Carry On (franchise)
The Carry On series consists of 31 British comedy motion pictures, four Christmas specials, a television series of thirteen episodes, three West End and provincial stage plays. The films' humour was in the British comic tradition of bawdy seaside postcards. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas drew on a regular group of actors, the Carry On team, that included Sid James, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims, Kenneth Connor, Peter Butterworth, Hattie Jacques, Terry Scott, Bernard Bresslaw, Barbara Windsor, Jack Douglas, Jim Dale; the Carry On series contains the largest number of films of any British series, it is the longest continually running UK film series, although with a fourteen-year break. Anglo Amalgamated Film Distributors Ltd produced twelve films, the Rank Organisation made eighteen and United International Pictures made one. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas made all 31 films on time and to a strict budget, employed the same crew. Between 1958 and 1992, the series employed seven writers, most Norman Hudis and Talbot Rothwell.
In between the films and Thomas produced four Christmas specials in 1969, 1970, 1972, 1973, a thirteen episode television series in 1975, various West End stage shows which toured the regions. All the films were made at Pinewood Studios near Buckinghamshire. Budgetary constraints meant that a large proportion of the location filming was undertaken close to the studios in and around south Buckinghamshire, including areas of Berkshire and Middlesex. However, by the late 1960s more ambitious plots necessitated locations further afield, which included Snowdonia National Park and the beaches of the Sussex coast doubling as Saharan sand dunes in Follow That Camel. Carry On Sergeant was about a group of recruits doing National Service; the film was sufficiently successful to inspire a similar venture, again focusing on an established and respected profession in Carry On Nurse. When that too was successful, further forays with Carry On Teacher and Carry On Constable established the series; this initial'pattern' was broken with the fifth film in 1961, Carry On Regardless, but it still followed a similar plot to that of many of the early films—a small group of misfit newcomers to a job make comic mistakes, but come together to succeed in the end.
The remainder of the series developed with increased use of the British comic traditions of music hall and bawdy seaside postcards. Many titles parodied more serious films, such as their tongue-in-cheek homages to James Bond and Hammer horror films; the most impressive of these was Carry On Cleo, after the Burton and Taylor epic Cleopatra, where the budget-conscious Carry On team made full use of some impressive sets, intended for that film. Carry On Emmannuelle, inspired by the soft-porn Emmanuelle, brought to an end the original'run'; the stock-in-trade of Carry On humour was innuendo and the sending-up of British institutions and customs, such as the National Health Service, the monarchy, the Empire, the armed forces, the police and the trade unions as well as camping, foreign holidays, beauty contests, caravan holidays, the education system amongst others. Although the films were often panned by critics, they proved popular with audiences. In 2007, the pun "Infamy, they've all got it in for me", spoken by Kenneth Williams in Carry on Cleo, was voted the funniest one-line joke in film history.
A film had appeared in 1957 under the title Carry On Admiral. The much earlier 1937 film Carry On London is unrelated; the cast were poorly paid—around £5,000 per film for a principal performer. In his diaries, Kenneth Williams lamented this, criticised several of the movies despite his declared fondness for the series as a whole. Peter Rogers, the series' producer, acknowledged: "Kenneth was worth taking care of, because while he cost little he made a great deal of money for the franchise." Several other films were planned, scripted or entered pre-production before being abandoned: What a Carry On... 1961 Carry On Smoking, 1961. The story revolved around a fire station, various attempts to train a bungling group of new recruits. Carry On Spaceman, 1961 and again in 1962. See section below. Carry On Flying, 1962. Scripted by Norman Hudis, about a group of RAF recruits, it got as far as pre-production before being abandoned. Jim Dale was to have a starring role. Carry On Robin, 1965. A planned spoof of Robin Hood starring the "Carry On regulars" was outlined by Rogers and registered with the British Film Producers Association but never pursued.
Carry On Again Nurse, 1967 and two other attempts. See section below ↓. Carry On Escaping, 1973. Scripted by Talbot Rothwell, a spoof of World War II escape films; the complete script was included in the book The Complete A-Z of Everything Carry On. Carry on Dallas, 1980. A p
A Stitch in Time (film)
A Stitch in Time is a 1963 Norman Wisdom comedy film set in a children's hospital. It was edited by Gerry Hambling; the cast includes Edward Chapman, Jeanette Sterke, Jerry Desmonde, Jill Melford, Glyn Houston, Vera Day, Patsy Rowlands, Peter Jones, Ernest Clark, Hazel Hughes, Lucy Appleby and Frank Williams. The film features an early role for Johnny Briggs. Norman Pitkin is the apprentice to Mr Grimsdale an old fashioned butcher; when the store is raided by a young thug, Mr Grimsdale puts his gold watch in his mouth for safe keeping. The result of which leads to Mr Grimsdale sent to hospital. Whilst visiting Mr Grimsdale, Norman accidentally causes chaos around the hospital and meets a girl called Lindy who hasn't spoken since her parents were killed in an aeroplane accident. After Norman is unable to visit Lindy as he is banned from hospital he and Mr. Grimsdale join the St. John Ambulance Brigade which gives him the excuse to visit her, as the usual chaos ensues. In the end Lindy visits him at a charity ball where the St. John Ambulance Brigade Band are performing.
The ball descends into the inevitable shambles, caused by Norman. However, Norman redeems himself as he addresses those attending the ball and everyone donates money for the charity. Norman Wisdom as Norman Pitkin Edward Chapman as Mr Grimsdale Jeanette Sterke as Nurse Haskell Jerry Desmonde as Sir Hector Jill Melford as Lady Brinkley Glyn Houston as Cpl Welsh of the St John Ambulance Brigade Hazel Hughes as Matron Patsy Rowlands as Amy Peter Jones as Divisional Officer Russell of the St John Ambulance Brigade Ernest Clark as Prof. Crankshaw Lucy Appleby as Lindy Vera Day as Betty Frank Williams as Driver Nuttall of the St John Ambulance Brigade Penny Morrell as Nurse Rudkin Patrick Cargill as Dr Meadows Francis Matthews as Benson John Blythe as Dale, Press Photographer Pamela Conway as Patient Danny Green as Ticehurst Johnny Briggs as Armed Robber Michael Goodliffe as Doctor on the Children's Ward Tony Thawnton as St John Ambulance Driver in last few minutes of movie The film was shot entirely at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire.
Location filming was kept to a minimum. A Stitch in Time represents Wisdom's most commercially successful title; the film was rereleased in 1984 in Chennai India. The film was a smash ran for many weeks at the old Alankar Theatre; the Radio Times gave the film two out of five stars: "this was final film in black and white and his last big starring success at the box office, for he belonged to a more innocent age. The script sticks to the winning Wisdom formula as he knots his cap in confused shyness in his attempts to declare his love for a pretty nurse. Stalwart stooges Edward Chapman and Jerry Desmonde prove once more that straight men can be much funnier than the comics". Sky Movies gave the film three out of five stars, noting the film "has just enough inspired tomfoolery - a madcap race on casualty trolleys down the corridors of a hospital. In his silly stunts, he is forever the naughty boy having the time of his life doing what he shouldn't". TV Guide gave the film three out of five stars, noted, "a charming and sentimental piece of characterization from Wisdom."
A Stitch in Time on IMDb
The Wild and the Willing
The Wild and the Willing is a 1962 British romantic drama film directed by Ralph Thomas, starring Virginia Maskell, Paul Rogers and Samantha Eggar, is the film debut of Ian McShane and John Hurt. It depicts a group of students at university, it was filmed on location with Lincoln Castle doubling as the university. A group of young men at university go through the students' life – dancing, meeting girls. Harry is a rather rebellious young man, going out with Josie, his room mate is a quiet outsider. Harry feels protective of Phil for some reason. Phil loves Sarah; as the plot develops, Harry gets involved with Virginia. The professor acts aloof towards her and doesn't want to divorce her because he is expecting to be knighted. Harry wants Virginia to come away with him, but she is too worried about her future and turns him down. Out of frustration Harry wants to pull a Rag Week stunt, climb the campus tower at night and raise a flag atop of it, he needs help to pull this off but all the other young men opt out for various reasons.
