In William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlet's mother and Queen of Denmark. Her relationship with Hamlet is somewhat turbulent, since he resents her marrying her husband's brother Claudius after he murdered the King. Gertrude reveals no guilt in her marriage with Claudius after the recent murder of her husband, Hamlet begins to show signs of jealousy towards Claudius. According to Hamlet, she scarcely mourned her husband's death before marrying Claudius, her name may derive from Gertrude of Bavaria, Queen Consort of Denmark 1182–1197. Gertrude is first seen in Act 1 Scene 2 as she tries to cheer Hamlet over the loss of his father, begging him to stay at home rather than going back to school in Wittenberg, her worry over him continues into the second act, as she sides with King Claudius in sending Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to raise the spirits of her son. Rather than ascribing Hamlet's sudden madness to Ophelia's rejection, she believes the cause to be his father, King Hamlet's death and her quick, subsequent marriage to Claudius: "I doubt it is no other but the main.
In Act three, she eagerly listens to the report of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on their attempt to cheer him, supports the King and Polonius' plan to watch Hamlet from a hidden vantage point as he speaks with Ophelia, with the hope that her presence will heal him. In the next act, Gertrude tells Claudius of Polonius' murder, convinced that Hamlet is mad, she shows genuine compassion and affection as she watches along with others as Ophelia sings and acts in absolute madness. At Ophelia's burial, she expresses her former hope that the young woman might have married her son: "I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife." When Hamlet appears and grapples with Laertes, she asks him to stop and for someone to hold him back—saying that he may be in a fit of madness now, but that will alleviate soon. At the beginning of the play, Gertrude lies more with her husband than her son. In the final scene, Gertrude notices Hamlet is tired during the fight with Laertes, offers to wipe his brow, she drinks a cup of poison intended for Hamlet by the King, against the King's wishes, dies, shouting in agony as she falls: "No, no, the drink,—O my dear Hamlet—The drink, the drink!
I am poison'd." Other characters' views of the Queen are negative. When the Ghost of her former husband appears to Hamlet, he describes her as a "seeming virtuous queen", but orders Hamlet not to confront her about it and leave her judgement to heaven. However, he expresses that his love for her was benevolent as he states that he would have held back the elements if they "visited her face too roughly". Hamlet sees her as an example of the weakness of women and hurt in his reflections of how she remarried. There have been numerous attempts to account for Gertrude's state of mind during the play, it could be argued that as she does not confess to any sins before she dies, she did not participate in her husband's murder. However, other considerations do point to Gertrude's complicity. After repeated erratic threats towards his mother to no response, Hamlet threatens to discover the true nature of Gertrude's character by setting up a mirror, at which point she projects a killer: In the 1919 essay "Hamlet and his problems" T. S. Eliot suggests that the main cause of Hamlet's internal dilemma is Gertrude's sinful behaviour.
He states, "Shakespeare's Hamlet... is a play dealing with the effect of a mother's guilt upon her son."In 1924, the social reformer Lillie Buffum Chace Wyman published a study, Gertrude of Denmark: An Interpretive Romance, an early attempt to give Gertrude's own perspective on her life and the events of the play. Wyman explicitly "interrogates the nineteenth-century cult of the self-sacrificing mother", critiquing the influence it had on interpretations of the play by both male critics and actresses playing Gertrude. In the 1940s, Ernest Jones—a psychoanalyst and Freud's biographer—developed Freud's ideas into a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus. Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light. In this reading, Hamlet is disgusted by his mother's "incestuous" relationship with Claudius while fearful of killing him, as this would clear Hamlet's path to his mother's bed.
Carolyn Heilbrun's 1957 essay "Hamlet's Mother" defends Gertrude, arguing that the text never hints that Gertrude knew of Claudius poisoning King Hamlet. This analysis has been championed by many feminist critics. Heilbrun argued that men have for centuries misinterpreted Gertrude, believing what Hamlet said about her rather than the actual text of the play. By this account, no clear evidence suggests that Gertrude is an adulteress: she is adapting to the circumstances of her husband's death for the good of the kingdom. Women were exclusively banned from appearing as actresses on the stage until 1660 and in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, troupes appeared that were composed of boy players. Indeed, they are famously mentioned in Hamlet, in which a group of travelling actors has left the city due to rivalry with a troupe of "little eyases". Eileen Herlie portrayed Gertrude in Laurence Olivier's 1948 Hamlet. Glenn Close played mother to Mel Gibson in the Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 Hamlet. Julie Christie appeared as Gertrude in Kenneth Branagh's 1996 Hamlet.
