The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the Browns play their home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea, Ohio. The Browns' official colors are brown and white, they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B. McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference; the Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the league's four seasons and winning its championship in each. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers and the original Baltimore Colts; the Browns won a championship in their inaugural NFL season, as well as in the 1954, 1955, 1964 seasons, in a feat unequaled in any of the North American major professional sports, played in their league championship game in each of the Browns' first ten years of existence.
From 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl during that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore. After threats of legal action from the city of Cleveland and fans, a compromise was reached in early 1996 that allowed Modell to establish the Baltimore Ravens as a new franchise while retaining the contracts of all Browns personnel; the Browns' intellectual property, including team name, training facility, history, were kept in trust and the franchise was regarded by the NFL as suspended, with a new team to be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation. The Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success, they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, no playoff wins. The franchise has been noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks, having started 30 players in the position since 1999.
Through the end of the 2018 season, the Browns' win–loss record since returning to the NFL in 1999 is 95–224–1. In 2017, the Browns became only the second team in league history to finish a season 0–16, joining the 2008 Detroit Lions. Through the 2018 season, the Browns hold the longest active playoff drought in the NFL, at 16 seasons; the history of the Cleveland Browns American football team began in 1944 when taxi-cab magnate Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride secured a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. Paul Brown was the team's namesake and first coach; the Browns began play in 1946 in the AAFC. The Browns won each of the league's four championship games before the league dissolved in 1949; the team moved to the more established National Football League, where it continued to dominate. Between 1950 and 1955, Cleveland reached the NFL championship game every year. McBride and his partners sold the team to a group of Cleveland businessmen in 1953 for a then-unheard-of $600,000.
Eight years the team was sold again, this time to a group led by New York advertising executive Art Modell. Modell fired Brown before the 1963 season, but the team continued to win behind running back Jim Brown; the Browns won the championship in 1964 and reached the title game the following season, losing to the Green Bay Packers. When the AFL and NFL merged before the 1970 season, Cleveland became part of the new American Football Conference. While the Browns made it back to the playoffs in 1971 and 1972, they fell into mediocrity through the mid-1970s. A revival of sorts took place in 1979 and 1980, when quarterback Brian Sipe engineered a series of last-minute wins and the Browns came to be called the "Kardiac Kids". Under Sipe, the Browns did not make it past the first round of the playoffs. Quarterback Bernie Kosar, who the Browns drafted in 1985, led the team to three AFC Championship games in the late 1980s but lost each time to the Denver Broncos. In 1995, Modell announced he was relocating the Browns to Baltimore, sowing a mix of outrage and bitterness among Cleveland's dedicated fan base.
Negotiations and legal battles led to an agreement where Modell was allowed to move the team, but Cleveland kept the Browns' name and history. After three years of suspension while Cleveland Stadium was demolished and FirstEnergy Stadium built on its site, the Browns started play again in 1999 under new owner Al Lerner; the Browns struggled throughout the 2000s and 2010s, posting a record of 95–224–1 since their 1999 return. The Browns have only posted two winning seasons and one playoff appearance since returning to the NFL; the team's struggles have been magnified since 2012, when the Lerner family sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. In six seasons under the Haslam ownership, the Browns went through four head coaches and four general managers, none of whom had found success. In 2016 and 2017 under head coach Hue Jackson, the Browns went 1–31, the worst two-year stretch in NFL history, received the number one overall draft pick in both of those years; the Browns are the only National Football League team without a helmet logo.
The logoless helmet serves as the Browns' official logo. The organization has used several promotional logos throughout the years.
Matthew Andrew Cavanaugh is an American football coach and former player, the Senior Offensive Assistant for the Washington Redskins of the National Football League. He is a former American football quarterback in the NFL who played from 1978 to 1991. In the course of his career as a professional football player, he earned two Super Bowl rings. Since his retirement, Cavanaugh has worked as an offensive coach and coordinator, for teams including the San Francisco 49ers, the Chicago Bears, the Baltimore Ravens, where he earned a third Super Bowl ring as a coach. Cavanaugh was born in Youngstown and attended Chaney High School, he went on to the University of Pittsburgh after graduating. In 1976, he was the starting quarterback for the undefeated Pittsburgh Panthers and contributed to the team's National Championship 27–3 victory over Georgia in the Sugar Bowl. On that day, Cavanaugh was selected as the Sugar Bowl's Most Valuable Player. Cavanaugh was named MVP of the 1977 Gator Bowl, throwing four touchdown passes in a 34–3 win over Clemson.
In 1977, Cavanaugh threw for 1,844 yards with 15 touchdowns against six interceptions. Cavanaugh threw for the second-most passing yards in Pittsburgh history, only trailing quarterback Ken Lucas's 1,921 yards in 1965. Cavanaugh was selected by the New England Patriots in the second round of the 1978 NFL Draft, but spent much of his career as a backup, his professional playing career included stints with the San Francisco 49ers, Philadelphia Eagles, New York Giants. Cavanaugh was the backup quarterback in both the 1984 Super Bowl XIX and the 1990 Super Bowl XXV to Joe Montana and Jeff Hostetler, respectively. Cavanaugh retired as a professional player following the 1991 season, appearing in 112 games with 19 starts, completing 305 of 579 passes for 4,332 yards, 28 touchdowns, 30 interceptions and a 71.7 passer rating. Since his retirement, he has served in the following positions: chief recruiter and offensive coach, University of Pittsburgh. Cavanaugh served as offensive coordinator for his old college team, the University of Pittsburgh Panthers, until 2008 when he accepted a position as an assistant coach and quarterbacks coach with the New York Jets.
He would remain with the Jets until 2012. On January 18, 2013, it was announced that Bears head coach Marc Trestman has hired Cavanaugh as the quarterbacks coach, replacing Jeremy Bates. On January 28, 2015, Cavanaugh became the quarterbacks coach for the Washington Redskins. On January 23, 2017, Cavanaugh was promoted to offensive coordinator of the Redskins, replacing Sean McVay, who became the head coach of the Los Angeles Rams. On January 29, 2019, Cavanaugh was demoted to senior offensive assistant of the Redskins. Washington Redskins bio
History of the Baltimore Colts
The Indianapolis Colts professional American football franchise was based in Baltimore, Maryland, as the Baltimore Colts from 1953 to 1984. The team was named for Baltimore's history of horse racing, it was the second incarnation of the Baltimore Colts, the first having played for three years in the All-America Football Conference and one in the National Football League. The 1953–83 Baltimore Colts team played its home games at Memorial Stadium; the Baltimore Colts were one of the first NFL teams to have cheerleaders, a marching band and a team "fight song". The Baltimore Colts were named after Baltimore's 142-year-old annual "Preakness Stakes", a premier thoroughbred horse racing event, second jewel of the famous "Triple Crown" championship series of the sport run at the historic Pimlico Race Course since 1873; this third, most famous Baltimore Colts pro football franchise was created in 1953, but can trace its history much earlier than that, to before the NFL itself began in 1920: its earliest predecessor was the old Dayton Triangles, a founding member of the reorganized and renamed National Football League of 1922, created in 1913.
Because of the link to the ancient Dayton Triangles, the Baltimore Colts can arguably claim to have played and won, on October 3, 1920, what could be considered the first A. P. F. A./N. F. L. Professional football game, with a 14-0 defeat of the rival Columbus Panhandles at Triangle Park in Dayton, Ohio; the team went through the following changes: Dayton Triangles pro football team relocated to New York City to the Borough of Brooklyn, New York and was renamed Brooklyn Dodgers in 1930. Changed name to Brooklyn Tigers in 1944. In the same year, the Boston Yanks are founded. Merged with Boston Yanks in 1945 as the World War II-era war-time "The Yanks". Brooklyn franchise canceled in 1945 by the League and the team's players were given to the Boston Yanks, as a parallel team, the is founded by the Tigers' former owner, Dan Topping. Miami Seahawks of the A. A. F. C. are folded and replaced in the Conference's second season by a new franchise in Baltimore given the name of the "Colts" after a name selection contest among the new Baltimore fans.
The Colts joined the reorganized NFL. in 1950, following the merger of the A. A. F. C. With the older league, along with the addition of teams San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns; this second Baltimore Colts franchise was dissolved by the NFL for financial reasons after only the one 1950 season on January 18, 1951. Boston Yanks were canceled upon request of the team owner for tax purposes; the owner was given a new franchise for New York City in 1949, now named the New York Bulldogs. The name was changed to the New York Yanks the following season in 1950; the Yanks absorbed much of the previous football Yankees' roster the next year. New York Yanks of the NFL were canceled after the one 1951 season and replaced in 1952 by the Dallas Texans, with the first expansion of the League into high school and collegiate football-crazy Texas and first into the southern part of the United States. Texans owner returned the team leadership to the League ownership of the NFL during mid-season; the Texans become a "road" team halfway through the 1952 season with no "home base", playing only "away" games and folded after the one 1952 season.
Dallas Texans franchise was sold to Baltimore civic and sports interests led by Carroll Rosenbloom on January 23, 1953, where a new team was established resurrecting the previous well-liked "Colts" nickname, they however replaced the old AAFC/NFL team colors of silver and green with the Texans' team colors of blue and white. As the result of a fan contest in Baltimore, won by Charles Evans of Middle River in suburban eastern Baltimore County, the team was renamed the "Baltimore Colts". On September 7, 1947, wearing the green and silver uniforms, the Colts, under Head Coach Cecil Isbell, won their initial All-America Football Conference game in the A. A. F. C.'s second season, 16–7, over the Brooklyn Dodgers. Home site for the new AAFC games in "The Monumental City" was the old 1922 Municipal Stadium on the north side of 33rd Street boulevard in northeast Baltimore renovated and rebuilt with an upper tier added the following year for use by the new American League of major league baseball's relocated franchise, the Baltimore Orioles).
The football team concluded its inaugural season before a record Baltimore crowd of 51,583 by losing to the New York Yankees, 21–7. The Colts finished with a 2–11–1 record, good for a fourth-place finish in the Eastern Division of the A. A. F. C; the Colts completed the 1948 season with a 7–8 record, tying the Buffalo Bills for the division title. The Colts compiled a 1–11 mark in their third season of 1949. Y. A. Tittle to gain additional hall of fame status a decade with the NFL's New York Giants was the Colts starting quarterback. After four years of inter-league rivalry and player contract raiding, the A. A. F. C. and N. F. L. Merged in 1950, the Colts joined the reorganized new NFL, along with the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns. After posting a 1–11 record for the second consecuti
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League where the champion of the National Football Conference competes against the champion of the American Football Conference. The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 1967, following the 1966 regular season; the sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. The upcoming Super Bowl is Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, 2020, following the 2019 regular season; the game was created as a part of the merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival, the American Football League. It was agreed that the two's champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to begin in 1970.
After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion. The National Football Conference leads the league with 27 wins to 26 wins for the American Football Conference; the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl championship titles, with six. The New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances, with eleven. Tom Brady has six Super Bowl rings, the record for the most rings won by a single player; the day on which the Super Bowl is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday, is called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U. S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year. S. television history are Super Bowls. In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years the game had set a record, starting with Super Bowl XLIV, which itself had taken over the number-one spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H.
The Super Bowl is among the most-watched sporting events in the world all audiences being North American, is second to the UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. The NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark; because of the high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year, leading to companies developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, popular singers and musicians including Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Prince, Justin Timberlake, Beyoncé, Janet Jackson, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Whitney Houston, Lady Gaga have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. For four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL fended off several rival leagues. In 1960, it encountered its most serious competitor; the AFL vied with the NFL for fans.
The original "bowl game" was the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, first played in 1902 as the "Tournament East-West football game" as part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and moved to the new Rose Bowl Stadium in 1923. The stadium got its name from the fact that the game played there was part of the Tournament of Roses and that it was shaped like a bowl, much like the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut; the Tournament of Roses football game came to be known as the Rose Bowl Game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Game's popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami, New Orleans, El Paso in 1935, for Dallas in 1937. By the time the first Super Bowl was played, the term "bowl" for any major American football game was well established. Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to the NFL-AFL championship game in the merger meetings. Hunt said the name was in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy.
In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the'Super Bowl,' which can be improved upon." The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game", but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl — that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues", the media began using the term. Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew-until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum". "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game. Roman numerals were first affixed for the fifth edition, in January 1971. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the c
Mississippi State University
The Mississippi State University for Agriculture and Applied Science known as Mississippi State University, is a public land-grant research university adjacent to Starkville, Mississippi. With 21,353 students at its main campus, it is the largest campus by enrollment in the state, it is classified in the category of "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity" by the Carnegie Foundation and has a total research and development budget of $239.4 million, the largest in Mississippi. It is listed as one of the state's flagship universities; the university was chartered as Mississippi Agricultural & Mechanical College on February 28, 1878 and admitted its first students in 1880. Organized into 12 colleges and schools, the university offers over 180 baccalaureate and professional degree programs, is home to Mississippi's only accredited programs in architecture and veterinary medicine. Mississippi State participates in the National Sea Grant College Program and National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.
The university's main campus in Starkville is supplemented by auxiliary campuses in Meridian and Vicksburg, Mississippi. The 19th and current president of Mississippi State is Mark E. Keenum, a former United States Under Secretary of Agriculture. Mississippi State's intercollegiate sports teams, known as the Mississippi State Bulldogs, compete in NCAA Division I athletics as members of the Southeastern Conference's western division. Mississippi State was a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more-than 120-year history, the Bulldogs have won 21 individual national championships and 30 regular season conference championships; the school is noted for a pervasive baseball fan culture, with Dudy Noble Field holding 17 of the top 25 all-time NCAA attendance records and the school's Left Field Lounge being described as an epicenter of college baseball. The university began as The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi, one of the national land-grant colleges established after Congress passed the Morrill Act in 1862.
It was created by the Mississippi Legislature on February 28, 1878, to fulfill the mission of offering training in "agriculture and the mechanical arts... without excluding other scientific and classical studies, including military tactics." The university received its first students in the fall of 1880 in the presidency of General Stephen D. Lee. In 1887 Congress passed the Hatch Act, which provided for the establishment of the Agricultural Experiment Station in 1888; the Cooperative Extension Service was established in 1914 by the Smith-Lever Act. The university redefined by the Legislature. In 1932, the Legislature renamed the university as Mississippi State College. In 1958 the Legislature renamed the university Mississippi State University in recognition of its academic development and addition of graduate programs; the Graduate School had been organized, doctoral degree programs had begun, the School of Forest Resources had been established, the College of Arts and Sciences had replaced the General Science School.
The university was uneventfully desegregated in July 1965, when Richard E. Holmes, a graduate of Henderson High School in Starkville, became the first African-American student to enroll; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed by Congress the year before, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was being debated, the United States Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional; the School of Architecture admitted its first students in 1973, the College of Veterinary Medicine admitted its first class in 1977. The MSU Vet school is the largest veterinary school under one roof in the nation; the School of Accountancy was established in 1979. The University Honors Program was founded in 1968 to provide more rigorous course curricula for academically talented students and support guest lecture series and distinguished external scholarships; the program has a separate college. This was made possible by funding by Bobby Shackouls, an MSU alumnus and retired CEO, who donated US$10 million to found the Judy and Bobby Shackouls Honors College in April 2006.
MSU started a joint Ph. D. program in engineering with San Jose State University in California, allowing an increase in research for both universities, as well as enhancing the stature of both engineering colleges. In March 2009, Mississippi State announced the conclusion of the university's seven-year capital campaign, with more than $462 million received in private gifts and pledges. Mississippi State University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master's, doctoral degrees. Today, the university has the following colleges and schools: As of Fall 2011, Mississippi State's enrollment was 20,424; the university has 160 buildings, the grounds comprise about 4,200 acres, including farms and woodlands of the Experiment Station. The university owns an additional 80,000 acres across the state. Mississippi State University operates an off-campus, degree-granting center in Meridian that offers undergraduate and graduate programs.
In cooperation with the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, the College of Engineering offers the Master of Science degree to students in Vicksburg. Mississippi State's campus is centered on the main quadrangle, called the Drill Field due to its heavy use by the Corps of Cadets prior to the end of World War II; the Drill Field is defined at its north and south ends by the mirror-image buildings, Lee Hall (th
National Football League Draft
The National Football League Draft called the NFL Draft or the Player Selection Meeting, is a one time event which serves as the league's most common source of player recruitment. The basic design of the draft is that each team is given a position in the drafting order in reverse order relative to its record in the previous year, which means that the last place team is positioned first. From this position, the team can either select a player or trade their position to another team for other draft positions, a player or players, or any combination thereof; the round is complete when each team has either selected a player or traded its position in the draft. Certain aspects of the draft, including team positioning and the number of rounds in the draft, have seen revisions since its first creation in 1936, but the fundamental method has remained the same; the draft consists of seven rounds. The original rationale in creating the draft was to increase the competitive parity between the teams as the worst team would, have chosen the best player available.
In the early years of the draft, players were chosen based on hearsay, print media, or other rudimentary evidence of a player's ability. In the 1940s, some franchises began employing full-time scouts; the ensuing success of their corresponding teams forced the other franchises to hire scouts. Colloquially, the name of the draft each year takes on the form of the NFL season in which players picked could begin playing. For example, the 2010 NFL draft was for the 2010 NFL season. However, the NFL-defined name of the process has changed since its inception; the location of the draft has continually changed over the years to accommodate more fans, as the event has gained popularity. The draft's popularity now garners prime-time television coverage. In the league's early years, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s, the draft was held in various cities with NFL franchises until the league settled on New York City starting in 1965, where it remained for fifty years until 2015; the 2015 and 2016 NFL drafts were held in Chicago, while the 2017 version was held in Philadelphia and 2018 in Dallas.
The 2019 NFL Draft will be held in Nashville. In recent years, the NFL draft has occurred in early May; as background, Stan Kostka had a huge college career as a University of Minnesota running back, leading the Minnesota Gophers to an undefeated season in 1934. Every NFL team wanted to sign him. Since there was no draft back savvy Stan did the smart thing - he held out for the highest offer. While a free agent, Stan kept busy running for Mayor of Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. Although his political career did not take off, Stan's nine-month NFL holdout succeeded and he became the league's highest-paid player, signing a $5,000 contract with the NFL's team in Brooklyn, New York on August 25, 1935; as a response to the bidding war for Stan Kostka, the NFL instituted the draft in 1936. In late 1934, Art Rooney, owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers, gave the right of usage of two players to the New York Giants because Rooney's team had no chance to participate in the post-season. After the owner of the Boston Redskins, George Preston Marshall, protested the transaction, the president of the NFL, Joe F. Carr, disallowed the Giants the ability to employ the players.
At a league meeting in December 1934, the NFL introduced a waiver rule to prevent such transactions. Any player released by a team during the season would be able to be claimed by other teams; the selection order to claim the player would be in inverse order to the teams' standings at the time. Throughout this time, Bert Bell, co-owner of the Philadelphia Eagles, felt his team's lack of competitiveness on the field made it difficult for the Eagles to sell tickets and to be profitable. Compounding the Eagles' problems were players signed with teams that offered the most money, or if the money being equal, players chose to sign with the most prestigious teams at the time, who had established a winning tradition; as a result, the NFL was dominated by the Chicago Bears, Green Bay Packers and Redskins. Bell's inability to sign a desired prospect, Stan Kostka, in 1935 led Bell to believe the only way for the NFL to have enduring success was for all teams to have an equal opportunity to sign eligible players.
At a league meeting on May 18, 1935, Bell proposed a draft be instituted to enhance the possibility of competitive parity on the field in order to ensure the financial viability of all franchises. His proposal was adopted unanimously that day, although the first draft would not occur until the next off-season; the rules for the selection of the players in the first draft were, that a list of college seniors would be assembled by each franchise and submitted into a pool. From this pool, each franchise would select, in inverse order to their team's record in the previous year, a player. With this selection, the franchise had the unilateral right to negotiate a contract with that player, or the ability to trade that player to another team for a player, or players. If, for any reason, the franchise was unsuccessful in negotiating a contract with the player and was unable to trade the player, the president of the NFL could attempt to arbitrate a settlement between the player and the franchise. If the president was unable to settle the dispute the player would be placed in the reserve list of the franchise and would be unavailable to play for any team in the NFL that year.
In the 1935 NFL season, the Eagles finished in last place at 2–9, thus securing themselves the first pick in the draft. The first NFL draft began at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Philadelphia on February 8, 1936. Ninety names were written on a blackboard in the meeting room from; as no team had a scouting department, the lis
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at Gillette Stadium in the town of Foxborough, located 21 miles southwest of downtown Boston, Massachusetts and 20 miles northeast of downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues; the team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001 moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season; the Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. Since the arrival of head coach Bill Belichick and quarterback Tom Brady in 2000, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 16 AFC East titles in 18 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period.
The franchise has since set numerous notable records, including most wins in a ten-year period, an undefeated 16-game regular season in 2007, the longest winning streak consisting of regular season and playoff games in NFL history, the most consecutive division titles won by a team in NFL history. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, most Super Bowl appearances overall, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most Super Bowl wins, tied with the Denver Broncos for the most Super Bowl losses. On November 16, 1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League; the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots," with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, they never had a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League, they played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season, in which they lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. They did not appear again in an NFL post-season game for another 13 years; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, where they still play today. The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years; as a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots. The name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22, 1971, the team announced they would change its geographic name to New England.
During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions. They lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost to the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. During the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15, they changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team, first with the hiring of former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells in 1993. Orthwein and his marketing team commissioned the NFL to develop a new visual identity and logo, changed their primary colors from the traditional red and blue to blue and silver for the team uniforms.
Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but instead sold the team in 1994 for $175 million to its current owner, Robert Kraft. Since the Patriots have sold out every home game in both Foxboro Stadium and Gillette Stadium. By 2009, the value of the franchise had increased by over $1 billion, to a Forbes magazine estimated value of $1.361 billion, third highest in the NFL only behind the Dallas Cowboys and Washington Redskins. As of July 2018, the Patriots are the sixth most valuable sports franchise in the world according to Forbes magazine with a value of $3.7 billion. Continuing on as head coach under Kraft's ownership, Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells's successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice in 1997 and 1998 before being dismissed as head coach after the 1999 season; the Patriots hired current head coach Bill Belichick, who had served as defensive coordinator under Parcells including during Super Bowl XXXI, in 2000.
Their new home field, Gillette Stadium, opened in 2002 to