935. Author Lucy Maud Montgomery, who wrote the Anne of Green Gables series, lived in Norval from 1926 to 1935. In her journal, Montgomery expressed her appreciation for the village’s natural beauty, declared, “I love Norval as I have never loved any place save Cavendish, it is as if I had known it all my life". In 1954 the grist mill was destroyed by Hurricane Hazel. In 1972 the remaining structures were removed to expand Highway 7. Many historic buildings still stand in Norval. Earth Week Celebrations - Third week in April Heritage Perennial Plant Sale - early May Montgomery Christmas - the weekend of November closest to her birthday Lucy Maud Montgomery Seminars and Readings - various times during the year Willow Park Ecology Centre Lucy Maud Montgomery Garden Interpretive Gazebo & Signature Walk Norval Park Pioneer Cemeteries & McNab Park A.
J. Casson, Group of Seven, painted Norval in the 1920s and 30's John Watkins, born in Norval, a former Ambassador to Russia; the book and movie Agent of Influence were inspired by events in his life.. Egbert Charles Reed, married to Marion Elizabeth Noble of Norval, a 19th and 20th century portrait painter. John Wycliffe Lowes Forster, born in Norval, portrait painter. Many of his works hang in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario and Ottawa Parliament Buildings. David Marvin Carter, born in Norval, received a 2005 Blue Planet award from the International Hydropower Association and UNESCO for his Sechelt Creek Hydroelectric Power development in Sechelt, B. C. and 2005 winner of the Ron A. Dodokin Award. Shannon Crawford, Olympic Gold Medallist, rowed to victory as a member of the Women's Eight 1992 crew in Barcelona Spain. Now retired from the sport. Lucy Maud Montgomery, author of Anne of Green Gables, lived in Norval for nine years. Terry Evans, born in Norval, Olympic Gold Medalist, Middle Weight Wrestling, British Empire Games, England, 1934.
William M. Pomeroy, 1976 F. A. I. World Class Aircraft Speed Record holder-Louis Bleriot Medal, Rome 1976; the aircraft was his homebuilt RV 3. for Aircraft under 500 kg. Class C-1, over a closed 3 km course for piston engined aircraft at Brampton-Caledon Airport, July 11, 1976. - 319.28 km/h. Raymond Vincent Pomeroy, Master Decoy Carver, 1908- 1987. Noted for his original decoy construction, the many hundreds of examples he carved. Mike Filey. Toronto Sketches 5: The Way we Were. Halton County Railway Museum Guelph Radial Line Statistics Canada 2006 Census Data F. A. I. 1976 World Speed Records Ontario Decoys, R. B. Gates 1982Notes Town of Halton Hills Norval at Geographical Names of Canada
History of Canada
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, styles of social organization; some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archaeological investigations. Starting in the late 15th century and British expeditions explored and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present-day Canada; the colony of New France was claimed in 1534 with permanent settlements beginning in 1608. France ceded nearly all its North American possessions to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Years' War; the now British Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 and reunified in 1841. In 1867, the Province of Canada was joined with two other British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through Confederation, forming a self-governing entity named Canada.
The new dominion expanded by incorporating other parts of British North America, finishing with Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949. Although responsible government had existed in Canada since 1848, Britain continued to set its foreign and defence policies until the end of the First World War; the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 recognized that Canada had become co-equal with the United Kingdom. After the Constitution was patriated in 1982, the final vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament were removed. Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories and is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Over centuries, elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture, influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multi-lateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically.
Archeological and Indigenous genetic evidence indicate that North and South America were the last continents into which humans migrated. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50,000–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge, from Siberia into northwest North America. At that point, they were blocked by the Laurentide ice sheet that covered most of Canada, confining them to Alaska and the Yukon for thousands of years; the exact dates and routes of the peopling of the Americas are the subject of an ongoing debate. By 16,000 years ago the glacial melt allowed people to move by land south and east out of Beringia, into Canada; the Haida Gwaii islands, Old Crow Flats, the Bluefish Caves contain some of the earliest Paleo-Indian archaeological sites in Canada. Ice Age hunter-gatherers of this period left lithic flake fluted stone tools and the remains of large butchered mammals; the North American climate stabilized around 8000 BCE. Climatic conditions were similar to modern patterns.
