Grégory Havret is a French professional golfer. Havret won the French Amateur Championship three years in a row from 1997 to 1999, in 1999 he won the European Amateur, he won a minor professional tournament as an amateur, the 1998 Omnium National. Havret turned professional in 1999 and won a place on the European Tour at the 2000 Qualifying School, he finished 60th on the Order of Merit in 2001, his rookie season, recording a maiden tour victory at the Italian Open. Havret's biggest win to date came in the 2007 Barclays Scottish Open at Loch Lomond, where he overcame three-time major winner Phil Mickelson in a playoff. In August 2008 Havret recorded a second tournament victory in Scotland, leading the Johnnie Walker Championship at Gleneagles at the end of every round in recording a one shot win over Graeme Storm. Havret's best year-end ranking on the Order of Merit is 19th in 2007. In 2008 Havret reached the top 100 of the Official World Golf Ranking and established himself as the highest ranked French golfer.
As a qualifier and ranked 391 in the world, Havret was the runner-up at the 2010 U. S. Open, finishing one stroke behind Graeme McDowell. 1997 French Amateur Championship 1998 French Amateur Championship 1999 French Amateur Championship, European Amateur Championship European Tour playoff record 1998 Omnium National CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Most consecutive cuts made – 2 Longest streak of top-10s – 1 Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 1998Professional Seve Trophy: 2007 World Cup: 2007, 2008 Official website Grégory Havret at the European Tour official site Grégory Havret at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
Bernd Wiesberger is an Austrian professional golfer who plays on the European Tour. He finished the 2015 and 2016 seasons in ninth place on the Race to Dubai standings, his career best finish to date. In July 2015, when he won the Alstom Open de France, Wiesberger became the most successful Austrian golfer on the European Tour with three tour victories, he is a four-time winner on the European Tour. Wiesberger was born in Vienna, he won several amateur tournaments, including three Austrian Amateur Stroke Play Championships from 2004 to 2006, the Austrian Amateur Match Play Championship in 2004 and the Austrian Youths Championship in 2004 and 2005. He represented his country at the 2006 Eisenhower Trophy, he turned professional in 2006. Wiesberger played on the Challenge Tour in 2007 and 2008, he earned his European Tour card for the 2009 season through qualifying school. He was unable to win enough money during his rookie season to retain his card and returned to the Challenge Tour. Wiesberger won two events, the Allianz Golf Open de Lyon and the Allianz Golf Open du Grand Toulouse, en route to a 5th-place finish on the Order of Merit, good enough for a European Tour card for 2011.
Wiesberger recorded four top-10 finishes in his return to the European Tour in 2011 including two runner up finishes. He finished 64th on the Order of Merit. Wiesberger claimed his maiden title on the European Tour in 2012 at the Ballantine's Championship, twice setting the course record and winning the championship by the margin of five strokes; the win moved him into the top 100 of the Official World Golf Ranking. In July 2012, Wiesberger won his second title of the year and of his European Tour career at the Lyoness Open, held in his home country of Austria, he started the final round four strokes back of Thorbjørn Olesen, but a round of 65 seven under par, including birdies at three of the last four holes secured a three stroke victory. He became only the second Austrian to win his home Open, after Markus Brier in 2006. After the victory he said: "It's the best day of my life so far, it seems like it went my way the last two holes. I had such such great fans backing me. I'm proud to be following in such big footsteps.
I'm sure I'm not going to be the last home winner."On 5 May 2013, Wiesberger won his sixth professional tournament and the second of his career in Asia, beating reigning Open Champion Ernie Els by a shot at the CIMB Niaga Indonesian Masters for his first win of the season. In 2014, Wiesberger became the first Austrian to play in the U. S. Open, he earned entry through his world ranking the Monday prior to the event. At the 2014 PGA Championship, Wiesberger was one off the lead of Rory McIlroy after 54 holes at Valhalla Golf Club and was paired with McIlroy in the final round of the championship. However, Wiesberger finished in a tie for 15th. In May 2015, Wiesberger lost in a three-man sudden-death playoff at the Dubai Duty Free Irish Open, he started the final round two strokes behind Søren Kjeldsen and despite shooting a 74, entered the playoff with Kjeldsen and Eddie Pepperell. Kjeldsen won on the first extra hole with a birdie. Wiesberger has lost all three sudden-death playoffs in his European Tour career.
On 5 July Wiesberger would win his third event on the European Tour when he took the Alstom Open de France. Wiesberger took victory by three strokes over Englishmen James Morrison, Wiesberger had started the round four strokes back of South African Jaco Van Zyl but stormed back with final round 66. With this being his third win on tour, he became the most successful Austrian golfer in the history of the European Tour, moving ahead of Markus Brier, who had two wins. Wiesberger claimed his fourth European Tour victory at the 2017 Shenzhen International, he won in a sudden-death playoff, to defeat Tommy Fleetwood. Fleetwood had earlier shot a final round of 63 to come from eight strokes back and set the clubhouse lead. Wiesberger had to scramble for pars on the back nine and almost holed his approach shot on the 72nd hole for the victory. In the playoff, Wiesberger found trouble from the tee, but hit his approach to within five feet for birdie to claim victory, his fourth victory came in his 200th event on the European Tour.
1997 Austrian Boys Championship 2004 Austrian Amateur Match Play Championship, Austrian Amateur Stroke Play Championship 2005 Austrian Amateur Stroke Play Championship, Austrian Youths Championship 2006 Austrian Amateur Stroke Play Championship, Austrian Youths Championship 1 Co-sanctioned with the Asian Tour European Tour playoff record 1 Co-sanctioned with the European Tour 2012 Zurich Open CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Most consecutive cuts made – 3 Longest streak of top-10s – 0 Results not in chronological order prior to 2015. QF, R16, R32, R64 = Round in which player lost in match play "T" = tied Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 2004, 2006 Jacques Léglise Trophy: 2003Professional World Cup: 2013, 2016 Royal Trophy: 2013 EurAsia Cup: 2016, 2018 2008 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2010 Challenge Tour graduates Official website Bernd Wiesberger at the European Tour official site Bernd Wiesberger at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Auchterarder is a small town located north of the Ochil Hills in Perth and Kinross and home to the famous Gleneagles Hotel. The 1 1⁄2-mile long High Street of Auchterarder gave the town its popular name of "The Lang Toun" or Long Town; the modern town is a popular shopping destination with a wide variety of independent shops and cafes. In the Middle Ages, Auchterarder was known in Europe as'the town of 100 drawbridges', a colourful description of the narrow bridges leading from the road level across wide gutters to the doorsteps of houses; the name appears in a charter of 1227 in a grant of land transaction to the Convent of Inchaffray The Jacobite Earl of Mar's army torched the town in 1716, but it rose to prominence again thanks to the handloom industry. In 1717, a controversy over the selection of a parish minister, following the recent passing of the Veto Act, allowed the parishioners of Auchterarder to reject the chosen minister, Rev Robert Young. Whilst this might have ended with the selection of an alternative, Young took the issue to the High Court.
The court's decision concluded a link between state and church, directly contradicting the church's own view, causing the first in a chain of events which would lead to the 1843 schism in the Church of Scotland. The remains of this church – the tower – have been renovated, there is a plaque explaining what the church used to look like; as a result of the troubles of 1834, Auchterarder became one of the first towns in Scotland to build its own independent Free Church, indeed appearing to pre-empt the Disruption by commissioning the architect David Cousin to design their church in advance, such that it was completed in 1843 as soon as the Free Church formally came into existence. The Burgh Scotland Act of 1892 bestowed Burgh status upon the town and a provost, two bailies, an honorary treasurer, Dean of Guild and six councillors were appointed to manage its affairs. In 1983 the A9 was diverted to the south, bypassing Auchterarder and Aberuthven, to improve the connection between Stirling and Perth.
The 31st G8 summit was held in the town in July 2005 at the five-star Gleneagles hotel. The neighbouring golf courses are world-renowned. In 2008, it was revealed that Caledonian Crescent and another street in Auchterarder had the most expensive house prices in Scotland. Auchterarder has an oceanic climate; the nearest weather station to Auchterarder is located at Strathallan, around 2 1⁄4 miles to the north-west. Gleneagles railway station is located around 2 miles to the south-west of Auchterarder; this castle stood to the north of the town in the area now known as Castleton. It is said to have been a hunting seat for King Malcolm Canmore in the 11th century and was visited by King Edward I in 1296, it was made ruinous in the 18th century and only fragments remained at the end of the 19th century. Elsie Haldane, Scottish singer, viola player, English as a Foreign Language teacher. Andrew Fairlie, two-Michelin-starred chef, lived in Auchterarder Eve Graham, singer with The New Seekers, was born in Auchterarder Sandy Gunn, Spitfire photo reconnaissance pilot shot down and taken prisoner in Norway during the Second World War, executed after the "Great Escape" Rev Robert Haldane preached here 1797 to 1806 Stephen Hendry, seven-time world snooker champion, lives in Auchterarder James Kennaway, was born in Auchterarder Rev Dr G. A.
Frank Knight DD FRSE minister of the Free Church 1892–1900 John Rutherford Gordon, sometime editor of the Sunday Express, who latterly wrote a column praising the common-sense of the people of the town Rev Robert Nisbet DD FRSE religious author Prof John Monteath Robertson FRSE crystallographer George Jacque, author Alexander George Reid FSA, author Heather May Law, a rare female victim of the Second World War killed whilst in the Royal Observer Corps during a raid on Rosyth naval yard Auchterarder Website with details of local places and businesses Auchterarder Newspaper online and in print Visit Scotland - Auchterarder and The Ochils Auchterarder Golf Club livingLOCAL: Auchterarder community magazine Dec-Jan'19
Ricardo González (golfer)
Ricardo González is an Argentine professional golfer. González turned professional in 1986, has spent much of his career in Europe, he won a place on the European Tour in 1992 through qualifying school after playing on the second tier Challenge Tour in 1991. Having failed to win sufficient money to retain his tour card, he returned to the Challenge Tour in 1993. Having moved to Africa, González returned to Europe in 1998 after winning the Challenge Tour sanctioned Tusker Kenya Open, secured a second shot on the European Tour by finishing 5th on the Challenge Tour Rankings that season, he has retained his playing privileges since by finishing inside the top 115 of the Order of Merit each year. González has accumulated four European Tour wins, with a best year-end ranking on the European Tour Order of Merit of 25th place in 2001, he has won many tournaments in South America, has represented Argentina at the World Cup on four occasions, in 1996, 1998, 2005 and 2007. He won his fourth career European Tour event in 2009 at the SAS Masters in Sweden by two strokes over Welshman Jamie Donaldson.
It was his first win on the European Tour in five years. After several down years, González qualified for the European Tour through qualifying school in 2016. At age 47, he was the oldest Q school graduate in Tour history. European Tour playoff record 1990 Esab Open 1998 Tusker Kenya Open 1987 Rosario City Open 1988 Praderas Grand Prix 1995 Uruguay Open, La Plata Open 1996 Chile Open 1997 Foz Iguazu Open, Prince of Wales Open 1998 JPGA Championship 2003 Abierto del Litoral 2005 Abierto del Litoral 2006 Parana Open 2007 North Open 2009 Abierto del Litoral 2010 Abierto del Litoral 2012 Argentine PGA Championship 2013 Abierto del Litoral 2018 Abierto del Sur Note: González never played in the Masters Tournament or the U. S. Open. CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied World Cup: 1996, 1998, 2005, 2007 Irons - Mizuno MP-62 Black Nickel, Project X 7.0 Wedges - Mizuno MPT-10 White Satin 52, 60/08 2014 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2016 European Tour Qualifying School graduates Ricardo González at the European Tour official site Ricardo González at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States. The competition is contested every two years with the venue alternating between courses in the United States and Europe; the Ryder Cup is named after the English businessman Samuel Ryder. The event is jointly administered by the PGA of America and Ryder Cup Europe, the latter a joint venture of the PGA European Tour, the PGA of Great Britain and Ireland, the PGAs of Europe. Contested between Great Britain and the United States, the first official Ryder Cup took place in the United States in 1927 at Worcester Country Club in Worcester, Massachusetts; the home team won the first five contests, but with the competition's resumption after the Second World War, repeated American dominance led to a decision to extend the representation of "Great Britain and Ireland" to include continental Europe from 1979. The inclusion of continental European golfers was prompted by the success of a new generation of Spanish golfers, led by Seve Ballesteros and Antonio Garrido.
In 1973 the official title of the British Team had been changed from "Great Britain" to "Great Britain and Ireland", but this was a change of name to reflect the fact that golfers from the Republic of Ireland had been playing in the Great Britain Ryder Cup team since 1953, while Northern Irish players had competed since 1947. Since 1979, Europe has won eleven times outright and retained the Cup once in a tied match, with eight American wins over this period. In addition to players from Great Britain and Ireland, the European team has included players from Belgium, France, Italy and Sweden; the Ryder Cup, its counterpart the Presidents Cup, remain exceptions within the world of professional sports because the players receive no prize money despite the contests being high-profile events that bring in large amounts of money in television and sponsorship revenue. The current holders are Europe who won in 2018 at the Albatros Course at Le Golf National in Guyancourt, south-west of Paris, by a score of 17½ to 10½.
The next contest will be on the Straits course at Whistling Straits, Wisconsin, from 25 to 27 September 2020. On 27 September 1920 Golf Illustrated wrote a letter to the Professional Golfers' Association of America with a suggestion that a team of 12 to 20 American professionals be chosen to play in the 1921 British Open, to be financed by popular subscription. At that time no American golfer had won the British Open; the idea was that of James D. Harnett; the PGA of America made the idea was announced in the November 1920 issue. The fund was called the British Open Championship Fund. By the next spring the idea had been firmed-up. A team of 12 would be chosen, who would sail in time to play in a warm-up tournament at Gleneagles prior to the British Open at St. Andrews, two weeks later; the team of 12 was chosen by PGA President George Sargent and PGA Secretary Alec Pirie, with the assistance of USGA Vice-President Robert Gardner. A team of 11 sailed from New York on the RMS Aquitania on 24 May 1921 together with James Harnett, Harry Hampton deciding at the last minute that he could not travel.
The idea for a 12-a-side International Match between the American and Great Britain professionals was reported in The Times on 17 May, with James Douglas Edgar being reported as the probable 12th player. Edgar was in the United Kingdom; the match would be played at Gleneagles on Monday 6 June, the day before the start of the 1000 Guinea Tournament. With Jim Barnes indisposed, the match became a 10-a-side contest, Edgar not being required for the American team; the match consisted of 5 foursomes in the morning and 10 singles in the afternoon, played on the King's Course. The match was won by Great Britain by 9 matches to 3, 3 matches being halved; the British team was: George Duncan, James Braid, Arthur Havers, Abe Mitchell, James Ockenden, Ted Ray, James Sherlock, J. H. Taylor, Josh Taylor, Harry Vardon; the American team was: Emmet French, Clarence Hackney, Walter Hagen, Charles Hoffner, Jock Hutchison, Tom Kerrigan, George McLean, Fred McLeod, Bill Mehlhorn and Wilfrid Reid. Gold medals were presented by Katharine Stewart-Murray, Duchess of Atholl, to each member of the teams at the conclusion of the Glasgow Herald tournament on Saturday afternoon.
The medals "had on one side crossed flags, The Union Jack and Stars and Stripes surmounted by the inscription "For Britain" or "For America" as the case may be, on the other side "America v Britain. First international golf match at "The Glasgow Herald" tournament, Gleneagles, 6 June 1921"After the Glasgow Herald Tournament most of the American team travelled to St Andrews to practice for the British Open, for which qualifying began on 20 June. However, Walter Hagen and Jock Hutchison played in a tournament at Kinghorn on 15 June. Hagen didn't turn up for the second day. Hutchison took the £ 50 first prize. At St Andrews, Hutchison led the qualifying and won the Open itself. So, despite losing the International Match, the American team achieved its main objective, winning the British Open. A match between American and British amateur golfers was played at Royal Liverpool Golf Club in 1921 before The Amateur Championship; this match was followed by the creation of the Walker Cup, first played in 1922.
However the 1921 Gleneagles match did not lead to a corresponding match between the professionals. It was common at this time for a small number of professionals to travel to compete in each other's national championship. In 1926, a larger than usual
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th