Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German. Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany, in Indonesia, while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States and Australia combined; the Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language, spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people in South Africa and Namibia. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.
Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has abandoned the use of the subjunctive, has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system. Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, a similar word order. Dutch vocabulary is Germanic and incorporates more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English; as with German, the vocabulary of Dutch has strong similarities with the continental Scandinavian languages, but is not mutually intelligible in text or speech with any of them. In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. Sometimes Vlaams is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders. Over time, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle Dutch Dietsc, Duutsc, or Duitsc was used.
It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-Saxon, the West Germanic dialects of Britain. Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce early on, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe continued to use theodisce to refer to their local speech. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i.e. Vlaemsch and Brabantsch; the more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became. These names still survive in the corresponding dialect groups spoken today. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer to the people of the Netherlands.
In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag and inferior to refer to the area known as the Low Counties goes back further in time; the Romans referred to the region as Germania Inferior. It is a reference to the Low Countries' downriver location at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea. From 1551 the designation Nederlands received strong competition from the name Nederduits, it is a calque of the before mentioned Roman province Germania Inferior and an attempt by early Dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Hoogduits came into use as a Dutch exonym for the German language, spoken in neighboring German states. However, 19th century Germany saw the rise of the categorisation of dialects, German dialectologists termed the German dialects spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch.
Subsequently, German dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch. The names for these dialects were calqued in the Dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and Hoogduits; as a result, Nederduits no longer served as a synonym for the Dutch language, Nederlands prevailed as sole Dutch endonym. It meant that Hoog had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of Hoogduits, leading to the narrowing down of Duits as Dutch exonym for the German language, Hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects. Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English, Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did; the early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the fifth century, thus, it has developed through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries. During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from the western c
Goes is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands on Zuid-Beveland, in the province of Zeeland. The town of Goes has 27,000 residents. Goes was founded in the 10th century on the edge of a creek: de Korte Gos; the village grew fast, in the early 12th century it had a market square and a church devoted to Mary Magdalene. In 1405 Goes received city rights from William, Duke of Bavaria, by his right as count of Holland, in 1417 it was allowed to build town walls; the prosperity of the city was based upon the production of salt. In the 16th century Goes declined, its connection to the sea silted up and in 1554 a large fire destroyed part of the city. In Autumn 1572, during the course of the Eighty Years' War, Goes, in the Spanish Netherlands, was besieged by Dutch forces with the support of English troops; the siege was relieved in October 1572 by Spanish Tercios, who waded across the Scheldt to attack the besieging forces. In 1577 the Spanish soldiers who occupied Goes were driven out by Prince Maurits of Nassau.
The prince built a defence wall around Goes, still standing. From the 17th century Goes did not play an important role, except as an agricultural centre. In 1868 a railway was constructed through it. Agriculture remains the most important economic activity. Although The Netherlands were neutral in the First World War, seven bombs hit Goes and Kloetinge, due to an error by a British airplane. A house in Magdalenastreet in Goes was destroyed and one person killed. Goes did not suffer extensive damage during the Second World War, but was under German occupation until 1944. Goes did not experience much population growth until the 1980s; the city grew fast because of new districts like Goese Meer, Oostmolenpark and Ouverture being constructed. Goes is now the fourth largest economic centre in Zeeland. New districts are in preparation, amongst them Goese Schans and Aria, where 3,000 new houses are to be built. Eindewege Goes's-Heer Arendskerke's-Heer Hendrikskinderen Kattendijke Kloetinge Oud-Sabbinge Wilhelminadorp Wolphaartsdijk Dutch Topographic map of Goes, Sept. 2014.
Centre Goes West Goes New West East Goes Noordhoek Goese Meer Goese Polder South Goes Overzuid Ouverture De Goese Poort De Poel Klein Frankrijk Marconi Aria Mannee Goese Schans Goes is twinned with: Panevėžys, Lithuania Railway Station: Goes On the railway line between Vlissingen and Roosendaal. Roel Felius Frank Harthoorn Media related to Goes at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC