Holby City is a British medical drama television series that airs weekly on BBC One. The series was created by Tony McHale and Mal Young as a spin-off from the established BBC medical drama Casualty, premiered on 12 January 1999, it is set in the same hospital as Casualty, in the fictional city of Holby, featured occasional crossovers of characters and plots with both Casualty and the show's 2007 police procedural spin-off HolbyBlue. Its first executive producers were Young and Johnathan Young, who were succeeded by Kathleen Hutchison from 2002 to 2004, Richard Stokes from 2004 to 2006, McHale from 2006 to 2010, Belinda Campbell from 2010 to 2011, Johnathan Young from 2011 to 2013, Oliver Kent from 2013 to 2017 and Simon Harper from 2017. Holby City airs once a week, all year round, each series now contains 52 episodes; the show follows the lives of ancillary staff at the fictional Holby City Hospital. It began with eleven main characters in its first series. New main characters have been both written in and out of the series since, with a core of around fifteen main actors employed on the serial at any given time.
In casting the first series, Young sought out actors who were well known in the television industry, something which has continued throughout the show's history, with cast members including Patsy Kensit, Jane Asher, Robert Powell, Ade Edmondson and John Michie. McHale was the show's lead writer for several years, was the first British writer to become the showrunner of a major prime time drama. Under his tenure as executive producer, attempts were made at modernising the programme and appealing to a younger audience by taking on the filmizing technique and introducing musical montage segments into each episode. Twenty series of Holby City have aired, the twenty-first began airing from 2 January 2019; the show has run for over 900 hour-long episodes. It is filmed at the BBC Elstree Centre in Hertfordshire, has featured special episodes filmed on location abroad. From October 2010, Holby City moved to high definition broadcasting. Holby City has attracted comparisons to other medical dramas unfavourable, figures within the television and entertainment industry including Broadcasting Standards Commission director Paul Bolt have accused the BBC of squandering the television licence fee on the programme.
The series employs a team of researchers to ensure medical accuracy, utilises surgeons from different disciplines to check scripts. Cast members are taught to perform basic medical procedures, given the opportunity to spend time on real hospital wards for research. Holby City has, been criticised for its lack of realism, with the British Medical Association denouncing its portrayal of organ donation and unrealistic impression of resuscitation, an accident and emergency nurse at the 2008 Royal College of Nursing conference accusing the show of fostering unrealistic expectations of the NHS and fuelling compensation culture. Holby City has been nominated for over 100 television awards, of which it has won ten: the 2008 British Academy Television Award for Best Continuing Drama, one BEFFTA Award, two Ethnic Multicultural Media Awards, two Music Video and Screen Awards, four Screen Nation Awards; the show's first series averaged 9.27 million viewers, but apart from a rise in its fifth series, ratings declined year-on-year until 2009, with the eleventh series averaging 5.44 million viewers.
The twelfth series saw a small rise to 5.62 million. Series have drawn over 4 million viewers per week; the show began with only eleven main characters in its first series, all of whom have since left the show. New main characters have been both written in and out of the series since, with a core of fifteen to twenty main actors employed on the serial at any given time. In casting the first series, Young sought out actors who were well known in the television industry, something which has continued throughout the show's history, with cast members including Patsy Kensit, Jane Asher, Robert Powell, Adrian Edmondson, Alex Walkinshaw and Jemma Redgrave. McHale was the show's lead writer for several years, was the first British writer to become the "showrunner" of a major prime time drama. Under his tenure as executive producer, attempts were made at modernising the programme and appealing to a younger audience by taking on the filmising technique and introducing musical montage segments into each episode.
Twenty complete series of Holby City have aired, an twenty-first began airing in January 2019. The show has run for over 600 hour-long episodes, it is filmed in studios at the BBC Elstree Centre in Hertfordshire, with the 1960s office building Neptune House being used for multiple exteriors and interiors in the series. It has featured special episodes filmed on location abroad. From October 2010, Holby City moved to high definition broadcasting. In September 2016, as part of the broadcaster's Compete Or Compare Strategy, the BBC confirmed the show would be one of the first put up for tender. In the tender released in October, it was confirmed the contract, open to independent producers and BBC Studios, would be for 3 series of a minimum 50 episodes per series, delivered from December 2017 with no break in transmission and produced from the existing production base at BBC Elstree Centre. BBC Studios was announced as the winning bidder and will continue to produce the show through to 2020. Holby City was created by Tony McHale and Mal Young as a spin-off from the BBC medical drama Casualty, set in the emergency department of the fictional Holby City Hospital.
Young wanted to explore what happened to patients treated in Casualty once t
The Sinking of the Laconia
The Sinking of the Laconia is a two-part television film, first aired on 6 and 7 January 2011 on BBC Two, about the Laconia incident. The film is a British-German co-production, written by Alan Bleasdale, directed by Uwe Janson, with Andrew Buchan, Brian Cox, Ken Duken, Morven Christie, Lindsay Duncan, Thomas Kretschmann and Franka Potente in the leading roles. In September 1942, six hundred miles from the west coast of Africa, the German U-boat U-156 sinks the British troopship Laconia, en route from Cape Town to the United Kingdom. On realising that there are Italian POWs and civilians amongst the shipwrecked, who face certain death without rescue, U-boat Commander Werner Hartenstein makes a decision that goes against the orders of German high command; the U-boat surfaces and Hartenstein instructs his men to save as many survivors. Hartenstein attempts to dive with all survivors on board and, although this puts the submarine into a crash dive, control is regained and it resurfaces, he has a Red Cross flag displayed and a message sent to the Allies to organise rescue of the survivors.
The Italian prisoners are taken off U-156 by an Italian submarine. The British requested the Americans to look for Laconia survivors, but did not inform them of the submarine's rescue effort. Soon after the American bomber attack, U-156 resumes her hunting duties, leaving behind the lifeboats with the British survivors to be picked up by a Vichy naval surface ship sent by Admiral Dönitz. While admiring Hartenstein's actions, Dönitz reluctantly composes the Laconia Order to other U-boat commanders not to rescue survivors in future; the French ship arrives. One British merchant officer is injured in the American attack and remains with U-156 until it reaches port, where he is taken prisoner. Dönitz awards reposts him to a desk job at naval command. Preferring to remain with his men, Hartenstein refuses it and a final on screen message reports U-156's sinking with no survivors; the production is a cooperation of the British BBC with the German ARD Degeto and SWR Fernsehen, executed by TalkbackThames and Teamworx.
The idea to bring the story of the Laconia to screen was conceived in 2004 by Talkback Thames head of drama Johnathan Young. Andrew Buchan - Junior Third Officer Thomas Mortimer, RMS Laconia Franka Potente - Hilda Smith, passenger, RMS Laconia Lindsay Duncan - Elisabeth Fullwood, passenger, RMS Laconia Brian Cox - Captain Rudolph Sharp, RMS Laconia David Butler - First Officer George Steel, RMS Laconia Morven Christie - Laura Ferguson, passenger, RMS Laconia Jodi Balfour - Sarah Fullwood, passenger, RMS Laconia Nicholas Burns - Captain Benjamin Coutts, British Army Ciarán McMenamin - Declan McDermott, wine steward, RMS Laconia Lenny Wood - Billy Hardacre, trimmer, RMS Laconia Ben Crompton - Harry Townes, acting leading seaman, RMS Laconia Matthew Aubrey - Corporal William Williams, British Army Ludovico Fremont - Vincenzo Di Giovanni, Italian POW Paul Hilton - Henry Bates, passenger, RMS Laconia Louise Barnes - Mary Bates, passenger, RMS Laconia Josef du Plessis - Anthony Bates, passenger, RMS Laconia Rebekah Nathan - Charlotte Bates, passenger, RMS Laconia Richard Firth - Quartermaster John Royle, RMS Laconia Tom Fairfoot - William Donan, wireless operator, RMS Laconia Lawrence Joffe - Sergeant Ludwik Rudziński, Free Polish Army Ken Duken - Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartenstein, captain, U-156 Jacob Matschenz - Oberleutnant zur See Gert Mannesmann, 1st watch officer, U-156 Matthias Koeberlin - Oberleutnant Wilhelm Rostau, chief engineer, U-156 Jörg Malkow - Leutnant zur See Max Weber, 2nd watch officer, U-156 Oskar Brown - Maschinistgefreiter Waldemar Müller, look-out, U-156 Frederick Lau - Funkgast Gerhard Fiedler, wireless operator, U-156 Stefan Rudolf - Funkmaat Walter Remmert, wireless operator, U-156 Hermanus Pieters - Matrosenobergefreiter Hans Dengler, cook, U-156 Danny Keogh - Captain Hathaway, Royal Navy James Alexander - Lieutenant Lincoln, Royal Navy Ian van der Heyden - Lieutenant Jackson, Royal Navy Thomas Kretschmann - Admiral Karl Dönitz, Befehlshaber der U-Boote Nikolai Kinski - Korvettenkapitän Walter Drexler, Dönitz's aide Jannes Eiselen - Captain Robert C. Richardson III, senior operations officer, USAAF Grant Swanby - Colonel Robert E. Ronin, air base commander, USAAF Darron Meyer - Lieutenant James D. Harrower, pilot, USAAF Liberator Nicholas Pauling - First Sergeant Jerome Perlman, navigator, USAAF Liberator Charlie Keegan - Private Ches Chambers, gunner, USAAF Liberator Justin Shaw - Technician Fourth Grade Buck Bannister, gunner, USAAF Liberator Marius Botha - Private First Class Edgar Coleman, bombardier, USAAF Liberator Simon Verhoeven - Korvettenkapitän Harro Schacht, captain, U-507 Paul Savage - Egyptian Customs Officer On 9 January 2011, BBC Two broadcast a half-hour documentary, The Sinking of the Laconia: Survivors' Stories, featuring testimonies from the actual survivors of the Laconia.
Beginning 14 April 2012, Ovation television aired The Sinking of the Laconia in the United States. Laconia Order The Sinking of the Laconia on IMDb
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Bill is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, broadcast in August 1983. In its final year on air, The Bill was broadcast once a week on Tuesdays or Thursdays, in a one-hour format; the programme focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers, rather than on any particular aspect of police work. The Bill was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, among the longest running of any British television series at the time of its cancellation; the title originates from "Old Bill", a slang term for the police. Although acclaimed by fans and critics, the series attracted controversy on several occasions. An episode broadcast in 2008 was criticised for featuring fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis; the series has faced more general criticism concerning its levels of violence prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed slot.
The Bill won several awards, including BAFTAs, a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award and Best Drama at the Inside Soap Awards in 2009, this being the series' fourth consecutive win. Throughout its 27-year run, the programme was always broadcast on the main ITV network. In years, episodes of the show were repeated on ITV3 on their week of broadcast; the series has been repeated on other digital stations, including Gold, Watch and Drama. In March 2010, executives at ITV announced that the network did not intend to recommission The Bill, that filming on the series would cease on 14 June 2010; the last episode aired on 31 August 2010. The Bill was conceived by Geoff McQueen in 1983 a new television writer, as a one-off drama. McQueen had titled the production Old Bill, it was picked up by Michael Chapman for ITV franchise holder Thames Television, who retitled it Woodentop as part of Thames's "Storyboard" series of one-off dramas and was broadcast on ITV under the title Woodentop on 16 August 1983.
Woodentop starred Mark Wingett as PC Jim Carver and Trudie Goodwin as WPC June Ackland of London's Metropolitan Police, both attached to the fictional Sun Hill police station. Although only intended as a one-off, Woodentop impressed ITV to the extent that a full series was commissioned, first broadcast on 16 October 1984 with one post-watershed episode per week, featuring an hour-long, separate storyline for each episode of the first three series; the first episode of the full series was "Funny Ol' Business – Cops & Robbers". With serialisation, the name of the show changed from Woodentop to The Bill. In its first four years the series was broadcast between July onwards each year, with a 12-week summer break from May until the next July. With a full ensemble cast to explore new characters not featured or just mentioned in Woodentop, the focus of the storylines soon shifted away from new recruit Carver and towards Detective Inspector Roy Galloway and Sergeant Bob Cryer; the series changed to two episodes, each of 30 minutes on Tuesdays and Thursdays, per week in 1988, increasing to three a week beginning in 1993, with the third episode being broadcast on Fridays.
In 1998, The Bill returned to hour-long episodes, which became twice-weekly, with the Friday episode being dropped, at which point the series adopted a much more serialised approach. When Paul Marquess took over as executive producer in 2002, as part of a drive for ratings, the series was revamped, bringing in a more soap opera type feel to many of its stories. Many veteran characters were written out, leading to the Sun Hill fire during 2002. Marquess stated that the clearout was necessary to introduce "plausible, powerful new characters"; as part of the new serial format, much more of the characters' personal lives were explored, however, as Marquess put it, the viewers still "don't go home with them". The change allowed The Bill to become more reflective of modern policing with the introduction of officers from ethnic minorities, most notably the new superintendent, Adam Okaro, it allowed coverage of the relationship of homosexual Sergeant Craig Gilmore and PC Luke Ashton, a storyline which Marquess was determined to explore before rival Merseybeat.
In 2005, Johnathan Young took over as executive producer. The serial format was dropped and The Bill returned to stand-alone episodes with more focus on crime and policing than on the personal lives of the officers. 2007 saw the reintroduction of episode titles, dropped in 2002. In 2009, The Bill moved back to the 9pm slot it held and the theme tune, "Overkill", was replaced as part of a major overhaul of the series. On 26 March 2010, ITV announced it would be cancelling the series that year after 26 years on air. ITV said; the last episode of The Bill was filmed in June 2010 and broadcast on 31 August 2010 followed by a documentary titled Farewell The Bill. Fans of the show started a'Save the Bill' campaign on social networking website Facebook in an effort to persuade ITV to reconsider the cancellation, some radio broadcasters, including BBC Radio 1's Chris Moyles, presented special features on the programme's cancellation. At the time of the series' end in August 2010, The Bill was the United Kingdom's longest-running police drama and was among the longest-running of any British television series.