Despite her classical training as an actor, it was her first-ever
Spaghetti Western known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western, is a broad subgenre of Western films that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success. The term was used by American critics and those in other countries because most of these Westerns were produced and directed by Italians. According to veteran Spaghetti Western actor Aldo Sambrell, the phrase'Spaghetti Western' was coined by Spanish journalist Alfonso Sánchez; the denomination for these films in Italy is western all'italiana. Italo-Western is used in Germany; the term Eurowesterns may be used to include Western movies that were produced in Europe but not called Spaghetti Westerns, like the West German Winnetou films or Ostern Westerns. The majority of the films were international co-productions between Italy and Spain, sometimes France, Portugal, Israel, Yugoslavia, or the United States; these movies were released in Italian, but as most of the films featured multilingual casts and sound was post-synched, most "western all'italiana" do not have an official dominant language.
The typical Spaghetti Western team was made up of an Italian director, Italo-Spanish technical staff, a cast of Italian, Spanish and American actors, sometimes a fading Hollywood star and sometimes a rising one like the young Clint Eastwood in three of Sergio Leone's films. Over six hundred European Westerns were made between 1960 and 1978; the best-known Spaghetti Westerns were directed by Sergio Leone and scored by Ennio Morricone, notably the three films of the Dollars Trilogy —A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly —as well as Once Upon a Time in the West. These are listed among the best Westerns of any variety. Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars established the Spaghetti Western as a novel kind of Western. In this seminal film, the hero enters a town, ruled by two outlaw gangs, ordinary social relations are non-existent, he plays the gangs against one another in order to make money. He uses his cunning and exceptional weapons skill to assist a family threatened by both gangs.
His treachery is exposed and he is beaten, but in the end, he defeats the remaining gang. The interaction in this story between cunning and irony on the one hand, pathos on the other, was aspired to and sometimes attained by the imitations that soon flooded the cinemas. Italian cinema borrowed from other films without regard for infringement, Leone famously borrowed the plot for A Fistful of Dollars, receiving a letter from Japanese director Akira Kurosawa congratulating him on making "...a fine film. But it is my film". Leone had imitated one of the most respected directors in the world by remaking his film Yojimbo as A Fistful of Dollars and surrendered Asian rights to Kurosawa, plus 15% of the international box office proceeds. Leone moved from borrowing and established his own oft-imitated style and plots. Leone's films and other "core" Spaghetti Westerns are described as having eschewed, criticised or "demythologized" many of the conventions of traditional U. S. Westerns; this was intentional and the context of a different cultural background.
Use of pathos received a big boost with Sergio Corbucci's influential Django. In the years following, the use of cunning and irony became more prominent; this was seen with their emphasis on unstable partnerships. In the last phase of the Spaghetti Western, with the Trinity films, the Leone legacy had been transformed beyond recognition, as terror and deadly violence gave way to harmless brawling and low comedy. Ennio Morricone's music for A Fistful of Dollars and Spaghetti Westerns was just as seminal and imitated, it expresses a similar duality between quirky and unusual sounds and instruments on the one hand, sacral dramatizing for the big confrontation scenes on the other. Most Spaghetti Westerns filmed between 1964 and 1978 were made on low budgets and shot at Cinecittà studios and various locations around southern Italy and Spain. Many of the stories take place in the dry landscapes of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico, hence common filming locations were the Tabernas Desert and the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, an area of volcanic origin known for its wide sandy beaches, both of which are in the Province of Almería in southeastern Spain.
Some sets and studios built for Spahetti Westerns survive as theme parks, Texas Hollywood, Mini Hollywood, Western Leone, continue to be used as film sets. Other filming locations used were in central and southern Italy, such as the parks of Valle del Treja, the area of Camposecco, the hills around Castelluccio, the area around the Gran Sasso mountain, the Tivoli's quarries and Sardinia. God's Gun was filmed in Israel. In the 1960s, critics recognized that the American genres were changing; the genre most identifiably American, the Western, seemed to be evolving into a new rougher form. For many critics, Sergio Leone's films were part of the problem. Leone's Dollars Trilogy was not the beginning of the "Spaghetti Western" cycle in Italy, but for Americans Leone's films represented the true beginning of the Italian invasion of an American genre. Christopher Frayling, in his noted book on the Italian Western
Cry, Onion! is a 1975 Spaghetti Western comedy film directed by Enzo G. Castellari, it is comedic and parodic. Franco Nero as Onion Stark Martin Balsam as Petrus Lamb Sterling Hayden as Pulitzer Dick Butkus as Jeff Leo Anchóriz as Sheriff Romano Puppo as Stinky Neno Zamperla as Oblò -'Monocle' Emma Cohen as Mary Ann Cry, Onion! was released in Italy on 25 August 1975. Cry, Onion! on IMDb
Horst Frank was a German film actor. He appeared in more than 100 films between 1955 and 1999, he was born in Lübeck and died in Heidelberg, Germany. Horst Frank on IMDb Horst Frank at AllMovie
A Few Dollars for Django
A Few Dollars for Django is a 1966 Spaghetti Western film directed by León Klimovsky and Enzo G. Castellari and starring Anthony Steffen. Although credited only to León Klimovsky, A Few Dollars for Django was predominately directed by an uncredited Enzo G. Castellari. A bounty hunter named Regan wishes to settle down and begin a new life, maybe become sheriff, but a murder leads him in pursuit of bank robbers and lands him in a range war with farmers and cattlemen. Anthony Steffen as Regan Frank Wolff as Jim Norton / Trevor Norton Gloria Osuna as Sally Norton Ennio Girolami as Sam Lister José Luis Lluch as Buck Dago Alfonso Rojas as Amos Brownsberg Sandalio Hernández as Smitty José Luis Lizalde as Judge's Assistant Ángel Ter as Judge Joaquín Parra as Freeman A Few Dollars for Django was released in 1966; the film was released to television as A Few Dollars for Gypsy. A Few Dollars for Django on IMDb A Few Dollars for Django at Rotten Tomatoes
