The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust is an international wildfowl and wetland conservation charity in the United Kingdom. Its patron is Queen Elizabeth II and its president is Prince Charles; the WWT was founded in 1946 by the ornithologist and artist Sir Peter Scott as the Severn Wildfowl Trust. The WWT was instrumental in saving the nēnē from the brink of extinction in the 1950s; the WWT has ten reserves with visitor centres. Together these cover over 20 km², support over 150,000 birds, they receive over one million visitors per year. The reserves include five SPAs and five Ramsar sites. WWT Arundel, West Sussex WWT Caerlaverock and Galloway, Scotland WWT Castle Espie, County Down, Northern Ireland WWT London Wetland Centre WWT Llanelli Wetlands Centre, Wales WWT Martin Mere, Lancashire WWT Slimbridge, Gloucestershire WWT Steart, Somerset WWT Washington and Wear WWT Welney, Norfolk WWT operates a consultancy business that provides external clients with a comprehensive range of wetland services; these include ecological survey and assessment, habitat design and management, visitor centre planning and design, wetland treatment systems.
The Trust is a registered charity in Scotland. As of December 2012, the Trust's chief executive is Martin Spray. In December 2012, he was appointed CBE. Conservation in the United Kingdom Index of conservation articles Malcolm Ogilvie Ramsar Convention Wetlands International Official website
Slimbridge is a village near Dursley in Gloucestershire, England. It is best known as the home of the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust's Slimbridge Reserve, started by Sir Peter Scott; the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal runs through the village, under Patch Bridge which must be crossed to reach the Wildfowl Trust. Damage to the decking of Patch Bridge in October 2007 resulted in a temporary repair being made using steel plates; this had the effect of unbalancing the bridge, which warped and jammed on 23 October 2007. The swing bridge was replaced in early 2009. Nearby there is pub; the name of the bridge is echoed by the locals abandoning the "Tudor Arms" name and referring to the pub as "The Patch." On the canal towpath, next the bridge, is the Slimbridge Boat Station, a cafe, general store and boating resource centre. The village church of St John the Evangelist dates from the early 13th century and is a grade I listed building. Slimbridge is home to one primary school that takes pupils from Slimbridge and the surrounding village of Cambridge, Gloucestershire.
The school is small consisting of only 4 classes and around 100 pupils. There is a recreational field in Slimbridge that the Playing Field Committee raised money through the aid of National Lottery funding to build a brand new pavilion; the 2,480-acre Slimbridge Estate is owned by the Ernest Cook Trust based on an original purchase in 1945 by Ernest Cook of 1,109 acres in the parishes of Slimbridge and Gossington out of the sale of outlying portions of the Berkeley Castle Estate. The Berkeley Estate had for years been a famous sporting estate although the last Earl of Berkeley, who died young, was more interested in the sciences. Ernest Cook extended the estate further by purchasing Breadstone Farm and Wanswell Court from the Berkeley family; the village's football club, Slimbridge Football Club play in the Southern Football League South & West Division as well as competing in the FA Cup and FA Trophy. "The Swans" or "The Bridge" play their home matches at their ground located in Wisloe Road, just across the A38 from Slimbridge village.
In the Summer of 2016, the club's Wisloe Road Ground was renamed'Thornhill Park' in memory of former Chairman Evi Thornhill, who donated the field that the club has built on in his will when he died in 1960. The village has a cricket club which operates in the Stroud District Cricket League. Slimbridge Local History Society holds regular meetings featuring presentations of local history and maintains on line archives for members' use. Details of events and membership can be found on the Society web site "Slimbridge Parish Council". "Slimbridge AFC". "The Slimbridge Estate and the Ernest Cook Trust". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. "Slimbridge Local History Society"
Sir Peter Markham Scott, was a British ornithologist, painter, naval officer and sportsman. The only child of Robert Falcon Scott, he took an interest in observing and shooting wildfowl at a young age and took to their rearing and breeding, he established the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust in Slimbridge in 1946 and helped found the World Wide Fund for Nature, the logo of which he designed. He was a gliding and yachting enthusiast from an early age, he was part of the British sailing team. He was knighted in 1973 for his work in conservation of wild animals and was a recipient of the WWF Gold Medal and the J. Paul Getty Prize. Scott was born in London at 174, Buckingham Palace Road, the only child of Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott and sculptor Kathleen Bruce, he was only two years old. Robert Scott, in a last letter to his wife, advised her to "make the boy interested in natural history if you can, he was named after Sir Clements Markham, mentor of Scott's polar expeditions, a godfather along with J. M. Barrie, creator of Peter Pan.
His mother Lady Scott remarried in 1922. Her second husband Hilton Young became stepfather to Peter. In 1923, a half brother Wayland Young was born. Scott was educated at Oundle School and Trinity College, Cambridge reading Natural Sciences but graduating in the History of Art in 1931. Whilst at Cambridge he shared digs with the two shared many views, he studied art at the State Academy in Munich for a year followed by studies at the Royal Academy Schools, London. Like his mother, he displayed a strong artistic talent and he became known as a painter of wildlife birds, his wealthy background allowed him to follow his interests in art and many sports, including wildfowling and ice skating. He represented Great Britain and Northern Ireland at sailing in the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, winning a bronze medal in the olympic class monotype mixed, he participated in the Prince of Wales Cup in 1938 during which his team on the Thunder and Lightning designed a modified wearable harness that helped win. During the Second World War, Scott served in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve.