Most population groups during the Archaic periods were still mobile hunter-gatherers. However, individual groups started to focus on resources available to them locally; the Woodland cultural period dates from about 2000 BCE to 1000 CE and is applied to the Ontario and Maritime regions. The introduction of pottery distinguishes the Woodland culture from the previous Archaic-stage inhabitants; the Laurentian-related people of Ontario manufactured the oldest pottery excavated to date in Canada. The Hopewell tradition is an Indigenous culture that flourished along American rivers from 300 BCE to 500 CE. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell Exchange System connected cultures and societies to the peoples on the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Canadian expression of the Hopewellian peoples encompasses the Point Peninsula and Laurel complexes; the eastern woodland areas of what became Canada were home to the Iroquoian peoples. The Algonquian language is believed to have originated in the western plateau of Idaho or the plains of Montana and moved with migrants eastward extending in various manifestations all the way from Hudson Bay to what is today Nova Scotia in the east and as far south as the Tidewater region of Virginia.
Speakers of eastern Algonquian languages included the Mi'kmaq and Abenaki of the Maritime region of Canada and the extinct Beothuk of Newfoundland. The Ojibwa and other Anishinaabe speakers of the central Algonquian languages retain an oral tradition of having moved to their lands around the western and central Great Lakes from the sea the Atlantic coast. According to oral tradition, the Ojibwa formed the Council of Three Fires in 796 CE with the Odawa and the Potawatomi; the Five Nations of the Iroquois were centred from at least 1000 CE in northern New York, but their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montreal area of modern Quebec. They spoke varieties of Iroquoian languages; the Iroquois Confederacy, according to oral tradition, was formed in 1142 CE. In addition, there were other Iroquoian-speaking peoples in the area, including the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the Erie, others. On the Great Plains, the Cree or Nēhilawē depended on the vast
The Dominion Bank
The Dominion Bank was a Canadian bank, chartered in 1869 and based in Toronto, Ontario. On February 1, 1955, it merged with the Bank of Toronto to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank. In 1871, the Dominion Bank was launched by entrepreneurs and professionals under the leadership of James Austin with the opening of its first branch on King Street in Toronto, Ontario, they were dedicated to creating a new institution “conducive to the general prosperity of that section of the country.” The Dominion Bank was a cautious institution, “selecting its customers serving them well, duly prospering with them”. It too created a network of branches, in 1872 became the first Canadian bank to have two branches in one city – Toronto. With the maturing of the Canadian economy and the opening of northern Ontario and the West in 1880s and 1890s, the banks became more aggressive in loans to resource industries and manufacturing. In 1897, the Dominion Bank opened its first western branch in Winnipeg. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the bank expanded their branch networks in central Canada and across the west.
To mark its rise as a significant national institution, the Dominion Bank moved to a landmark head office at King and Yonge Street in 1879. The First World War brought new challenges for the bank when they were called upon to finance war expenditures and to support the innovation of war bonds marketed to the general public. Half the staff of the bank served in the armed forces. Except for some contraction in the western provinces due to drought, the decade following the war was one of expansion and increasing profitability due to resource development and industrial expansion. Both banks weathered the storm of Great Depression in the 1930s without great difficulty, despite a decline in earnings. Like all Canadian banks, they endured criticism of its credit policies and resisted the introduction of a central bank to control the money supply and advise on fiscal policy; the Bank of Canada was established and the banks relinquished their right to issue their own currency. The coming of the Second World War involved the banks, once again, in the marketing of war bonds and in participation in the control of foreign exchange and other financial war measures.
