Lorcán Ua Tuathail
Lorcán Ua Tuathail known as Saint Laurence O'Toole was Archbishop of Dublin at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland. He played a prominent role in the Irish Church Reform Movement of the 12th century and mediated between the parties during and after the invasion, he was canonised in 1225 by Pope Honorius III. Lorcán was born at Castledermot, the youngest of four sons of an O'Byrne princess and Muirchertach Ua Tuathail; the family were of the Uí Muiredaig branch of the Uí Dúnlainge kindred and took their name from Tuathal mac Augaire, King of Leinster, who died in 958. They resided at Maistiu in. However, by the time of his son's birth Muirchertach was subordinate to the new kings of Leinster, the Uí Ceinnselaig; the king from 1126 was Diarmait Mac Murchada. At the age of 10 he was sent to Diarmait as a hostage for his father; however at one point Muirchertach's loyalty to Diarmait must have become suspect as Lorcán was imprisoned for some two years in extreme austerity and given enough to live on.
Due to the intercession of the abbot of Glendalough – members of Lorcán's family had been buried at one of its churches for generations – relations were amicably restored between Diarmait and Muirchertach. One result of his confinement was the strengthening of Lorcán's wish to enter the religious life; the story goes that when Muirchertach arrived at Glendalough for Lorcán, he stated that he would draw lots to have one of his sons made a priest, at which Lorcán laughed as he had long thought of doing so. No lots were drawn, Lorcán stayed at Glendalough. In time he rose to become Abbot of Glendalough at the age of 26 in 1154. Lorcán was a religious reformer, he wished that the Irish Church would reflect the universal Church and strengthen the bonds between the Irish Church and Rome. Through his own example Lorcán brought his spiritual renewal to the church in Ireland and married the best in the Gaelic monastic movement with the best in the Frankish-European liturgical monastic movement. Abbot Lorcán began a spiritual renewal programme amongst the monks of the Abbey bringing the Gaelic Abbey of Glendalough in line with the Frankish Abbeys of Continental Europe.
He invited the Canons of St. Augustine to come and assist in the reform of the Abbey and he became a member of the Augustinian Order himself. A great famine raged during the first four months of his administration, brigandage beset his community undertaken by noblemen. In the early thirteenth-century Life of St. Lorcán, it was said that Lorcán protected his community from brigandage through his solemn prayer and miraculous curse, he was well regarded by both the community in Glendalough and its secular neighbours for sanctity and charity to the poor. When he was 32 he was elected unanimously Archbishop of Dublin following the death of Archbishop Gregory in 1162, at the Synod of Clane, was consecrated in by Gelasius, Archbishop of Armagh and successor of St. Malachy, he was the first Irishman to be appointed to the See of this town ruled by Norwegians. He played a prominent part in the Irish Church Reform Movement of the 12th century, as well as rebuilding Christ Church Cathedral, several parish churches and emphasising the use of Gregorian chant.
As Archbishop of Dublin, Lorcán began a policy of Church building and laid the foundation stone for the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity. To assist in the spiritual formation of the priests and people of the Diocese Lorcán invited the Augustinian monks to become part of the Cathedral Chapter of the Holy Trinity. In a city, in the middle of an economic boom, Lorcán, as Archbishop, was seen as the one who stretched out his hand to care for the poor and the neglected. There was appalling poverty in the city at the time and each day Lorcán fed the poor of the city in his home, he established care centres for the children, abandoned by their parents or who were orphaned in the city. Archbishop Lorcán made choice of Glendalough for his retreats. In 1166, Lorcán's brother-in-law Diarmait was deposed as King of Leinster by an alliance of Irish kings and princes, led by High King Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair and King Tigernán Ua Ruairc of Breifne. Diarmait had in 1152 abducted Dervorguilla, Ua Ruairc's wife and on the death of Diarmait's protector, High King Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in 1166, he paid the price.
Exiled and with only a half-hearted promise of help from Henry II of England, after much wandering in Wales and France, he returned to Ireland with a group of penniless and down-on-their-luck Norman and Welsh allies to help him regain his kingdom. Dublin was a walled city, but the citizens were terrified by the Norman knights and men-at-arms, as well as by the stories that were being told of their fierceness and cruelty. Lorcán O'Toole's house was besieged by people imploring him to save them and to make a treaty with the Anglo-Normans; the Archbishop went out to the foreigners' camp. While he appealed to them, two of the Norman knights with their followers made a breach in the walls of the city and entered the streets, they killed the unarmed people. The noise and tumult reached the camp and so Lorcán heard of the massacre, he succeeded in stopping the slaughter. The expedition succeeded beyond th
William Rokeby was a leading statesman and cleric in early sixteenth-century Ireland, who held the offices of Bishop of Meath, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He is commemorated in the Rokeby Chapels in two Yorkshire churches, St Oswald's Church, Kirk Sandall, Halifax Minster, he was born at Kirk Sandall, near Doncaster in South Yorkshire, eldest of the five sons of John Rokeby. His younger brother Sir Richard Rokeby was Comptroller of the Household to Cardinal Wolsey and Treasurer of Ireland. William returned there to die, he went to school at Rotherham. He became vicar of his home parish in 1487 and was transferred to Halifax, another town for which he had a deep attachment, in about 1499. In 1507 he was made Bishop of Meath. On the death of Walter Fitzsimon in 1511, Rokeby became Archbishop of Dublin, he was Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1512 to 1513 and from 1516 to 1522. O'Flanagan believes that he was a good and diligent Lord Chancellor, although he did not leave behind many written judgments.
He was a trusted servant of the Crown: in particular the Lord Deputy, with the approval of Henry VIII, chose Rokeby in 1520 as mediator in the feud, which had become exceptionally bitter, between Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Desmond and Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormond. As Archbishop he made a reputation as a peacemaker, settling a long and bitter dispute between the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's Cathedral, he gave permission to Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare for the original foundation of Maynooth College, suppressed in 1535. He was at the English Court, to the extent that he was accused of neglecting his official duties, he participated in the christening of the future Queen Mary I in 1516 and the ceremony by which Wolsey received his cardinal's hat. As Archbishop of Dublin he is best remembered for the Synod of 1518; the Synod prohibited the use of any tin chalice at Mass, the disposal of Church property by laymen. Rather comically, Rokeby forbade clergymen to play football.
By 1521 his health was failing: he retired to Kirk Sandall and died there on 29 November. Rokeby made elaborate provision in his will for the disposal of his remains: he asked that his body should be buried in Halifax, but that his heart should be buried in St Oswald's Church, Kirk Sandall, that mortuary chapels be erected at both spots; the Rokeby chapels in St Oswald's and Halifax Minster still exist. O'Flanagan praises Rokeby as a good man, a good bishop and, so far as we can tell from the scanty records, a good judge. Elrington Ball, while acknowledging his good qualities, suggests that he was a failure as Irish Lord Chancellor, due to his frequent absences in England
Maynooth is a university town in north County Kildare, Ireland. It is home to Maynooth University and St Patrick's College, a Pontifical University and Ireland's main Roman Catholic seminary. Maynooth is the seat of the Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference and holds the headquarters of Ireland's largest development charity, Trócaire. Maynooth is located 24 kilometres west of central Dublin. Maynooth is located on the R148 road between Leixlip and Kilcock, with the M4 motorway bypassing the town. Other roads connect the town to Celbridge and Dunboyne. Maynooth is on the Dublin to Sligo rail line and is served by a commuter and intercity train service. Maynooth comes from Irish: Maigh Nuadhat or Maigh Nuadhad, meaning "plain of Nuadha". Maigh Nuad is the modern spelling. Nuadha was one of the gods of the ancient Irish, corresponding to Nudd of Wales and Nodens of ancient Britain and Gaul. Maynooth was a long-term centre for the Geraldine or FitzGerald family, which dominated Irish affairs in during the Anglo-Norman and Tudor periods.
From 1932 to 1937, the town was the unofficial home to the King's representative in Ireland, Governor General Domhnall Ua Buachalla, who declined to take up official residence in the Viceregal Lodge in the Phoenix Park, whose family operated a hardware store in the town until 2005, the only shop with an Irish language name in the town for many years, though during 2014 a sweet shop named An Siopa Milseán opened a few doors away. The town is just inside the western edge of The Pale, it has, at either end of the main street, Maynooth Castle and Carton House, two former seats of the Dukes of Leinster. The castle was a stronghold of the 16th century historical figure Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, better known as Silken Thomas; the castle was overrun after the rebellion of the Earl. The most important historical buildings in the town are those of St. Patrick's College and some which antedate the foundation of the college, while others are in the late Georgian and neo-Gothic revival style.
