An opinion poll simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals; the first known example of an opinion poll was a local straw poll conducted by The Harrisburg Pennsylvanian in 1824, showing Andrew Jackson leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency. Since Jackson won the popular vote in that state and the whole country, such straw votes became more popular, but they remained local citywide phenomena. In 1916, The Literary Digest embarked on a national survey and predicted Woodrow Wilson's election as president. Mailing out millions of postcards and counting the returns, The Literary Digest predicted the victories of Warren Harding in 1920, Calvin Coolidge in 1924, Herbert Hoover in 1928, Franklin Roosevelt in 1932.
In 1936, its 2.3 million "voters" constituted a huge sample, but they were more affluent Americans who tended to have Republican sympathies. The Literary Digest was ignorant of this new bias. At the same time, George Gallup conducted a far smaller survey, in which he polled a demographically representative sample. Gallup predicted Roosevelt's landslide victory; the Literary Digest soon went out of business. Elmo Roper was another American pioneer in political forecasting using scientific polls, he predicted the reelection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt three times, in 1936, 1940, 1944. Louis Harris had been in the field of public opinion since 1947 when he joined the Elmo Roper firm later became partner. In September 1938 Jean Stoetzel, after having met Gallup, created IFOP, the Institut Français d'Opinion Publique, as the first European survey institute in Paris and started political polls in summer 1939 with the question "Why die for Danzig?", looking for popular support or dissent with this question asked by appeasement politician and future collaborationist Marcel Déat.
Gallup launched a subsidiary in the United Kingdom that alone predicted Labour's victory in the 1945 general election, unlike all other commentators, who expected a victory for the Conservative Party, led by Winston Churchill. The Allied occupation powers helped to create survey institutes in all of the Western occupation zones of Germany in 1947 and 1948 to better steer denazification. By the 1950s, various types of polling had spread to most democracies. In long-term perspective, advertising had come under heavy pressure in the early 1930s; the Great Depression forced businesses to drastically cut back on their advertising spending. Layoffs and reductions were common at all agencies; the New Deal furthermore aggressively promoted consumerism, minimized the value of advertising. Historian Jackson Lears argues that "By the late 1930s, corporate advertisers had begun a successful counterattack against their critics." They rehabilitated the concept of consumer sovereignty by inventing scientific public opinion polls, making it the centerpiece of their own market research, as well as the key to understanding politics.
George Gallup, the vice president of Young and Rubicam, numerous other advertising experts, led the way. Moving into the 1940s, the industry played a leading role in the ideological mobilization of the American people for fighting the Nazis and Japanese in World War II; as part of that effort, they redefined the "American Way of Life" in terms of a commitment to free enterprise. "Advertisers," Lears concludes, "played a crucial hegemonic role in creating the consumer culture that dominated post-World War II American society." Opinion polls for many years were maintained through telecommunications or in person-to-person contact. Methods and techniques vary, though they are accepted in most areas. Over the years, technological innovations have influenced survey methods such as the availability of electronic clipboards and Internet based polling. Verbal and processed types can be conducted efficiently, contrasted with other types of surveys and complicated matrices beyond previous orthodox procedures.
Opinion polling developed into popular applications through popular thought, although response rates for some surveys declined. The following has led to differentiating results: Some polling organizations, such as Angus Reid Public Opinion, YouGov and Zogby use Internet surveys, where a sample is drawn from a large panel of volunteers, the results are weighted to reflect the demographics of the population of interest. In contrast, popular web polls draw on whoever wishes to participate, rather than a scientific sample of the population, are therefore not considered professional. Statistical learning methods have been proposed in order to exploit social media content for modelling and predicting voting intention polls. Polls can be used in the public relations field as well. In the early 1920s, public relation experts described their work as a two-way street, their job would be to present the misinterpreted interests of large institutions to public. They would gauge the ignored interests of the public through polls.
A benchmark poll is the first poll taken in a campaign. It is taken before a candidate announces their bid for office but sometimes it happens following that
The Tonight Show
The Tonight Show is an American late-night talk show broadcast from the NBC Studios in Rockefeller Center in New York City, the show's original location and airing on NBC since 1954. The series has been hosted by six comedians: Steve Allen, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, Jay Leno, Conan O'Brien, Jimmy Fallon, had several recurring guest hosts including Ernie Kovacs during the Steve Allen era and Joan Rivers, Garry Shandling and Jay Leno during Johnny Carson's stewardship, although the practice has been abandoned since Carson's departure, with hosts preferring reruns to showcasing potential rivals; the Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show, the longest-running scheduled entertainment program in the United States. It Meet the Press. Over the course of more than 60 years, The Tonight Show has undergone only minor title changes, it aired under the name Tonight for several of its early years, as well as Tonight Starring Jack Paar and The Jack Paar Show due to the runaway popularity of its host settling permanently on The Tonight Show after Carson began his tenure in 1962 albeit with the host's name always included in the title.
