American Bar Association
The American Bar Association, founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession; the ABA has 410,000 members. Its national headquarters are in Illinois. C; the ABA was founded on August 21, 1878, in Saratoga Springs, New York, by 75 lawyers from 20 states and the District of Columbia. According to the ABA website, The legal profession as we know it today existed at that time. Lawyers were sole practitioners who trained under a system of apprenticeship. There was no national code of ethics; the purpose of the original organization, as set forth in its first constitution, was "the advancement of the science of jurisprudence, the promotion of the administration of justice and a uniformity of legislation throughout the country...."In 1918 the first women were admitted to the ABA – Judge Mary Belle Grossman of Cleveland and Mary Florence Lathrop of Denver.
The ABA did not allow African-Americans to join until 1943. This discrimination by the ABA led in 1937, of the National Lawyers Guild. Roberta Cooper Ramo was the first female President of the ABA from 1995–1996. In 2016 ABA introduced a new ethics rule prohibiting attorneys from using sexist and condescending terms; the ABA adopts "policy" on certain legislative and national issues, as voted on by its elected, 589-member House of Delegates. Its Board of Governors, with 44 members, has the authority to act for the ABA, consistent with previous action of the House of Delegates, when the House is not in session; the ABA president, elected to a one-year term, is chief executive officer of the association, while the appointed, longer-serving executive director works as chief operating officer. The conclusion of the ABA Annual Meeting, in August, is when a new president takes office, as well as when the main sessions of the House of Delegates take place; the Annual Meeting gives the general membership the opportunity to participate in educational programs and hear speakers address many issues.
In 2010, Jack L. Rives TJAG, was appointed Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer. One function of the ABA is its maintenance of a code of ethical standards for lawyers; the Model Code of Professional Responsibility and/or the newer Model Rules of Professional Conduct have been adopted in 49 states, the District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands. The exception is the State Bar of California. According to the ABA, it "provides law school accreditation, continuing legal education, information about the law, programs to assist lawyers and judges in their work, initiatives to improve the legal system for the public; the Mission of the American Bar Association is to be the national representative of the legal profession, serving the public and the profession by promoting justice, professional excellence and respect for the law." Since 1923, law schools which meet ABA standards are listed as "approved". ABA accreditation is important not only because it affects the recognition of the law schools involved, but it affects a graduate's ability to practice law in a particular state.
In most U. S. jurisdictions, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school is prerequisite towards being allowed to sit for that state's bar exam, for existing lawyers to be admitted to the bar of another state upon motion. States which recognize unaccredited schools within their borders will not recognize such schools from other jurisdictions for purposes of bar admission. For law students attending ABA-accredited schools, memberships are available for free. Students attending non-ABA accredited law schools are permitted to join the ABA as associate members. In June 2009, the ABA Journal reported that the ABA had been working "for months" to change its accreditation standard, where accreditation will be the result of what kind of lawyer an ABA law school produces as opposed to "input" measures such as faculty size and physical plant. In 2012 a non-profit organization called Law School Transparency called upon the ABA to provide meaningful statistics regarding the employment prospects and salary information of graduates of ABA accredited institutions.
On October 17, 2011, the ABA announced it was considering penalties, including loss of accreditation for schools that misreported their graduates employment data. Starting with the Class of 2011, ABA-accredited law schools were required to file Standard 509 Information Reports that included a host of data, ranging from LSAT scores of law students to bar passage rates of graduates. Employment information was filed separately to the Section. On December 12, 2011, despite the ongoing controversy surrounding law school accreditation standards and inability of law school graduates to service their educational debt, the ABA approved another law school. In 1995 the United States Department of Justice accused the ABA of violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act in its law school accreditation proceedings; the case was resolved with a consent decree. In 2006, the ABA acknowledged that it paid DOJ a $185,000 fine; the American Bar Association Center for Continuing Legal Education serves as the ce
Do You Really Want to Know?
Do You Really Want To Know? is a 2012 documentary film directed by John Zaritsky and produced by Kevin Eastwood. Using interviews and dramatic recreations, the film recounts the stories of three families who carry the gene for Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative illness, the result of a genetic abnormality, whose symptoms appear in mid-life. Members of each featured family have undergone predictive testing to learn whether or not they have inherited the gene that causes the disease, they each describe the impact that testing has had upon their lives. "Do You Really Want To Know?" had its world premiere in Canada at the 2012 DOXA Documentary Film Festival and its broadcast premiere on November 13, 2012 on Knowledge Network. The main subjects of the film are Jeff Carroll, a US Army Veteran and Huntington's disease researcher from Washington. Jeff Carroll's story involves learning about his family's genetic history after he was married and considering having children, he underwent testing at Dr. Michael Hayden's Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics and learned that he had inherited the genetic abnormality that will cause him to develop Huntington's disease in life.