The "new range" of buildings was erected by A. W. N. Pugin in 1850 under a commission from college president Laurence F. Renehan, while the College Chapel was designed and completed by James Joseph McCarthy during the presidency of Dr. Robert Browne in 1894. Conolly's Folly is within Maynooth's extensive town boundaries, although it is much closer to Celbridge. There are three old monastic settlements in the vicinity of Maynooth, including Laraghbryan and its cemetery and its Round Tower and Grangewilliam; the population of 14,585 makes Maynooth the fifth largest settlement in Kildare and the 31st largest settlement in Ireland. However during the academic year the population of Maynooth nearly doubles in size. Measurement can be difficult as much of the population is transient – students at Maynooth University or St. Patrick's College, or temporary employees at the nearby Intel and Hewlett Packard facilities. There are two third-level educational institutions – St Patrick's College, founded under King George III in 1795 to train Ireland's Roman Catholic clergy, Maynooth University, separated from St. Patrick's College in 1997 – located in the town.
They share many facilities. Maynooth University is the only university in the Republic of Ireland not situated in a city. There are two secondary schools, four primary schools: a girls' school, a boys' school, an Educate Together school, an Irish-speaking school. Kildare VEC has received patronage authority to build a second secondary school, albeit their expressed desire is to split the existing one to senior and junior schools instead; the town contains a fire station, in addition to the area's part-time Garda station, a health centre, a branch library, a credit union as well as various restaurants, including Romayo's, voted to be the best Take-Away in Leinster in 2014. Maynooth is served by two churches named St. Mary's, one St. Mary's Church of Ireland, incorporated into the walls of St. Patrick's College, St. Mary's Roman Catholic church, where the Kilcock Road turns into Maynooth Village, serving the Maynooth Parish of St. Mary's and Ladychapel. Close by is the former Moyglare Church, used as the Church of Ireland, Meath & Kildare Diocesan Centre.
Maynooth Community Church is a congregation linked to the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The town is the main retail and service centre for North Kildare and South Meath, with branches of SuperValu, Tesco Ireland and Lidl, as well as a wide variety of non-chain stores. In October 2005, Dunnes Stores opened a major shopping centre off the town's main street, Manor Mills; this centre contains a number such as Easons and Elvery's Sports. On 18 January 2007 Tesco Ireland announced plans to demolish its existing store in Maynooth and build a larger shopping centre, anchored by a Tesco Extra store, on a neighbouring site; the new centre is known after nearby Carton House. The Tesco Extra portion of the new shopping centre opened on 3 November 2008, with Heatons, Sports Direct, Next Children and Boots. A number of shops that formed part of the former Maynooth Shopping Centre remain open on the old site. Maynooth is on the Royal Canal, navigable from central Dublin to this point, now used for leisure purposes.
It provided an important stopping point before Dublin in the period directly before the coming of the railways to
Henry de Loundres
Henry de Loundres was an Anglo-Norman churchman, Archbishop of Dublin, from 1213 to 1228. He was an influential figure in the reign of John of England, an administrator and loyalist to the king, is mentioned in the text of the Magna Carta, the terms of which he helped to negotiate, he was dean of Stafford in 1207, commissioned a church in Penkridge. He had continuing interests in Staffordshire, he was justiciar in Ireland from 1213, his deputy Geoffery de Marisco executing the responsibilities during the bishop's absence in Rome. He was resisted by Donnchad Ua Longargain, Archbishop of Cashel, in his attempts to make the church hierarchy in Ireland more Anglo-Norman, he organized his archdiocese and made his cathedral see at the enlarged St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, he was a major figure in the completion by 1230 of Dublin Castle, had a hostel for pilgrims built in Dublin. In 1220 he ordered the extinction of the flame kept burning in Kildare Abbey, as a remaining pagan association. A. Gwynn, Henry of London, archbishop of Dublin: a study in Anglo-Norman statecraft, Studies 38 297-306, 389-402.
Margaret Murphy, Balancing the Concerns of Church and State: The Archbishops of Dublin, 1181-1228, in Terence B. Barry, Robin Frame, Katharine Simms and Frontier in Medieval Ireland: Essays Presented to J. F. Lydon James P. Carley, Felicity Riddy, Arthurian Literature XVI, pp. 71–2
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Great Yarmouth known to locals as Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England. It straddles the narrow mouth of the River Yare 20 miles east of Norwich, it had an estimated population of 38,693 at the 2011 Census, making it the most third populous place in Norfolk. The town has been a seaside resort since 1760, was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, it is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, depending on the herring fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 20th century, has now all but disappeared; the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, today it services offshore natural gas rigs. More the development of renewable energy sources offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands. Great Yarmouth rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in 1844 making it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Yarmouth, triggering an influx of settlers.
Wellington Pier was built in 1854, Britannia Pier opened in 1858. Throughout the 20th century, Yarmouth continued to be a booming resort, with a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. In addition to its beach, Yarmouth's major attractions and landmarks include Britannia Pier, the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, as well as the UK's only surviving Victorian seaside cast iron and glass Winter Garden; the town itself is on a 3.1-mile spit sandwiched between the North River Yare. Its well-known features include the main tourist sector on the seafront; the area is linked to Gorleston and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47 and A149 by the Breydon Bridge. The urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 8.3 sq mi and according to the Office for National Statistics in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth.
The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 68,317, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea and Great Yarmouth. The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population of around 92,500, increasing to 97,277 at the 2011 census. Great Yarmouth was 92.8% White British, with the next biggest ethnic demographic being Other White, at 3.5%, which consists of Eastern Europeans. Great Yarmouth lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum at the mouth of the River Yare, its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports, a permanent settlement was made, the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I placed it under the rule of a reeve. In 1101 the Church of St Nicholas was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, consecrated in 1119; this was to be the first of several priories founded in what was a wealthy trading centre of considerable importance. In 1208, King John granted a charter to Great Yarmouth; the charter gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, amplified by several charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston.
The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton, to convey them to the King. The hospital was founded in Yarmouth in the reign of Edward I by Thomas Fastolfe, father of Thomas Fastolf, the Bishop of St David's.. In 1551, a grammar school founded and the great hall of the old hospital was appropriated to its use; the school was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, settled in new buildings in 1872. In 1552 Edward VI granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Queen Anne replaced the two bailiffs by a mayor. In 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Zealand Expedition was assembled in the town. In 1702 the corporation founded the Fishermen's Hospital.
In the early 18th century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port, was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe's travel journals, in part as follows: Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich. It is plac'd on a peninsula between the sea; the ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the wharf.
Edward I of England
Edward I known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was referred to as The Lord Edward; the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land; the crusade accomplished little, Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August. He spent much of his reign reforming common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. However, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom; the war that followed continued after Edward's death though the English seemed victorious at several points. Edward I found himself at war with France after the French king Philip IV had confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine, which until had been held in personal union with the Kingdom of England.
Although Edward recovered his duchy, this conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. At the same time there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition; these crises were averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political problems. Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks", he was temperamental, this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, he instilled fear in his contemporaries. He held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility.
Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III, establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby a functional system for raising taxes, reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England; the Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1657. Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Edward is an Anglo-Saxon name, was not given among the aristocracy of England after the Norman conquest, but Henry was devoted to the veneration of Edward the Confessor, decided to name his firstborn son after the saint. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henry's brother Richard of Cornwall.
Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffard's death in 1246. There were concerns about Edward's health as a child, he fell ill in 1246, 1247, 1251. Nonetheless, he became an imposing man; the historian Michael Prestwich states that his "long arms gave him an advantage as a swordsman, long thighs one as a horseman. In youth, his curly hair was blond, his speech, despite a lisp, was said to be persuasive."In 1254, English fears of a Castilian invasion of the English province of Gascony induced Edward's father to arrange a politically expedient marriage between his fifteen-year-old son and thirteen-year-old Eleanor, the half-sister of King Alfonso X of Castile. Eleanor and Edward were married on 1 November 1254 in the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Castile; as part of the marriage agreement, the young prince received grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year.
Although the endowments King Henry made were sizeable, they offered Edwa