Beginning with Carson's debut episode, network programmers and the show's announcers would refer to the show by including the name of the host. In 1957, the show tried a more news-style format, it has otherwise adhered to the talk show format honed further by Paar. Carson is the longest-serving host to date although not the host with the most episodes; the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson aired for 30 seasons between October 1962 and May 1992. Leno, has the record of having hosted the greatest number of total televised episodes. Leno's record accounts for the fact that unlike Carson, Leno never used guest hosts on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and produced new shows five days a week. Leaving out Leno's five years as permanent guest host, Leno hosted 119 more episodes as full-time host than Carson. During Carson's first four years, the show ran for 105 minutes was reduced to ninety minutes in early 1967 when Carson stopped appearing for the first 15 minutes because most affiliates were carrying their local news during that time slot as they expanded to half an hour.
During Carson's 1980 contract negotiations, the show was shortened to sixty minutes. NBC broadcast The Best of Carson which were repeats of some of Carson's popular older albeit recent shows. Prior to the debut of Saturday Night Live in October 1975, NBC aired The Best of Carson on Saturday nights at 11:30 pm. Outside of its brief run as a news show in 1957, Conan O'Brien is the shortest-serving host. O'Brien hosted 146 episodes over the course of less than eight months before, with ratings continuously plummeting, Leno was brought back as host, where he served for four additional years. Current host Fallon took the helm on February 17, 2014. Fallon had hosted Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, before Late Night he was a popular member of the cast of Saturday Night Live, co-hosting the "Weekend Update" with Tina Fey as well as performing sketches. From 1950 to 1951 NBC aired Broadway Open House, a nightly variety show hosted by comic Jerry Lester, it was not a success. A spinoff, Dagmar's Canteen, aired the following season on Saturday nights.
The format of The Tonight Show can be traced to a nightly 40-minute local program in New York, hosted by Allen and titled The Knickerbocker Beer Show. It was retitled The Steve Allen Show; this premiered in 1953 on the local station affiliate in New York City. Beginning in September 1954, it was renamed Tonight! and began its historic run on the full NBC network. Notes for hosting history The first Tonight announcer was Gene Rayburn. Allen's version of the show originated talk show staples such as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music including guest performers and a house band under Lyle "Skitch" Henderson; when the show became a success, Allen got a primetime Sunday comedy/variety show in June 1956, leading him to share Tonight hosting duties with Ernie Kovacs during the 1956–57 season. To give Allen time to work on his Sunday evening show, Kovacs hosted Tonight on Monday and Tuesday nights with his own announcer and bandleader.
During the Steve Allen years, regular audience member Lillian Miller became such an integral part that she was forced to join American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, the television/radio performers union. She would continue to perform the same service for most of the major talk shows for decades, including those hosted by Paar, Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, a
The Daily Show
The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program. It airs each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. Describing itself as a fake news program, The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, uses self-referential humor as well; the half-hour-long show premiered on July 21, 1996, was first hosted by Craig Kilborn until December 17, 1998. Jon Stewart took over as the host from January 11, 1999, until August 6, 2015, making the show more focused on political satire and news satire, in contrast with the pop culture focus during Kilborn's tenure. Stewart was succeeded by Trevor Noah, whose tenure premiered on September 28, 2015. Under different hosts, the show has been formally known as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart from 1999 until 2015, The Daily Show with Trevor Noah since 2015; the Daily Show is the longest-running program on Comedy Central, has won 24 Primetime Emmy Awards. The program is popular among young audiences.
The Pew Research Center suggested in 2010 that 74% of regular viewers were between 18 and 49, that 10% of the audience watched the show for its news headlines, 2% for in-depth reporting, 43% for entertainment, compared with 64% who watched CNN for the news headlines. Critics chastised Stewart for not conducting sufficiently hard-hitting interviews with his political guests, some of whom he may have lampooned in previous segments. Stewart and other Daily Show writers responded to such criticism by saying that they do not have any journalistic responsibility and that as comedians their only duty is to provide entertainment. Stewart's appearance on the CNN show Crossfire picked up this debate, where he chastised the CNN production and hosts for not conducting informative and current interviews on a news network; each episode begins with announcer Drew Birns announcing the date and the introduction, "From Comedy Central's World News Headquarters in New York, this is The Daily Show with Trevor Noah".
The introduction was "This is The Daily Show, the most important television program, ever." The host opens the show with a monologue drawing from current news stories and issues. The show had divided its news commentary into sections known as "Headlines", "Other News", "This Just In"; some episodes will begin with a 1–3 minute intro on a small story before transitioning into the main story of the night. The monologue segment is followed by a segment featuring an exchange with a correspondent—typically introduced as the show's "senior" specialist in the subject at hand—either at the anchor desk with the host or reporting from a false location in front of a greenscreen showing stock footage, their stated areas of expertise vary depending on the news story, being discussed, can range from general to absurdly specific. The cast of correspondents is quite diverse, many sarcastically portray extreme stereotypes of themselves to poke fun at a news story, such as "Senior Latino Correspondent", "Senior Youth Correspondent" or "Senior Black Correspondent".
They present absurd or humorously exaggerated takes on current events against the host's straight man. While correspondents stated to be reporting abroad are performing in-studio in front of a greenscreen background, on rare occasions, cast members have recorded pieces on location. For instance, during the week of August 20, 2007, the show aired a series of segments called "Operation Silent Thunder: The Daily Show in Iraq" in which correspondent Rob Riggle reported from Iraq. In August 2008, Riggle traveled to China for a series of segments titled "Rob Riggle: Chasing the Dragon", which focused on the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Jason Jones traveled to Iran in early June 2009 to report on the Iranian elections, John Oliver traveled to South Africa for the series of segments "Into Africa" to report on the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In March 2012, Oliver traveled to Gabon, on the west African coast, to report on the Gabonese government's decision to donate $2 million to UNESCO after the United States cut its funding for UNESCO earlier that year.
On July 19, 2016, Roy Wood Jr. reported live from the Republican National Convention and talked about Donald Trump's African-American support. Correspondent segments feature a rotating supporting cast, involve the show's members travelling to different locations to file comedic reports on current news stories and conduct interviews with people related to the featured issue. Topics have varied widely. Since Stewart began hosting in 1999, the focus of the show has become more political and the field pieces have come to more reflect current issues and debates. Under Kilborn and the early years of Stewart, most interviewees were either unaware or not aware of the comedic nature of The Daily Show. However, as the show began to gain popularity—particularly following its coverage of the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections—most of the subjects now interviewed are aware of the comedic element; some segments have recurred periodically throughout different tenures, such as "Back in Black" & "Your Moment of Zen".
Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, a common segment of the show has been dubbed "Mess O' Potamia", focusing on the United States' policies in the Middle East Iraq. Elections in the United States were a prominent focus in the show's "Indecision" cover
The West Wing
The West Wing is an American serial political drama television series created by Aaron Sorkin, broadcast on NBC from September 22, 1999, to May 14, 2006. The series is set in the West Wing of the White House, where the Oval Office and offices of presidential senior staff are located, during the fictitious Democratic administration of Josiah Bartlet; the West Wing was produced by Warner Bros. Television and featured an ensemble cast, including Martin Sheen, John Spencer, Allison Janney, Rob Lowe, Bradley Whitford and Richard Schiff. For the first four seasons, there were three executive producers: Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells. After Sorkin left the series, Wells assumed the role of head writer, with executive producers being directors Alex Graves and Christopher Misiano, writers Lawrence O'Donnell Jr. and Peter Noah. The West Wing is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential television series, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as, Time, TV Guide, Rolling Stone, the New York Daily News.
The Writers Guild of America ranked. It has received praise from critics, political science professors, former White House staffers and has been the subject of critical analysis; the West Wing received a multitude of accolades, including two Peabody Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, 26 Primetime Emmy Awards, including the award for Outstanding Drama Series, which it won four consecutive times from 2000–2003. The show's ratings waned in years following the departure of series creator Sorkin after the fourth season, yet it remained popular among high-income viewers, a key demographic for the show and its advertisers, with around 16 million viewers; the West Wing employed a broad ensemble cast to portray the many positions involved in the daily work of the federal government. The President, the First Lady, the President's senior staff and advisers form the core cast. Numerous secondary characters, appearing intermittently, complement storylines that revolve around this core group. Josiah "Jed" Bartlet is the President of the United States.
An economist by training, he is a former Congressman and Governor from New Hampshire who unexpectedly won the Democratic Party nomination. He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a fact he hides from the electorate, he is succeeded by Matt Santos. Leo McGarry is Chief of Staff. Following a heart attack, he becomes Counselor to the President, the Democratic Candidate for Vice President, he dies before assuming office. Josh Lyman is the Deputy Chief of Staff to Leo McGarry. Josh leaves the White House to become the "Santos for President" campaign manager; when Santos is elected, Josh becomes White House Chief of Staff. Toby Ziegler is the Communications Director, where he wrote many of Bartlet's speeches, including both Inaugural Addresses and many State of the Union Addresses, he is fired from the Bartlet administration during a leak investigation, though he is pardoned for his crimes at series' end. He has twin children with his ex-wife, a congresswoman from Maryland. Sam Seaborn is the Deputy Communications Director to Toby Ziegler.
In his time at the White House, Sam is responsible for writing many of Bartlet's speeches. He departs the White House following the re-election of President Bartlet to run for Congress, he is recruited to become Santos' Deputy Chief of Staff at the series end. C. J. Cregg is the Press Secretary, she succeeds Leo McGarry as Chief of Staff and departs the White House at the end of the Bartlet administration. Post-series, she has a child. Charlie Young is the Personal Aide to the President and a Deputy Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, he is in a relationship with Zoey Bartlet. At the series end he begins to study law at Georgetown. Donna Moss is the Senior Assistant to Josh Lyman, she departs to be a spokesperson for the Russell campaign and the Santos campaign. Upon Santos' election, she becomes Chief of Staff to the First Lady. Abbey Bartlet is the First Lady, Jed's wife, a physician.. Mandy Hampton is Josh Lyman's ex-girlfriend and a media consultant contracted by the Bartlet administration.
She departs without explanation following the first season. Will Bailey is hired as a speechwriter and transitions into the role of Deputy Communications Director, he becomes Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Russell's Campaign Manager, Communications Director. After the series end he becomes a congressman for Oregon. Kate Harper is the Deputy National Security Advisor. Matt Santos is a Congressman from Texas, convinced by Josh Lyman to run for President, he wins the nomination and the election.. Arnold Vinick is a Senator from California. After his loss in the general election, he is appointed Secretary of State by President-elect Santos. Annabeth Schott (Kristin Chenowet
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
John J. Zogby is an American public opinion pollster and public speaker, he is founder of the Zogby International poll. In 1981, Zogby ran unsuccessfully for Mayor of New York, he is a Democrat. In addition to serving on the advisory boards of the Arab American Institute and Upstate Venture Connect, he is Director of the Keenan Center for Entrepreneurship at Le Moyne College, he serves as senior partner at John Zogby Strategies, a full-service marketing and political consulting firm. The author of three books, his latest was published in 2016 and is entitled We Are Many, We Are One: Neo-Tribes and Tribal Analytics in 21st Century America. Zogby, an internationally-known pollster and author, was born on September 3, 1948 and grew up in Utica, New York, he is the son of Lebanese Catholic immigrants. His brother, James Zogby, is the founder of the Arab American Institute. Zogby received a Bachelor's degree in history from Le Moyne College in 1970 and a Master's degree in history from Syracuse University in 1974, continued and completed Doctoral work in 1978.
He taught history and political science for 24 years. Zogby launched his first polling company, John Zogby Associates, in 1984, conducting local polls for candidates and the media in northeastern US communities through the 1980s. In December 1991, polling for several radio and television stations in Upstate New York, he published a poll in New York State showing that then-President George H. W. Bush was leading the state's Governor Mario Cuomo by 6 points in that state. Governor Cuomo decided to not enter the 1992 Presidential race the next day. By 1994, Zogby was polling the New York State gubernatorial race for the New York Post and WNYW- Fox 5. Zogby called the winner, George Pataki, the only pollster to do so. Zogby's company was hired by Reuters News Agency to poll the 1996 presidential race. “All hail Zogby, the maverick predictor,” wrote Richard Morin, polling director at The Washington Post, when John Zogby was the only pollster who called the 1996 presidential election with near precision.
Zogby achieved the same level of accuracy with his polling in the following two presidential elections. In 1996, he polled the presidential election and repeated his accuracy in polling in the following four presidential elections, he has been featured as a live television election analyst for ABC, BBC, CBC, NBC News as well as the Foreign Press Center in Washington since 1998. For over a decade, Zogby led his company's political polling on behalf of Reuters, NBC News, CSPAN, the New York Post, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, the Miami Herald, the Houston Chronicle, the Buffalo News, the Albany Times Union, numerous television stations and newspapers throughout the United States. Zogby has been a featured speaker for several associations including the Food Marketing Association, the Texas Cattlemen's Association and the Detroit Economic Club, he has been the keynote speaker at events sponsored by think tanks including the Center for Strategic and International Studies in DC, Chatham House in London, the French Institute for International Relations in Paris.
His analysis has been published in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, publications worldwide. Zogby was a former advisor at the Belfer Center of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, he was a fellow of the Catholic University Institute for Policy Research and Catholic Studies. He served on the advisory council for Bio-Technology for the Center for Strategic and International Studies, as a Commissioner on the Center for Strategic and International Studies Commission on Smart Power, he served on the congressional-created Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World. Zogby is the former chairman of the educational organization Sudan Sunrise, he was chairman of the capital campaign at Mohawk Valley Community College. He serves on the boards of the Arab American Institute and Upstate Venture Connect. John Zogby's polls have been referenced in popular culture, including NBC's The West Wing, CW's Gossip Gir, the Netflix series House of Cards, Richard North Patterson's novel The Race, game shows such as Cash Cab, the 25th Anniversary edition of Trivial Pursuit.
Zogby Polls have been cited on The Tonight Show and parodied on The Late Show and NPR's All Things Considered. In 2004 and 2008, he was a guest on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, he is the author of The Way We'll Be: The Zogby Report on the Transformation of the American Dream and is co-author of the forthcoming First Globals: Understanding and Unleashing Our Millennial Generation. His latest book, published in 2016, is entitled We Are Many, We Are One: Neo-Tribes and Tribal Analytics in 21st Century America, emphasizes a new paradigm for moving beyond demographics by allowing people who participated in the survey research to define themselves based on their attributes and values; the result is. Additionally, Zogby writes weekly columns on Forbes.com and contributes a weekly Presidential report card for The Washington Examiner's Washington Secrets, by Paul Bedard. He is a founding contributor to The Huffington Post. A former trustee of Le Moyne College, Zogby received the Distinguished Alumni Award in June 2000.
In 2005, he was awarded Honorary Doctorate Degrees from the State University of New York and the Graduate School of Union University. In 2009, Zogby received an Honorary Doctorate Degree from the College of St. Rose. In 2008 he was awarded the Chancellor's Distinguished Fellows Award from the University of California Irvine, he has als
Syracuse University is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York. After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church; the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. SU is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in information studies and library science, communications, business administration, inclusive education and wellness, sport management, public administration and the College of Arts and Sciences.
Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference, or ACC for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the men's rowing and women's ice hockey teams. SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference; the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, becoming Genesee College. However, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central, its difficulties were compounded by the next set of technological changes: the railroad that displaced the Erie Canal as the region's economic engine bypassed Lima completely. The trustees of the struggling college decided to seek a locale whose economic and transportation advantages could provide a better base of support.
The college began looking for a new home at the same time Syracuse, ninety miles to the east, was engaged in a search to bring a university to the city, having failed to convince Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White to locate Cornell University there rather than in Ithaca. Syracuse resident White pressed that the new university should locate on the hill in Syracuse due to the city's attractive transportation hub, which would ease the recruitment of faculty and other persons of note. However, as a young carpenter working in Syracuse, Cornell had been twice robbed of his wages, thereafter considered Syracuse a Sodom and Gomorrah insisting the university be in Ithaca on his large farm on East Hill, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. Meanwhile, there were several years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College.
They agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York State's Land Grant University in 1865. In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got a court injunction to block the move, Genesee stayed in Lima until it was dissolved in 1875. By that time, the court injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24, 1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, independent of Genesee College; the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the proposed school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its chancellor was appointed; the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown.
George F. Comstock, a member of the new university's board of trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center. Comstock intended the hill to develop as an integrated whole; the university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... " Syracuse implemented this policy with a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between male and female students during the 19th century was even; the College of Fine Arts was predominantly female, a low ratio of women enrolled in the College of Medicine and the College of Law. Men and women were taught together in the same courses, many extra-curricular activities were coeducational as well. Syracuse developed "women-only" organizations and clubs. Coeducation at Syracuse traced its roots to the early days of Genesee College where educators and students like Frances Willard and Belva Lockwood were influenced by the Women's movement in nearby Seneca Falls, NY.
However, the progressive "co-ed" policies practiced at Genesee would soon find controversy at the new university in Syracuse. C