Subsequent to his diagnosis, he joined Dr. Hayden's research team and obtained a Ph. D for his research on Huntington's disease. Meanwhile, he and his wife had decided that it would be unethical to conceive children who might inherit the disease from him, so they used preimplantation genetic diagnosis to ensure their children were born free of the genetic abnormality, he is now an advocate and frequent public speaker on Huntington's disease and encourages all at-risk individuals to be tested and to participate in clinical trials so that research into treatment can progress as as possible. Dr. John Roder and his wife Mary-Lou were parents when Dr. Roder underwent testing for Huntington's disease in the 1990s and learned that he carried the gene for Huntington's. Ten years in his 50s, Dr. Roder began showing symptoms of the disease, including severe depression and Huntington's chorea, a muscle control and movement disorder typical of the disease. Despite his decline in health, he continued working with the goal of retiring at age 65 as someone with normal health would.
When the Roders' two adult children underwent testing, they were both negative for the Huntington's gene, though it was earlier discovered that son Nathan had schizophrenia. Subsequent to his and Nathan's diagnoses, Dr. Roder changed the focus of his research from cancer and metabolism to schizophrenia and brain diseases. Theresa Monahan is from a large family with a history of Huntington's disease, her mother and eldest brother died of the disease, but her surviving siblings, like most people at risk for Huntington's, have declined to be tested over concern that a positive diagnosis could ruin their quality of life long before symptoms affected their health. Without telling her family, Theresa proceeded with testing as part of a landmark study at the Indiana University in 1988, but declined to read her results until her daughter got married and she became concerned about the possibility of passing the disease down to her potential grandchildren, her results showed. As is typical of people of at-risk people who test negative for HD, she reports feeling some survivor guilt over her results.
The film's first Canadian public exhibition took place on May 6, 2012 in Vancouver, British Columbia at the DOXA Documentary Film Festival before a sold out crowd at the Vancouver International Film Centre. A second screening was added to meet audience demand, its US festival premiere took place on August 17 at the 2012 Gig Harbor Film Festival. The Western Canadian broadcast premiere took place on November 2012 on Knowledge Network; the film had its Eastern Canadian broadcast premiere on February 2013 on TVOntario. At the 2012 Yorkton Film Festival, "Do You Really Want To Know?" received two Golden Sheaf Awards: Best Documentary, Best Director. The film received a Chris Award at the 2012 Columbus International Film & Video Festival for Best Documentary in the Science + Technology division, it won the award for Best Documentary the 2012 Okanagan International Film Festival. Official website Do You Really Want to Know? on IMDb Watch Do You Really Want To Know? at Knowledge.ca
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. Ahead of the foundation selling its Ford Motor Company holdings, in 1949 Henry Ford II created the Ford Motor Company Fund, a separate corporate foundation which to this day serves as the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company and is not associated with the foundation. For years it was the largest, one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, human rights, the creative arts, Third World development; the foundation makes grants through ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it approved US$507.9 million in grants.
After its establishment in 1936, Ford Foundation shifted its focus from Michigan philanthropic support to four areas of action. In the 1950 Report of the Study of the Ford Foundation on Policy and Program, the trustees set forth five "areas of action," according to Richard Magat: economic improvements, education and democracy, human behaviour, world peace. Since the middle of the 20th century, many of the Ford Foundation's programs have focused on increased under-represented or "minority" group representation in education and policy-making. For over eight decades their mission decisively advocates and supports the reduction of poverty and injustice among other values including the maintenance of democratic values, promoting engagement with other nations, sustaining human progress and achievement at home and abroad; the Ford Foundation is one of the primary foundations offering grants that support and maintain diversity in higher education with fellowships for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholarship to increase diverse representation among Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos/Latinas and other under-represented Asian and Latino sub-groups throughout the U.
S. academic labor market. The outcomes of scholarship by its grantees from the late 20th century through the 21st century have contributed to substantial data and scholarship including national surveys such as the Nelson Diversity Surveys in STEM; the foundation was established January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare." During its early years, the foundation operated in Michigan under the leadership of Ford family members and their associates and supported the Henry Ford Hospital and the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, among other organizations. After the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsel's eldest son, Henry Ford II, it became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropic organisation in the world. The board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundation's future.
The committee, headed by California attorney H. Rowan Gaither, recommended that the foundation become an international philanthropic organisation dedicated to the advancement of human welfare and "urged the foundation to focus on solving humankind's most pressing problems, whatever they might be, rather than work in any particular field...." The board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundation's portfolio and divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974; this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company. Henry Ford II resigned from his trustee's role in a surprise move in December 1976. In his resignation letter, he cited his dissatisfaction with the foundation holding on to their old programs, large staff and what he saw as anti-capitalist undertones in the foundation's work. In February 2019, Henry Ford III was elected to the Foundation's Board of Trustees, becoming the first Ford family member to serve on the board since his grandfather resigned in 1976.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, the foundation transferred its archives from New York City to the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Based on recommendations made by the Gaither Study Committee and embraced by the foundation's board of trustees in 1949, the foundation expanded its grant making to include support for higher education, the arts, economic development, civil rights, the environment, among other areas. In 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952; these grants continued, in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Children's Television Workshop to help create and launch Sesame Street. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5, 1970; the foundation underwrote the Fund for the Republic in the 1950s. The foundation's first international field office opened in 1952 in India.