As a Sub-Lieutenant, during the failed evacuation of the 51st Highland Division he was the British Naval officer sent ashore at Saint-Valery-en-Caux in the early hours of 11 June 1940 to evacuate some of the wounded. This was the last evacuation of British troops from the port area of St Valery, not disrupted by enemy fire, he served in destroyers in the North Atlantic but moved to commanding the First Squadron of Steam Gun Boats against German E-boats in the English Channel. Scott is credited with designing the Western Approaches ship camouflage scheme, which disguised the look of ship superstructure. In July 1940, he managed to get the destroyer HMS Broke in which he was serving experimentally camouflaged, differently on the two sides. To starboard, the ship was painted blue-grey all over, but with white in shadowed areas as countershading, following the ideas of Abbott Handerson Thayer from the First World War. To port, the ship was painted in "bright pale colours" to combine some disruption of shape with the ability to fade out during the night, again with shadowed areas painted white.
However, he wrote that compromise was fatal to camouflage, that invisibility at night had to be the sole objective. By May 1941, all ships in the Western Approaches were ordered to be painted in Scott's camouflage scheme; the scheme was said to be so effective that several British ships including HMS Broke collided with each other. The effectiveness of Scott's and Thayer's ideas was demonstrated experimentally by the Leamington Camouflage Centre in 1941. Under a cloudy overcast sky, the tests showed that a white ship could approach six miles closer than a black-painted ship before being seen. Scott stood as a Conservative in the 1945 general election in Wembley North and narrowly failed to be elected. In 1946, he founded the organisation with which he was afterwards associated, the Severn Wildfowl Trust with its headquarters at Slimbridge in Gloucestershire. There, through a captive breeding programme, he saved the nene or Hawaiian goose, from extinction in the 1950s. In the years that followed, he led ornithological expeditions worldwide, became a television personality, popularising the study of wildfowl and wetlands.
His BBC natural history series, ran from 1955 to 1969 and made him a household name. It included the first BBC natural history film to be shown in colour, The Private Life of the Kingfisher, which he narrated, he wrote and illustrated several books on the subject, including his autobiography, The Eye of the Wind. In the 1950s, he appeared on BBC radio's Children's Hour, in the series, "Nature Parliament". Scott took up gliding in 1956 and became a British champion in 1963, he was chairman of the British Gliding Association for two years from 1968 and was president of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Gliding Club. He was responsible for involving Prince Philip in gliding, he was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1956 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the King's Theatre, Hammersmith. As a member of the Species Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, he helped create the Red Data books, the group's lists of endangered species. Scott was the founder President of the Societ
A curator is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution is a content specialist charged with an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. A traditional curator's concern involves tangible objects of some sort — artwork, historic items, or scientific collections. More new kinds of curators have started to emerge: curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for acquisitions and for collections care; the curator makes decisions regarding what objects to select, oversees their potential and documentation, conducts research based on the collection and its history, provides proper packaging of art for transportation, shares research with the public and community through exhibitions and publications. In small, volunteer-based museums such as those of local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff-member. In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is that of a subject specialist, with the expectation that he or she will conduct original research on objects and guide the organization in its collecting.
Such institutions can have multiple curators, each assigned to a specific collecting area and operating under the direction of a head curator. In such organizations, the physical care of the collection may be overseen by museum collections-managers or by museum conservators, with documentation and administrative matters handled by a museum registrar. In the United Kingdom, the term "curator" applies to government employees who monitor the quality of contract archaeological work under Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning and manage the cultural resource of a region. In the museum setting, a curator in the United Kingdom may be called a "keeper". In Scotland, the term "curator" is used to mean the guardian of a child, known as curator ad litem. In the US, curators have multifaceted tasks dependent on its mission, but in recent years the role of the curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums. As US museums have become more digitized, curators find themselves constructing narratives in both the material and digital worlds.
Historian Elaine Gurian has called for museums in which "visitors could comfortably search for answers to their own questions regardless of the importance placed on such questions by others". This would change the role of curator from teacher to "facilitator and assistor". In this sense, the role of curator in the United States is precarious, as digital and interactive exhibits allow members of the public to become their own curators, to choose their own information. Citizens are able to educate themselves on the specific subject they are interested in, rather than spending time listening to information they have no desire to learn. More advances in new technologies have led to a further widening of the role of curator; this has been a focus in major art institutions internationally and has become an object of academic study and research. In contemporary art, the title "curator" identifies a person who selects and interprets works of art. In addition to selecting works, the curator is responsible for writing labels, catalog essays, other content supporting exhibitions.