High Crime is a 1973 Italian-Spanish poliziottesco film directed by Enzo G. Castellari; the film stars James Whitmore, Delia Boccardo and Fernando Rey. High Crime was a big success at the time of its release, helped popularize the Italian cop thriller genre. A Lebanese drug dealer arrives in Genoa and Vice-Commissioner Belli soon tracks him down. After a long car chase, Belli manages to arrest him. However, when the prisoner is being taken to the police station, the police car is bombed before it reaches its target; the Lebanese and four policemen die in the hit. Belli goes to Cafiero, an old-fashioned gangster who claims to have transformed into a peaceful gardener, to question about the bombing and it turns out that there is a new player in town. Cafiero decides to take care of the new gang, his task turns out to be more difficult when his trusted man, turns out to be a mole working for the unknown new gangsters. Belli's boss, Commissioner Aldo Scavino, has put together a dossier on the city's mafia connections, but thinks that there is not enough hard evidence to take down all the gangsters from top to down.
After several discussions with Belli, he agrees to take the dossier to the district attorney. However, he is murdered and the dossier is stolen. Belli now takes over Scavino's seat as the Commissioner and finds the murderer; the murderer names Umberto Griva as his boss, as Belli expected. When Griva's brother Franco is found murdered, it seems that someone with higher political connections is trying to take over the city's drug trafficking. Belli starts from square one and, after a warning from Cafiero, decides to send his daughter away to a safer place. However, his daughter is soon murdered and his girlfriend Mirella beat up. With a helpful hint from Cafiero, Belli finds out about a large drug smuggling operation; as Belli arrives on the scene, a shootout ensues, Belli survives while all the criminals are killed. Director Enzo G. Castellari was influenced to create High Crime after watching the film Bullitt; when presenting the idea of this sort of film to producer Edmondo Amati, he was told to show him a story.
Castellari discussed a plot with Amati's son Maurizio. The group developed a treatment based around the murder of Luigi Calabresi. Castellari did not want Edmondo Amati to read their script, decided to tell him the story instead. Italian film historian Roberto Curti has stated that despite Castellari's recollections, he felt the story outline was more derived from William Friedkin's The French Connection with its similarity to its opening scenes and Fernando Rey's presence as an elderly crime boss. High Crime was filmed at Incir De Paolis in Rome and on location in Genoa, Ligurian coast, Marseille. High Crime was released on August 12, 1973, in Italy, where it was distributed by Fida Cinematografica; the film grossed 1,625,825,000 Italian lire on its theatrical run in Italy. The film was described as a "huge box office hit" by historian Roberto Curti. In a contemporary review, the Monthly Film Bulletin gave the film a negative review, finding the film "especially graceless when one recalls the opaque joys of Salvatore Guiliano."
The review critiqued the dubbing, that its formulaic character scarcely redeemed by high-minded nods at social comment, the film fails to vindicate an early promise of more homely pleasures: "You cops... you're always full of jokes"." High Crime on IMDb
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others", it was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch—and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella"; the story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by the 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest.
Shakespeare may have drawn on an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe Shakespeare wrote the Ur-Hamlet revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have. He certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto; each version includes entire scenes missing from the others. The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a plot device to prolong the action but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, thwarted desire. More psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.
The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the deceased King Hamlet, nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Hamlet's mother, took the throne for himself. Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, in which King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle some years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus discuss a ghost resembling the late King Hamlet which they have seen, bring Prince Hamlet's friend Horatio as a witness. After the ghost appears again, the three vow to tell Prince Hamlet; as the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly.
During the court, Claudius grants permission for Polonius's son Laertes to return to school in France and sends envoys to inform the King of Norway about Fortinbras. Claudius scolds Hamlet for continuing to grieve over his father and forbids him to return to his schooling in Wittenberg. After the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his mother's hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself; as Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim "to thine own self be true." Polonius's daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, but Laertes warns her against seeking the prince's attention, Polonius orders her to reject his advances. That night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees, the ghost vanishes; the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on", or act as though he has gone mad, forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret.
However, he remains uncertain of the ghost's reliability. Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving erratically. Polonius resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude; as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behaviour. Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles; the forces that Fortinbras had conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through Danish territory to get there. Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behaviour and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information.
Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while. When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his "friends" warm