Throughout the 1950s, the foundation provided arts and humanities fellowships that supported the work of figures like Josef Albers, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Herbert Blau, E. E. Cummings, Flannery O'Connor, Jacob Lawrence, Maurice Valency, Robert Lowell, Margaret Mead. In 1961, Kofi Annan received an educati
Trinity College, Toronto
Trinity College is a college of the University of Toronto, founded in 1851 by Bishop John Strachan. Trinity was intended by Strachan as a college of strong Anglican alignment, after the University of Toronto severed its ties with the Church of England. In 1904, Trinity joined the university as a member of its collegiate federation. Trinity College consists of a secular undergraduate section and a postgraduate divinity school, part of the Toronto School of Theology. Through its diploma granting authority in the field of Divinity, Trinity maintains official university status. Reflecting its English heritage, the college emulates Oxbridge traditions such as the wearing of gowns at dinner, a chapel choir that includes choral scholars, college scarves and blazers. Bishop John Strachan, an Anglican priest and Archdeacon of York, received a royal charter from King George IV in 1827 to establish King's College in Upper Canada; the colonial college was controlled by the Church of England and members of the elite Family Compact.
In 1849, over strong opposition from Strachan, Reformists took control of the college and secularized it to become the University of Toronto. Incensed by this decision, Strachan began raising funds for the creation of Trinity College, a private institution based on strong Anglican lines. Working with Kivas Tully, Charles Barry Cleveland superintended many of their important architectural works in eastern Canada including the Trinity College campus at the University of Toronto; the building featured Gothic Revival design. The cornerstone was laid on April 30, 1851. Trinity was incorporated as an independent university on August 2, 1851, a charter was granted by Queen Victoria the following year; the Cameron property on Queen Street in western Toronto was purchased for £2,000, the college opened to students at the site on January 15, 1852. Beginning in 1837, representatives of the United Church of England and Ireland in Upper Canada met with the Society for Propagation of the Gospel to solicit support for fellowships to enable the education of local clergy.
With a guarantee of support, in 1841 Bishop Strachan requested his chaplains, the Rev. Henry James Grasett and the Rev. Henry Scadding of St. James' Cathedral, the Rev. Alexander Neil Bethune Rector of Cobourg, to prepare a plan for a systematic course in theology for those to be admitted to Holy Orders. On January 10, 1842 the first lecture was given at the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg. In 1852, teaching was transferred to Toronto in the new Faculty of Divinity at Trinity College. Trinity College absorbed the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg in 1852. Trinity College expanded its teaching beyond arts and divinity, by the end of the 19th century its scope had included medicine, music and dentistry; the college admitted its first female students in 1884, St. Hilda's College was created in 1888 as the women's college of Trinity. With Strachan's death in 1867, efforts could begin to unite Trinity College with the University of Toronto. After taking office in 1900, provost Thomas C. S. Macklem supported joining the college with the University of Toronto.
The matter became hotly contested when Trinity's medical faculty merged with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine in 1903. After what Macklem described as a "long-drawn and bitter" series of debates, the college voted 121 to 73 in favour of federation with the University of Toronto; the university made a concession to allow Trinity to administer its own examination in religious subjects, which required the university to remove the restriction from its governing charter. On October 1, 1904, Trinity became part of the University of Toronto and relinquished to the university its authority to grant degrees in subjects other than theology, it became clear that the relocation of Trinity closer to the university was necessary, the college abandoned plans for a northward expansion at its Queen Street site. The college acquired its present property near Queen's Park at the university grounds in 1913, but construction of the new college buildings, modeled after the original buildings by Kivas Tully, was not completed until 1925 due to World War I.
The former site of the college became Trinity Bellwoods Park. Towards the end of the 20th century, the place of longstanding institutions and traditions within the college community underwent changes initiated by internal and external parties. Episkopon, a society based in the college since 1858, was dissociated from Trinity in 1992. In 2004, the college board of trustees voted narrowly in favour of ending Trinity's long practice of same-sex residency, beginning in 2005 large portions of Trinity's residences became home to both men and women, although still separated by houses or wings. On April 30, 2002, Canada Post issued "University of Trinity College, 1852–2002" as part of the Canadian Universities series; the stamp was based on a design by Steven Slipp, based on photographs by James Steeves and on an illustration by Bonnie Ross. The 48 ¢ stamps were printed by Ashton-Potter Canada Limited. Trinity College is centrally located on Hoskin Avenue within the University of Toronto, directly north of Wycliffe College and to the west of Queen's Park.
The southern wing of main building, with its cornerstone laid by Bishop James Fielding Sweeny, was completed in 1925 by Darling and Pearson, the architectural firm that designed the university's Convocation Hall and Varsity Arena. The predominant Jacobethan architectural style is apparent in the roofline and the stone towers, while Tudor Revival is featured in the Angel's Roost tower. Architects George and Moorhouse oversaw a major expansion of the college in 1941 prior to war-time restrictions on building materials
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University
An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to