Such curators may be permanent staff members, "guest curators" from an affiliated organization or university, or "freelance curators" working on a consultancy basis. The late-20th century saw an explosion of artists organizing exhibitions; the artist-curator has a long tradition of influence, notably featuring Sir Joshua Reynolds, inaugural president of the Royal Academy of Arts, founded in 1768. In some US cultural organizations, the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division; this has led to the proliferation of titles such as "Curator of Education" and "Curator of Exhibitions". The term "literary curator" has been used to describe persons who work in the field of poetry, such as former 92nd Street Y poetry-director Karl Kirchwey; this trend has been mirrored in the United Kingdom in such institutions as Ikon, Birmingham, UK and Baltic, Gateshead, UK. In Australia and New Zealand, the term applies to a person who prepares a sports ground for use; this job is equivalent to that of groundsman in some other cricketing nations.
In France, the term curator is translated as conservateur. There are two kinds of curators: heritage curators with five specialities, librarian curators; these curators are selected by competitive examination and attend the INP. The "conservateurs du patrimoine" are civil servants or work in the public service. Curators hold a high academic degree in their subject a Doctor of Philosophy or a master's degree in subjects such as history, history of art, archaeology, anthropology, or classics. Curators are expected to have contributed to their academic field, for example, by delivering public talks, publishing articles, or presenting at specialist academic conferences, it is important that curators have knowledge of the current collecting market for their area of expertise, are aware of current ethical practices and laws that may impact their organisation's collecting. The increa
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds; the science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution and ecology such as the definition of species, the process of speciation, learning, ecological niches, island biogeography and conservation. While early ornithology was principally concerned with descriptions and distributions of species, ornithologists today seek answers to specific questions using birds as models to test hypotheses or predictions based on theories. Most modern biological theories apply across taxonomic groups, the number of professional scientists who identify themselves as "ornithologists" has therefore declined. A wide range of tools and techniques is used in ornithology, both inside the laboratory and out in the field, innovations are made; the word "ornithology" comes from the late 16th-century Latin ornithologia meaning "bird science" from the Greek ὄρνις ornis and λόγος logos.
The history of ornithology reflects the trends in the history of biology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, including ecology, physiology and more molecular biology. Trends include the move from mere descriptions to the identification of patterns, thus towards elucidating the processes that produce these patterns. Humans have had an observational relationship with birds since prehistory, with some stone-age drawings being amongst the oldest indications of an interest in birds. Birds were important as food sources, bones of as many as 80 species have been found in excavations of early Stone Age settlements. Waterbird and seabird remains have been found in shell mounds on the island of Oronsay off the coast of Scotland. Cultures around the world have rich vocabularies related to birds. Traditional bird names are based on detailed knowledge of the behaviour, with many names being onomatopoeic, still in use. Traditional knowledge may involve the use of birds in folk medicine and knowledge of these practices are passed on through oral traditions.
Hunting of wild birds as well as their domestication would have required considerable knowledge of their habits. Poultry farming and falconry were practised from early times in many parts of the world. Artificial incubation of poultry was practised in China around 246 BC and around at least 400 BC in Egypt; the Egyptians made use of birds in their hieroglyphic scripts, many of which, though stylized, are still identifiable to species. Early written records provide valuable information on the past distributions of species. For instance, Xenophon records the abundance of the ostrich in Assyria. Other old writings such as the Vedas demonstrate the careful observation of avian life histories and include the earliest reference to the habit of brood parasitism by the Asian koel. Like writing, the early art of China, Japan and India demonstrate knowledge, with examples of scientifically accurate bird illustrations. Aristotle in 350 BC in his Historia Animalium noted the habit of bird migration, egg laying, lifespans, as well as compiling a list of 170 different bird species.
However, he introduced and propagated several myths, such as the idea that swallows hibernated in winter, although he noted that cranes migrated from the steppes of Scythia to the marshes at the headwaters of the Nile. The idea of swallow hibernation became so well established that as late as in 1878, Elliott Coues could list as many as 182 contemporary publications dealing with the hibernation of swallows and little published evidence to contradict the theory. Similar misconceptions existed regarding the breeding of barnacle geese, their nests had not been seen, they were believed to grow by transformations of goose barnacles, an idea that became prevalent from around the 11th century and noted by Bishop Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia Hiberniae. Around 77 AD, Pliny the Elder described birds, in his Historia Naturalis; the earliest record of falconry comes from the reign of Sargon II in Assyria. Falconry is thought to have made its entry to Europe only after AD 400, brought in from the east after invasions by the Huns and Alans.
Starting from the eighth century, numerous Arabic works on the subject and general ornithology were written, as well as translations of the works of ancient writers from Greek and Syriac. In the 12th and 13th centuries and conquest had subjugated Islamic territories in southern Italy, central Spain, the Levant under European rule, for the first time translations into Latin of the great works of Arabic and Greek scholars were made with the help of Jewish and Muslim scholars in Toledo, which had fallen into Christian hands in 1085 and whose libraries had escaped destruction. Michael Scotus from Scotland made a Latin translation of Aristotle's work on animals from Arabic here around 1215, disseminated and was the first time in a millennium that this foundational text on zoology became available to Europeans. Falconry was popular in the Norman court in Sicily, a number of works on the subject were written in Palermo. Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen learned about an falconry during his youth in Sicily and built up a menagerie and sponsored translations of Arabic texts, among which the popular Arab