Phil offers to join Harry, as he feels that Harry has done a lot to involve him into campus life, rather than living on the fringes. At first, worried about the consequences as Phil is not a good climber, refuses to take Phil along with him, but against his better judgment, he is persuaded to do so. Gilby, a smart striver is jealous of Harry, he reports Harry and Phil to the university authorities. The teachers call the fire brigade; the spectacle draws a crowd. Although Phil is a bad climber and slips several times, the two young men manage to reach the top and hoist their flag, but on the way down Phil loses his footing and, although Harry tries to hold on to him, Phil slips from his grasp and falls to his death. For being directly responsible for his friend's death, Harry is'sent down' and expelled from the university, he makes one more visit to see Professor Chown and Virginia where the Professor admits that Harry's paper was brilliant and that with his stunt, he has forfeited a scholarship and an academic career.
Josie realises that she doesn't mean much to him. Yet she asks him to take her along; the film ends with an African friend, singing a ballad of Harry and Josie's life. Virginia Maskell as Virginia Chown Paul Rogers as Professor George Chown Ian McShane as Harry Brown Samantha Eggar as Josie Stevens Catherine Woodville as Sarah David Sumner as John John Hurt as Phil Corbett John Standing as Arthur Johnny Briggs as Dai Johnny Sekka as Reggie Jeremy Brett as Andrew Gilby Charles Kay as Edgar Tibbs John Barrie as Mr Corbett Megs Jenkins as Mrs Corbett Victor Brooks as Fire Chief Ernest Clark as Vice-Chancellor Denise Coffey as Jane George A. Cooper as First Customer Richard Leech as Police Inspector Harry Locke as Second Customer Marianne Stone as Clara Richard Warner as Coroner John Welsh as Publican Jeremy Young as Policeman It was based on a play, "The Tinker", it was the first feature film for John Hurt and Ian McShane. Betty Box says. McShane was only months from graduating from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art when asked to audition.
"It's appealing, movie money, so I did it and, that," said McShane later. Betty Box said the film "didn't break records or win awards but it did reasonably good business and put the youngsters on the first rung of the ladder to stardom." In the Radio Times, David McGillivray wrote, "an unsuccessful play, The Tinker - written when Angry Young Men were in vogue - is the source of this exposé of British student life. Once shocking, it has aged as badly as others of its ilk, but now has considerable curiosity value, not least because of early appearances by Ian McShane, Samantha Eggar, John Hurt and others. McShane shines as the scholarship boy who vents his wrath on privileged society". BFI Screenonline referred to the film as "Ralph Thomas's tepid student drama"; the New York Times called the film "sophomoric". Ian McShane's performance has been described as "the archetypal angry young man." The Wild and the Willing on IMDb
Italia Conti Academy of Theatre Arts
The Italia Conti Academy is a performing arts educational institution based in London, England delivering a variety of disciplines and theatre training at Secondary Education, Further Education and Higher Education. It was founded in 1911 by the actress Italia Conti; the academy grew out of the first production of the play. Italia Conti, an established actress with a reputation for her success working with young people, was asked to take over the job of training the cast; the academy moved to a church building in Conduit Street, however during World War II, the academy was bombed, destroying all early records. In 1972, the academy relocated to a building in Clapham, it was the home to all full-time Italia Conti pupils for 9 years. In 1981, the academy grew and developed so much that it had to expand to Goswell Road in the City of London where the Junior and Musical Theatre courses are run; the BA Acting and CertHe Intro to Acting programmes are still based at the Avondale site in Clapham. The BA Acting Programme, validated by the University of East London and accredited by the Federation of Drama Schools, is a three-year full-time professional actor's training for students aged 18+.
It is based in Italia Conti's Avondale Building in London. The programme is run by Chris White, with staff and directors including Kate Williams, Paulette Randall, Karen Henthorn, Dugald Bruce-Lockhart, Lawrence Evans, John Gillett and Anna Jordan. Graduates of this programme populate the performance industries and include Karla Crome, Mark Ebulué, Jess Ellis, Karen Gillan, Aisling Jarrett-Gavin, Matt Lapinskas, Carla Langley, Bethany Muir, James Nelson-Joyce, Racheal Ofori, Gemma Salter, Lucie Shorthouse, Gary Trainor, Nina Toussaint-White, Dwane Walcott; the CertHE Intro to Acting Programme, validated by the University of East London, is a one-year full-time preparation and foundation training for students aged 18+ who wish to subsequently pursue or explore an actor-training, or vocational course within a performance related field. The programme is run by Bradley Leech and operates alongside the flagship BA Acting Programme in Italia Conti's Avondale Building in Clapham. Before HE validation, this programme was known as the Foundation Acting Course.
The BA Musical Theatre Programme, validated by the University of East London, is a three-year full-time professional musical theatre triple-threat training for students aged 18+. The single programme runs two cohorts across two of the Italia Conti's buildings; the programme is run by Richard Mulholland. The first intake of students for this programme was September 2018 The Performing Arts course is a three-year full-time course for students from the age of 16, it is designed for students. The course aims to produce confident and multi-skilled performers, the emphasis is on training in the three main art forms; the Performing Arts with Dance Teacher Training is a three-year full-time course for students from the age of 16 and takes place at the Italia Conti Arts Centre. The course trains students to become performers and dance teachers by providing performing arts training and dance teaching qualifications. With the introduction of the ISTD qualifications in 2006, the academy provided students with the opportunity to take these examinations.
The course follows the same path as the Performing Arts Course but incorporates the teacher training by offering the FDI qualifications in Classical Ballet and Modern. This allows students to become qualified dance teachers to teach up to grade 5 in the ISTD syllabus. Aspects of the course include Dance, Singing, Contextual Studies and Additional Content such as ISTD examinations, PGCE work, latin dance, performance, pilates and professional skills, stage combat, video production and theatre in education production; the Theatre Arts School known as the ‘Juniors’, is a co-educational independent schoolfor pupils aged from 10 to 16 years old. The Theatre Arts School is located within the Italia Conti Academy building in London; the school is accredited by the Independent Schools Council and monitored by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. Specialising in delivering a mixed curriculum of ‘Academic Education’ and ‘Performance Arts Training’. Pupils follow a constructed academic curriculum to ensure they graduate with qualifications and have the widest possible range of choice available to them at sixteen whilst engaging with a range of performance skills prepares them for further training at a higher level leading onto a career in the performing arts and entertainment industry.
The academy has three sites: The main centre'Italia Conti House' referred to as'mainschool', is based in Goswell Road, London. And is home to the Performing Arts Course, Intensive Performing Arts Course, Singing Course and Theatre Arts School; the building covers nine levels and has 18 dance and singing studios, equipped with sprung floors, full length mirrors, ballet barres and sound systems. Italia Conti House has lecture rooms, academic school rooms, specialist classrooms, an art room, a video studio and editing suite, an IT suite, a resource library, first aid and treatment room, dressing room, student common room and a canteen; the BA Acting Course takes place in the'Avondale' building, in London. The impressive Edwardian b
A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
The Lavender Hill Mob
The Lavender Hill Mob is a 1951 comedy film from Ealing Studios, written by T. E. B. Clarke, directed by Charles Crichton, starring Alec Guinness and Stanley Holloway and featuring Sid James and Alfie Bass; the title refers to Lavender Hill, a street in Battersea, a district of South London, in the postcode district SW11, near to Clapham Junction railway station. The British Film Institute ranked The Lavender Hill Mob the 17th greatest British film of all time; the original film was digitally restored and re-released to UK cinemas on 29 July 2011 to celebrate its 60th anniversary. Henry Holland is dining with a fellow Briton in a posh restaurant in Rio de Janeiro where he is well known, he relates a story explaining his presence in Rio. It seems he was a unambitious London bank clerk in charge of gold bullion deliveries for over 20 years, he had a reputation for fussing over details and suspecting all cars he observed following the bullion van, but all in all appeared to be a man dedicated to his job and the gold's security.