500 staff, or half the total, entered the armed forces. The Dominion Bank emerged from the war in 1945 stronger than with assets more than doubled since 1939. With the post-war boom, they became more active in business lending and in the penetration of new markets. However, they realized that the costs of expansion and competition with much larger rivals made their objectives difficult to realize; the bank had engaged in acquisitions or mergers in order to grow, but determined that a union with a bank of equal size would place it in a much stronger position to take advantage of the opportunities of the post-war economy. In 1954, negotiations began between the Bank of Toronto and the Dominion Bank, by the end of the year, an amalgamation agreement was reached. In their brief to the Minister of Finance, the banks stated: “It is more burdensome for a small bank to keep pace with the development of our country than for a large bank, with the result that the effective growth and comparative influence of smaller banks will in the future decline in comparison with that of the larger banks.”
On November 1, 1954, Canada's minister of finance announced that the amalgamation was accepted, shareholders were asked for their approval. This was forthcoming in December, on February 1, 1955, the Bank of Toronto and the Dominion Bank became the Toronto-Dominion Bank. James Austin, 1871-1897 Sir Frank Smith, 1897-1901 Sir Edmund Osler, 1901-1924 Sir Augustus Nanton, 1924-1925 Albert W. Austin, 1925-1933 Clarence A. Bogert, 1933-1948 C. H. Carlisle, 1934-1948 Robert Rae - 1948 The Dominion Bank building in Calgary, built in 1911, is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Dominion Bank Building in Winnipeg, built in 1907, is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada. John M. Lyle was the architect for the Dominion Bank for many branches in Toronto and throughout Ontario from 1911 to 1939. List of Canadian banks One King Street West Robert Henry Bethune Quebec History - Dominion Bank TD Bank Financial Group: Celebrating a rich history
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Alexander Mackenzie (politician)
Alexander Mackenzie, was a Scottish-Canadian politician who served as the second prime minister of Canada, in office from 1873 to 1878. Mackenzie was born in Logierait, Scotland, he left school at the age of 13, following his father's death, trained as a stonemason. Mackenzie immigrated to Canada, his masonry business prospered, allowing him to pursue other interests – such as the editorship of a pro-Reformist of a newspaper called "the Lambton Shield." Mackenzie was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1861, as a supporter of George Brown. In 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada for the Liberal Party, he became leader of the party in mid-1873, a few months succeeded John A. Macdonald as prime minister, following Macdonald's resignation in the aftermath of the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie and the Liberals won a clear majority at the 1874 election, he was popular among the general public for his humble background and apparent democratic tendencies.
As prime minister, Mackenzie continued the nation-building programme, begun by his predecessor. His government established the Supreme Court of Canada and Royal Military College of Canada, created the District of Keewatin to better administer Canada's newly acquired western territories. However, it made little progress on the transcontinental railway, struggled to deal with the aftermath of the Panic of 1873. At the 1878 election, Mackenzie's government suffered a landslide defeat, he remained leader of the Liberal Party for another two years, continued on as a member of parliament until his death, due to a stroke. Mackenzie was born on 28 January 1822 in Logierait, Scotland, the son of Mary Stewart and Alexander Mackenzie Sr. who were married in 1817. The site of his birthplace is known as Clais-'n-deoir "The Hollow of the Weeping", where families said their goodbyes as the convicted were led to nearby Gallows Hill; the house he was born in was built by his father and is still standing in 2019.
He was the third of ten boys. Alexander Mackenzie Sr. was a carpenter and ship's joiner who had to move around for work after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Mackenzie's father died on 7 March 1836 and at the age of thirteen Alexander Mackenzie Jr. was thus forced to end his formal education in order to help support his family. He apprenticed as a stonemason and met his future wife, Helen Neil, in Irvine, where her father was a stonemason; the Neils were Baptist and shortly thereafter, Mackenzie converted from Presbyterianism to Baptist beliefs. Together with the Neils, he immigrated to Canada in 1842 to seek a better life. Mackenzie's faith was to link him to the influential temperance cause strong in Canada West where he lived, a constituency of which he was to represent in the Parliament of Canada; the Neils and Mackenzie settled in Ontario. The limestone in the area proved too hard for his stonemason tools and, not having money to buy new tools, Mackenzie took a job as a labourer constructing a building on Princess Street.
The contractor on the job claimed financial difficulty and so Mackenzie accepted a promissory note for summer wages. The note proved to be worthless. Subsequently, Mackenzie won a contract building a bomb-proof arch at Fort Henry, he became a foreman on the construction of Kingston's four Martello Towers - Murney Tower, Fort Frederick, Cathcart Tower, Shoal Tower. He was a foreman on the construction of the Welland Canal and the Lachine Canal. While working on the Beauharnois Canal a one-ton stone crushed one of his legs, he never regained the strength in that leg. It was while in Kingston that Mackenzie became a vocal opponent of religious and political entitlement and corruption in government. Mackenzie married Helen Neil in 1845 and with her had three children, with only one girl, surviving infancy, he and Helen moved to Sarnia, Ontario in 1847 and Mary was born in 1848. They were soon joined from Scotland by his mother, he began working as a general contractor, earning a reputation for being a hard working, honest man as well as having a working man's view on fiscal policy.
Mackenzie helped construct many jails across southern Ontario. A number of these still stand today including the Sandwich Courthouse and Jail now known as the Mackenzie Hall Cultural Centre in Windsor and the Kent County Courthouse and Jail in Chatham, Ontario, he bid, unsuccessfully, on the construction of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa in 1859. Helen died in 1852 succumbing to the effects of excessive doses of mercury-based calomel used to treat a fever while in Kingston. In 1853, he married Jane Sym. Mackenzie involved himself in politics from the moment he arrived in Canada, he fought passionately for the elimination of all forms of class distinction. In 1851 he became the Secretary for the Reform Party for Lambton. After convincing him to run in Kent/Lambton, Mackenzie campaigned relentlessly for George Brown, owner of the Reformist paper The Globe in the 1851 election, helping Brown to win his first seat in the Legislative Assembly. Mackenzie and Brown remained the closest of colleagues for the rest of their lives.
In 1852 Mackenzie became editor of the Lambton Shield. As editor, Mackenzie was a little too vocal, leading the paper to a lawsuit for libel against the local conservative candidate; because a key witness claimed Cabinet Confidence and would not te
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is Canada's premier art gallery. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a notable view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill; the building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988. The Gallery's former director, Jean Sutherland Boggs, was chosen by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the museum's director, succeeding Pierre Théberge, on 19 January 2009; the Gallery was first formed in 1880 by Canada's Governor General, John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, and, in 1882, moved into its first home on Parliament Hill in the same building as the Supreme Court. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, now the home of the Canadian Museum of Nature. In 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, a rather nondescript office building on Elgin Street.
Adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17-storey office building, to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building beside Nepean Point. In 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery; the CMCP's mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, next to the Château Laurier. In 1998, the CMCP's administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallery's. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the Gallery has a large and varied collection of paintings, drawings and photographs. Although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted European artists, it has a strong contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhol's most famous works.
In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newman's Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, igniting a storm of controversy. Since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million. Its most famous painting is The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeois's Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. In 2011 the gallery installed Canadian sculptor Joe Fafard's Running Horses next to the Sussex Drive entrance, American artist Roxy Paine's stainless steel sculpture One Hundred Foot Line in Nepean Point behind the gallery; the Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven, Emily Carr, Alex Colville, Jean-Paul Riopelle and Jack Bush. The Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, hosts shows from around the world co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallery's collection has been built up through purchase and donations. Much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family; the museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. The largest work in the Gallery is the entire interior of the Rideau Street Chapel, which formed part of the Convent of Our Lady Sacred Heart, The interior decorations of the Rideau Street Chapel were designed by Georges Couillon in 1887. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Auguste Rodin, Age of Bronze, 1875–1876, cast in 1901. M. C. Escher, Stars, 1948. Barnett Newman, Voice of Fire, 1967; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, Ontario Association of Art Galleries, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Ord, The National Gallery of Canada: ideas, architecture, McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-2509-2 Robert Fulford, "Turning the absurd into an art form: Canada's National Gallery has a history filled with bizarre decisions," National Post, 9 September 2003, http://www.robertfulford.com/2003-09-09-gallery.html Official website