The series finale, entitled "Respect", was aired in two parts and was dedicated to "the men and women of the Metropolitan Police Service past and present". The finale storyline concerned gang member Jasmine Harris being involved in the murder of fellow member Liam
EastEnders is a British soap opera created by Julia Smith and Tony Holland, broadcast on BBC One since 1985. Set in Albert Square in the East End of London in the fictional Borough of Walford, the programme follows the stories of local residents and their families as they go about their daily lives. There were two 30-minute episodes per week increasing to three, but since 2001 episodes have been broadcast every weekday apart from Wednesdays. Within eight months of the show's launch, it reached the number-one spot in BARB's TV ratings and has remained among the top-rated TV programmes in Britain. In 2013, the average audience share for an episode was around 30 per cent. Today, EastEnders remains a significant programme in terms of the BBC's success and audience share, in the history of British television drama, tackling many dilemmas that are considered to be controversial and taboo issues in British culture and social life unseen on United Kingdom mainstream television; as of May 2016, EastEnders has won nine BAFTA Awards and the Inside Soap Award for Best Soap for 14 years running, as well as twelve National Television Awards for Most Popular Serial Drama and 11 awards for Best Soap at the British Soap Awards.
It has won 13 TV Quick and TV Choice Awards for Best Soap, six TRIC Awards for Soap of The Year, four Royal Television Society Awards for Best Continuing Drama and has been inducted into the Rose d'Or Hall of Fame. In March 1983, under two years before EastEnders' first episode was broadcast, the show was a vague idea in the mind of a handful of BBC executives, who decided that what BBC1 needed was a popular bi-weekly drama series that would attract the kind of mass audiences that ITV was getting with Coronation Street; the first people to whom David Reid head of series and serials, turned were Julia Smith and Tony Holland, a well established producer/script editor team who had first worked together on Z-Cars. The outline that Reid presented was vague: two episodes a week, 52 weeks a year. After the concept was put to them on 14 March 1983, Smith and Holland went about putting their ideas down on paper. Granada Television gave Smith unrestricted access to the Coronation Street production for a month so that she could get a sense how a continuing drama was produced.
There was anxiety at first that the viewing public would not accept a new soap set in the south of England, though research commissioned by lead figures in the BBC revealed that southerners would accept a northern soap, northerners would accept a southern soap and those from the Midlands, as Julia Smith herself pointed out, did not mind where it was set as long as it was somewhere else. This was the beginning of a close and continuing association between EastEnders and audience research, though commonplace today, was something of a revolution in practice; the show's creators were both Londoners, but when they researched Victorian squares, they found massive changes in areas they thought they knew well. However, delving further into the East End of London, they found what they had been searching for: a real East End spirit—an inward looking quality, a distrust of strangers and authority figures, a sense of territory and community that the creators summed up as "Hurt one of us and you hurt us all".
When developing EastEnders, both Smith and Holland looked at influential models like Coronation Street, but they found that it offered a rather outdated and nostalgic view of working-class life. Only after EastEnders began, featured the characters of Tony Carpenter and Kelvin Carpenter, did Coronation Street start to feature black characters, for example, they came to the conclusion that Coronation Street had grown old with its audience, that EastEnders would have to attract a younger, more extensive audience, ensuring that it had the longevity to retain it for many years thereafter. They looked at Brookside but found there was a lack of central meeting points for the characters, making it difficult for the writers to intertwine different storylines, so EastEnders was set in Albert Square. A previous UK soap set in an East End market was ATV's Market in Honey Lane between 1967 and 1969; however this show, which graduated from one showing a week to two in three separate series was different in style and approach to EastEnders.
The British Film Institute described Market In Honey Lane thus: "It was not an earth-shaking programme, not pioneering in any revolutionary ideas in technique and production, but proposed itself to the casual viewer as a mildly pleasant affair." EastEnders, while featuring an East End street market, would be different in its approach and impact. The target launch date was January 1985. Smith and Holland had eleven months in which to write and shoot the whole thing. However, in February 1984, they did not have a title or a place to film. Both Smith and Holland were unhappy about the January 1985 launch date, favouring November or September 1984 when seasonal audiences would be higher, but the BBC stayed firm, Smith and Holland had to concede that, with the massive task of getting the Elstree Studios operational, January was the most realistic date. However, this was to be changed to February; the project had a number of working titles—Square Dance, Round the Square, Round the Houses, London Pride and East 8.
It was the latter. However, the show was renamed after many casting agents mistakenly thought the show was to be called Estate, the fictional postcode E20 was created, instead of using