In fact, he had hatched the "perfect" plot to retire. The one thing stopping him had been that selling the gold on the black market in Britain was too risky, he was at a loss as to how to smuggle it abroad. One evening a new lodger – artist Alfred Pendlebury – arrives at Holland's boarding house in Lavender Hill. Pendlebury owns a foundry that makes presents and souvenirs that are sold in many resorts, including foreign ones. Noticing how similar the foundry is to the place where the gold is made into ingots, Holland decides that the ideal way of smuggling the gold out of the country would be as Eiffel Tower paperweights sold in Paris, puts this hypothetically to his new friend: "By Jove, Holland, it's a good job we're both honest men." "It is indeed, Pendlebury." When Holland finds that he is about to be transferred to another department at the bank, he and Pendlebury move into action. They recruit Lackery Wood and Shorty Fisher, to help them carry out the robbery; the plan is simple but clever, it succeeds: Wood and Fisher carry out the hijack of the bullion van and switch the gold to Pendlebury's works van.
Holland, assaulted and drowned in the robbery, becomes the hero of the hour. The police find themselves running around in circles, unable to track down the "master criminal", in fact right under their noses giving them false statements and misleading clues. Meanwhile and his associates melt the gold in Pendlebury's foundry and export it to France disguised as miniature Eiffel Towers; the plan goes wrong when the woman running the souvenir kiosk in Paris misunderstands her instructions due to a language mixup. Pendlebury and Holland, who have adopted the names of "Al" and "Dutch", arrive to retrieve their disguised bullion only to find that six of the towers have been sold to a party of British schoolgirls. A wild chase back to the Channel ferry Canterbury follows but all sorts of hold-ups, including problems with the customs men, prevent them from getting to the ship and the girls in time. If just one of those towers is found to be gold the game is up. Pendlebury and Holland therefore track down the schoolgirls and, in exchange for a similar tower and ten shillings, recover most of the loot.
One girl however refuses to return hers since she intends to give it to a friend, a policeman. The girl delivers the souvenir to the officer, at an exhibition of police history and methods at Hendon Police College. Attending is a police inspector, investigating the robbery; as part of the case he checked up on Pendlebury's foundry and was told that many souvenirs bought in foreign places are made in Britain. A sudden thought occurs to he orders the souvenir to be tested. At that moment Pendlebury snatches it and he and Holland make their escape in a police car. A confused pursuit takes place through London, with Holland using the radio in the police car to give false descriptions of the vehicle in which the crooks are riding. Though, an officer succeeds in stopping their car and arresting Pendlebury. Holland escapes to Rio de Janeiro with the six gold towers, worth "£25,000, enough to keep me for one year in the style to which I was, ah, unaccustomed." But now, he finishes telling his visitor, the money is gone.
As they leave the restaurant, Holland is seen to be handcuffed to his countryman. Alec Guinness as Henry "Dutch" Holland Stanley Holloway as Alfred "Al" Pendlebury Sid James as Lackery Wood Alfie Bass as Shorty Fisher Marjorie Fielding as Mrs. Chalk Edie Martin as Miss Evesham John Salew as Parkin Ronald Adam as Turner Arthur Hambling as Wallis Gibb McLaughlin as Godwin John Gregson as Farrow Clive Morton as Station Sergeant Sydney Tafler as Clayton Marie Burke as Senora Gallardo Audrey Hepburn as Chiquita William Fox as Gregory Michael Trubshawe as British Ambassador Jacques B. Brunius, Paul Demel, Eugene Deckers and Andreas Malandrinos as Customs Officials Cyril Chamberlain as Commander Moultrie Kelsall as Detective Superintendent Christopher Hewett as Inspector Talbot Meredith Edwards as P. C. Williams Patrick Barr as Divisional Detective Inspector David Davies as City Policeman Desmond Llewelyn as Customs Official Richard Wattis as opposition MP Cast notesAudrey Hepburn makes an early film appearance in a small role as Chiquita near the start of the film.
Robert Shaw made his first film appearance, playing a police laboratory technician towards the end of the film. English actress Patricia Garwood made her first film appearance in this movie at the age of nine. British 1960
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia