Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de-facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians and the Salians. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740; the final emperors were from the House of Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved after the defeat at Austerlitz by emperor Francis II, who continued to rule as Austrian emperor; the Holy Roman Emperor was perceived to rule by divine right, though he contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among other Catholic monarchs.
In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith; until the Reformation, the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. After the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, the electors voted in their own political interest. From the time of Constantine I, the Roman emperors had, with few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity; the reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church.
Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period; the ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. From the western perspective, the interregnum in the Roman Empire spanned the 8th centuries; the title of Emperor was revived in 800, when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope; as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration.
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924; the comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers; the King of the Germans would be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, his successor, Ferdinand I adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558; the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term sacrum in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans"; when Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, that of German Emperor on the other; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e. the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor".
Domagoj of Croatia
Domagoj was a duke in Croatia from 864 until his death in 876 and the founder of the Domagojević dynasty. He expelled his sons, he took a more active role in the Adriatic Sea than his predecessors, encouraged the use of force and waged many wars with the Arabs and the East Francia. Domagoj's belligerence and the tolerance and support of piracy caused bad relations with Pope John VIII, further worsened after Domagoj showed no mercy to his conspirators. Formally a Frankish vassal, he used to his advantage the Frankish succession crisis and started a successful revolt against Carloman of Bavaria. After his death in 876, Domagoj was succeeded by his son, deposed and expelled by Zdeslav in 878. Following the death of Duke Trpimir I in around 864, he was succeeded either by his son Zdeslav, shortly after deposed by Domagoj in a civil war, or directly by Domagoj. Domagoj became the Duke of Croatia and Trpimir's sons, Petar and Muncimir, were forced into exile and fled to Constantinople. After Domagoj's succession the situation on the Adriatic changed significantly.
Venice began to express its aspirations in obtaining supremacy on the Adriatic and under Doge Pietro Tradonico Venice gained more independence from the Byzantine Empire. During Domagoj's reign piracy became a common practice, Venetian ships were attacked in the eastern Adriatic Sea, which caused bad relations with Venice; as soon as Orso I Participazio was elected as the Doge of Venice, he broke the long lasting peace treaty signed with Duke Mislav and attacked Croatia, still occupied with fighting over Trpimir's inheritance. In 865, Domagoj was forced to make an unfavourable peace with the Venetian Republic, giving hostages to Venice as a guarantee for safe passage of Venetian ships in the Adriatic Sea. In the meantime, the Arabs were attacking the Dalmatian coast; the Arabs held several cities on the Italian coast, including Bari and Taranto. After ravaging Kotor, Kišan and Budva, in 866 the Arabs started besieging Dubrovnik, which resisted the attacks for 15 months and was defended by the help of Byzantium.
The Byzantines regained initiative in the Adriatic and attacked Bari in 868, together with the Franks, but soon recalled their forces blaming Franks for inactivity. Domagoj helped the Franks, as their vassal, to seize Bari from the Emirate of Bari in February 871. Ships from Dubrovnik participated in the attack. Although the Arabs were still dangerous with their raids in the Adriatic, the Venetians were the main enemy of Domagoj. In the meantime, Byzantium restored control over several Dalmatian cities and the Narentines, while the Venetians renewed their attacks on Croats. An attempt to overthrow Domagoj from the Trpimirović dynasty and with Byzantine help, forced Domagoj to a temporary peace in order to deal with the rebels. Domagoj dealt with them and cruelly; the conspirator that revealed him the plot was killed, since he hoped that it will save his life. In terms of relations with the Pope, Domagoj acted differently from his predecessor Trpimir. There is no information that Domagoj donated property to a local diocese.
Unlike Trpimir and his wife Maruša, Pannonian Duke Braslav, Trpimir's sons Petar and Zdeslav, Domagoj did not conduct a pilgrimage to Cividale and was not registered in the Evangelistary of Cividale. Domagoj made no attempts to continue the spreading of the Gospel or to support the Church in such efforts; this period of cold relations forced the Pope to show more interest into Croatia, but in other countries where his influence was fading. Thus in the second half of the 9th century Roman interventions became more intense in Moravia and Dalmatia; the strategies of the Apostolic See were to maximize its influence in Southeastern Europe and to lower the influence of Constantinople. In a letter addressed to Domagoj between December 872 and May 873, Pope John VIII complained to Domagoj about the obstinacy of Patriarch Ignatius from Constantinople, who had denied Roman jurisdiction over Bulgaria and appointed a "schismatic" as the Archbishop of Bulgaria; the reason for the Pope's sharing such concerns with Domagoj is that Bulgaria bordered Croatia in some part of present-day Bosnia.
At the same time the Pope had regular conversation with Boris I of Bulgaria, warning him of a treachery of the Byzantine priests and bishops working in Bulgaria. The papal project could have been to incorporate Croatian Christianity into the Bulgarian Church under the jurisdiction of Rome, thus encouraging the pro-Roman politics of Boris I of Bulgaria who ruled much of the Balkans. Another letter was sent in 874 or at the beginning of 875, this time to the Croatian clergy, in which the Pope condemned the capital punishment inflicted on the conspirators who were under the protection of Pope's legate, priest John; the Pope stated that the priest had nothing to do with the conspirators so he could continue his duties normally. Piracy was a big concern for the Pope. Domagoj was accused of attacking a ship, bringing home the papal legates who had participated in the Eighth Catholic Ecumenical Council. In 874, Pope John VIII intervened by requesting Duke Domagoj as a Christian to restrain the pirates who were in his name ravaging the Adriatic assaulting Christian sailors and that exile would be a more suitable punishment for the rebels instead of death penalties, but his request wasn't successful.
Pope John VIII referred to Domagoj in letters as "Duke Domagoj the Famous", but wrote that he won't find Domagoj innocent if piracy was not dealt with. In 875 the Franks under the leadership of Louis the German, King of the Eastern
Doge of Venice
The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy; the doge was neither the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title "doge" was the title of the senior-most elected official of Genoa. A doge was referred to variously by the titles "My Lord the Doge", "Most Serene Prince", "His Serenity"; the first historical Venetian doge, led a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 726, but was soon recognised as the dux and hypatos of Venice by imperial authorities. After Ursus, the Byzantine office of magister militum was restored for a time until Ursus' son Deusdedit was elected duke in 742. Byzantine administration in Italy collapsed in 751. In the latter half of the eighth century, Mauritius Galba was elected duke and took the title magister militum, consul et imperialis dux Veneciarum provinciae, master of the soldiers and imperial duke of the province of Venetiae.
Doge Justinian Partecipacius used the title imperialis hypatus et humilis dux Venetiae, imperial consul and humble duke of Venice. These early titles combined Byzantine honorifics and explicit reference to Venetia's subordinate status. Titles like hypatos, protospatharios and protoproedros were granted by the emperor to the recipient for life but were not inherent in the office, but the title doux belonged to the office. Thus, into the eleventh century the Venetian doges held titles typical of Byzantine rulers in outlying regions, such as Sardinia; as late as 1202, the Doge Enrico Dandolo was styled protosebastos, a title granted by Alexios III. As Byzantine power declined in the region in the late ninth century, reference to Venice as a province disappeared in the titulature of the doges; the simple titles dux dux Venetiarum predominate in the tenth century. The plural clans. After defeating Croatia and conquering some Dalmatian territory in 1000, Doge Pietro II Orseolo adopted the title dux Dalmatiae, Duke of Dalmatia, or in its fuller form, Veneticorum atque Dalmaticorum dux, Duke of the Venetians and Dalmatians.
This title was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II in 1002. After a Venetian request, it was confirmed by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1082. In a chrysobull dated that year, Alexios granted the Venetian doge the imperial title of protosebastos and recognised him as imperial doux over the Dalmatian theme; the expression Dei gratia was adopted by the Venetian chancery only in the course of the eleventh century. An early example, can be found in 827–29, during the joint reign of Justinian and his brother John I: per divinam gratiam Veneticorum provinciae duces, by divine grace dukes of the Venetian provinces. Between 1091 and 1102, the Kingdom of Hungary conquered the Croatian kingdom. In these circumstances, the Venetians appealed to the Byzantine emperor for recognition of their title to Croatia; as early as the reign of Vital Falier by that of Vital Michiel, the title dux Croatiae had been added, giving the full dogal title four parts: dux Venetiae atque Dalmatiae sive Chroaciae et imperialis prothosevastos, Duke of Venice and Croatia and Imperial Protosebastos.
In the fourteenth century, the doges periodically objected to the use of Dalmatia and Croatia in the Hungarian king's titulature, regardless of their own territorial rights or claims. Medieval chronicles mistakenly attributed the acquisition of the Croatian title to Doge Ordelaf Falier. According to the Venetiarum Historia, written around 1350, Doge Domenico Morosini added atque Ystrie dominator to his title after forcing Pula on Istria to submit in 1150. Only one charter, however uses a title similar to this: et totius Ystrie inclito dominatori; the next major change in the dogal title came with the Fourth Crusade, which conquered the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine honorific protosebastos had by this time been dropped and was replaced by a reference to Venice's allotment in the partitioning of the Byzantine Empire; the new full title was Dei gratia gloriosus Venetiarum, Dalmatiae atque Chroatiae dux, ac dominus quartae partis et dimidie totius imperii Romaniae, by the grace of God glorious duke of Venice and Croatia and lord of a fourth part and a half of the whole empire of Romania.
The Greek chronicler George Akropolites uses, lord. Akropolites attributes the title to Enrico Dandolo, although no known document of his survives with this title; the earliest documents using the title attach it to Marino Zeno, leader of the Venetians in Constantinople. The title was only subsequently adopted by Doge Pietro Ziani in 1205. By the Treaty of Zadar of 1358, Venice renounced its claims to Dalmatia and removed Dalmatia and Croatia from the doge's title; the resulting title was Dei gratia dux Veneciarum et cetera, By the grace of God duke of Venetia and the rest. This was the title used in official documents until the end of the republic; when the body of such documents was written in Italian, th
Pietro II Orseolo
Pietro II Orseolo was the Doge of Venice from 991 to 1009. He began the period of eastern expansion of Venice, he secured his influence in the Dalmatian Romanized settlements from the Croats and Narentines, freed Venetia from a 50-year-old taxation to the latter, started Venetia's expansions by conquering the islands of Lastovo and Korčula and acquiring Dubrovnik. In 992 Pietro II Orseolo concluded a treaty with the Byzantine emperor Basil II to transport Byzantine troops in exchange for commercial privileges in Constantinople, his dogaressa was Maria Candiano. Following repeated complaints by the Dalmatian city-states in 997, the Venetian fleet under Orseolo attacked the Neretvian pirates of Neretvia on Ascension Day in 998. Pietro took the title of Dux Dalmatianorum, associating it with his son Giovanni Orseolo. On 9 May 1000 Doge Pietro II decided to pacify the Croatians and the Narentines during the last Croatian-Bulgarian wars, protecting Venetian trade colonies and the interests of Romanized Dalmatians.
Without difficulties, his fleet of 6 ships scorched the entire eastern half of the Adriatic coast, with only the Neretvians offering resistance. After the Neretvians stole goods and captured 40 tradars from Zadar, the Doge dispatched 10 ships that caught the Neretvians near the island of Kača, he brought them triumphantly to Split. There, Neretvian emissaries requested the release of the prisoners. Pietro II agreed. Moreover, the Neretvians would have to renounce the old tax that Venetia had to pay since 948, guarantee safe passage to Venetian ships in the Adriatic. Pietro II released all prisoners except for 6 Narentines; the mainland Narentines were thus pacified. Lastovo however, continued to resist Venetian incursions; the island was infamous for being a pirate haven. In the effort to decisively quell further opposition, Pietro II ordered the evacuation of the island city. Despite continuing opposition, he razed Lastovo to the ground. At the same time that Pietro II subjugated Lastovo, the former Croatian king Svetoslav Suronja fled to Venice after being deposed by his two brothers.
To bolster his weakened position, King Stephen I of Croatia married Pietro II Orseolo's daughter, Joscella Orseolo. Their son Peter Krešimir IV became king in Croatia in 1059. Pietro II Orseolo was married to Maria Candiano, the daughter of Vitale Candiano and niece of Doge Pietro IV Candiano. Ottone Orseolo succeeded his father, Pietro II, as the doge of Venice until 1026, while his grandson Peter reigned as King of Hungary, his younger son Domenico Orseolo's children settled in Ravenna and became the stem of the Orsini family. The date of his victory became that of the Festa della Sensa, the Ascension Festival, the oldest festival in Venice, it was commemorated by the Doge and the bishop of Olivolo going past the Lido and blessing the waters, invoking good fortune for the Venetian navy
Duchy of Croatia
The Duchy of Croatia, was a medieval Croatian duchy, established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time it had several seats – namely, Solin, Bijaći and Nin, it comprised the whole of the littoral – the coastal part of today's Croatia – and included a large part of the mountainous hinterland, as well. The Duchy was in the center of competition between the Carolingian Empire and the Byzantine Empire for rule over the area. Rivalry with Venice emerged in the first decades of the 9th century and was to continue for the following centuries. Croatia waged battles with the Bulgarian Empire, with whom the relations improved afterwards, the Arabs and sought to extend its control over important coastal cities under the rule of Byzantium. Croatia experienced periods of vassalage to the Franks or Byzantines and de facto independence until 879, when Croatian Duke Branimir received recognition from Pope John VIII as an independent realm; the ruling dynasty of Croatia was the House of Trpimirović, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević.
The Duchy existed until around 925. "Dalmatian Croatia" and "Littoral Croatia" are modern appellations amongst historians for the territory of the Duchy. The state is sometimes called a principality, i.e. the "Principality of Croatia". The first recorded name for the Duchy was "Land of the Croats". Croatia was not yet a kingdom at the time and the term regnum is used in terms of a country in general. In Byzantine sources the entity was called just "Croatia"; the first known duke, was named "Duke of Dalmatia" and "Duke of Dalmatia and Liburnia" in the Annales regni Francorum. The Croatian name is recorded in contemporary charters of Croatian dukes from the second half of the 9th century. Trpimir I was named "Duke of the Croats" in a Latin charter issued in 852, while Branimir was defined as "Duke of the Croats" on a preserved inscription from Šopot near Benkovac. Within the area of the Roman province of Dalmatia, various tribal groupings, which were called sclaviniae by the Byzantines, were settled along the Adriatic coast.
Croatia in the early Middle Ages was an area bounded by the Eastern Adriatic hinterland on one side extended to a part of western Herzegovina and central Bosnia into Lika and Krbava, North-West to Vinodol and Labin in the Croatian Littoral area. Several coastal Dalmatian cities were under the rule of the Byzantines, including Split, Zadar and Dubrovnik, as well as islands of Hvar and Krk. To the south Croatia bordered with the land of the Narentines, which stretched from the rivers Cetina to Neretva, had the islands of Brač, Korčula, Mljet and Lastovo in its possession. In the southern part of Dalmatia, there was Zahumlje and Dioclea. North of Croatia there was the Duchy of Pannonia. Croatia, as well as other early medieval states, didn't have a permanent capital and Croatian dukes resided in various places on their courts; the first important center of Croatia was Klis near Split. Other dukes ruled from the towns of Solin, Biaći and Nin. Most of Dalmatia in the 7th century was under the Avar Khaganate, a nomadic confederacy led by the Avars who subjugated surrounding Slavic tribes.
In 614 the Avars and Slavs sacked and destroyed the capital of the province of Dalmatia and retained direct control of the region for a few decades until they were driven out by the Croats. The earliest recorded Croatian leader, referred to by the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, was Porga. After their participation in Samo and Kubrat's 632 defeat of the Avars, White Croats were either invited into Dalmatia by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and allowed to settle there, or prevailing the Avars after that lengthy war the Croats migrated across the Sava from Pannonia Savia and settled Dalmatia on their own. In either case, a new wave of Avars retook Pannonia in 677 but only as far as the Danube. By the early 9th century, Croatia emerged as a political entity with a duke as head of the state, territorially in the basins of the rivers Cetina and Zrmanja, it was administered in 11 counties. According to De Administrando Imperio, the Croats in Pannonia were subject to the Franks for several years,"as they had been in their own country", until they rebelled and defeated the Franks after a seven-year war, but it is not known on which specific war and time span this refers to.
From that point on, they were independent, demanded to be baptised from the bishop of Rome, was sent to them to be baptised in the time of Porinos their prince. Their land was divided in eleven zupanias, which are: Hlebiana, Emota, Pesenta, Brebere, Tnena, Sidraga and their ban has Kribasan, Goutzeska. Although the Christianization of Croats began right after their arrival to Dalmatia, in the early 9th century a part of the Croats were still pagan; the Franks gained control of Pannonia and Dalmatia in the 790s and the first decade of the ninth century. In 788 Charlemagne, after conquering Lombardy, turned further east and subjugated Istria. In the 790s Duke Vojnomir of Pannonia accepted the Frankish overlordship, whose land the Franks placed under the March of Friuli and tried to extend their rule over the Croatians of Dalmatia. In 799 the Franks under the leader
Zadar is the oldest continuously-inhabited Croatian city. It is situated at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves of the wider northern Dalmatian region; the city proper covers 25 km2 with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country. The area of present-day Zadar traces its earliest evidence of human life from the late Stone Age, while numerous settlements date as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, an ancient Mediterranean people of a pre-Indo-European culture inhabited the area. Zadar traces its origin to its 9th-century BC founding as a settlement of the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians known as Iader. In 59 BC it was renamed Iadera. In 48 BC it became a Roman colonia. During Roman rule Zadar acquired the characteristics of a traditional Ancient Roman city with a regular road network, a public square, an elevated capitolium with a temple. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the destruction of Salona by the Avars and Croats in 614, Zadar became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia.
In the beginning of the 9th century, Zadar came under Frankish rule, but the Pax Nicephori returned it to the Byzantines in 812. The first Croatian rulers gained brief control over the city in 10th century. In 998 Zadar swore allegiance to Doge Pietro Orseolo II and became a vassal of the Republic of Venice. In 1186 it placed itself under the protection of King of Hungary. In 1202 the Venetians, with the help of Crusaders and sacked Zadar. Hungary regained control over the city in 1358. In 1409 king Ladislaus I sold Zadar to the Venetians; when the Turks conquered the Zadar hinterland at the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important stronghold, ensuring Venetian trade in the Adriatic, the administrative center of the Venetian territories in Dalmatia and a cultural center. This fostered an environment in which arts and literature could flourish, between the 15th and 17th centuries Zadar came under the influence of the Renaissance, giving rise to many important Italian Renaissance figures like Giorgio da Sebenico, Giorgio Ventura, Andrea Meldolla and Giovanni Francesco Fortunio, who wrote the first Italian grammar book, many famous Croatian writers, such as Petar Zoranić, Brne Krnarutić, Juraj Baraković and Šime Budinić, who wrote in the Croatian language.
After the fall of Venice in 1797 Zadar came under the Austrian rule until 1918, except for the period of short-term French rule, still remaining the capital of Dalmatia. During French rule the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin, was published in Zadar. During the 19th century Zadar functioned as a center of the Croatian movement for cultural and national revival in a context of increasing polarization and politicization of ethnic identities between Croats and Dalmatian Italians. With the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo Zadar was given to the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, it was witnessed the evacuation of ethnic Italians. Partisans captured the city on 1 November 1944. Today, Zadar is a historical center of Dalmatia, Zadar County's principal political, commercial, industrial and transportation centre. Zadar is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar; because of its rich heritage, Zadar is today one of the most popular Croatian tourist destinations, named "entertainment center of the Adriatic" by The Times and "Croatia's new capital of cool" by The Guardian.
In 2016 the Belgian portal Europe's Best Destinations.com named Zadar the "Best European Destination" after a three-week period of online voting involving more than 288,000 votes. UNESCO's World Heritage Site list included the fortified city of Zadar as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017; the name of the city of Zadar emerged as Iadera and Iader in ancient times, but the origin of the name is older. It was most related to a hydrographical term, coined by an ancient Mediterranean people and their Pre-Indo-European language, they transmitted it to settlers, the Liburnians. The name of the Liburnian settlement was first mentioned by a Greek inscription from Pharos on the island of Hvar in 384 BC, where the citizens of Zadar were noted as Ίαδασινοί. According to the Greek source Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax the city was Ίδασσα a Greek transcription of the original Liburnian expression. During Antiquity the name was recorded in sources in Latin in two forms: Iader in the inscriptions and in the writings of classic writers, Iadera predominantly among the late Antiquity writers, while usual ethnonyms were Iadestines and Iadertines.
The accent was on the first syllable in both Iader and Iadera forms, which influenced the early-Medieval Dalmatian language forms Jadra and Jadertina, where the accent kept its original place. In the Dalmatian language, Jadra was pronounced Zadra, due to the phonetic transformation of Ja- to Za-; that change was reflected in the Croatian name Zadar, developed from masculine Zadъrъ. An ethnonym graphic Jaderani from the legend of Saint Chrysogonus in the 9th century, was identical to the initial old-Slavic form Zadъrane, or Renaissa