Wisconsin State Journal
The Wisconsin State Journal is a daily newspaper published in Madison, Wisconsin by Lee Enterprises. The newspaper, the second largest in Wisconsin, is distributed in a 19 county region in south-central Wisconsin; as of September 2018, the Wisconsin State Journal had an average weekday circulation of 51,303 and an average Sunday circulation of 64,820. The staff of the Wisconsin State Journal were named a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting in 2012 for their coverage of the "27 days of around-the-clock protests" at the state Capitol during the 2011 Wisconsin protests, its editorial board was named a Pulitzer finalist in 2008 for its "persistent, high-spirited campaign against abuses in the governor's veto power." Founded by Madison Hotel proprietor William W. Wyman, the Madison Express was first published in Madison on December 2, 1839; the paper began as an afternoon weekly, but during legislative sessions would publish every other day. As a strong supporter of the Whig Party, the paper endorsed William Henry Harrison for president in 1840.
David Atwood was apprenticed as a printer with his brother's newspaper in Hamilton, New York before he arrived in Madison on Oct. 15, 1847. He soon became employed as a compositor and assistant editor at the Madison Express for $6 a week and board, he purchased the paper with partner Royal Buck in 1848, changing its name to the Wisconsin Express to expand its outlook. He established the paper editorially as an outspoken opponent of slavery. In 1852 the weekly paper merged with Wyman's Wisconsin Statesman to become the Wisconsin Daily Palladium for three months. On Sept. 30, 1852 it changed its name again to the Wisconsin Daily Journal and to its current name in 1860. To bring in more revenue Atwood followed his brother's example in the east and began a lucrative sideline business of printing law books. Atwood took on partners including George Gary. In 1858, Atwood was commissioned a major general in the Wisconsin Militia by Governor Alexander W. Randall, but still retained financial interest in the daily.
He partnered with Harrison Reed, a former Milwaukee Sentinel editor who became a carpetbag governor of Florida during Reconstruction. During Atwood's 41-year tenure as publisher, he was a state assemblyman, an internal revenue assessor, a Madison mayor and a U. S. representative to Congress, all the while publishing the Wisconsin State Journal until his death in 1889. As mayor, Atwood sought to develop manufacturing in Madison, a position he could applaud in his own paper. In the early 1850s Atwood was aided by Horace Rublee, who had left the University of Wisconsin to be the legislative reporter for the Democratic Madison Argus. In 1853 he was the next year Atwood's business partner. Rublee was well positioned to participate in the new state politics that emerged in response to the Kansas–Nebraska Act; as early as January 1854 the newspaper called for a mass convention of anti-slavery citizens to meet in Madison. After events such as slave Joshua Glover's liberation in Milwaukee and the birth of the Republican Party on March 20, 1854 in Ripon, WI intervened, the convention that founded the Wisconsin Republican Party was held at the capitol on July 13 with Rublee acting as party secretary and Atwood serving on the resolutions committee.
Rublee became the chairman of the state Republican Party from 1859–1869. In 1860 he extended an unsuccessful invitation to Abraham Lincoln to speak at the party convention in Madison. Rublee allied himself with Madison mayor and state patronage boss Elisha W. Keyes to run the "Madison Regency," the state's Republican machine. Rublee broke with Keyes over the latter's support of President Andrew Johnson's vetoes of Freedman legislation. J. O. Culver purchased Rublee's interest in the paper in 1868 after Rublee was appointed minister to Switzerland by President Ulysses S. Grant. Rublee became editor of the Milwaukee Sentinel, while Culver retired in December 1876. On July 10, 1861, the State Journal became the first newspaper to produce and sell ready-printed "patent insides," pages with Civil War news on one side but blank on the other, where the Baraboo Republic printed its local news and advertising. Fostered by business manager John S. Hawks, this invention helped make many rural papers possible.
During the 1870s Hawks expanded the State Journal's printing of law books, picking up the contracts of a Chicago firm after it suffered a fire, making the paper for a time the largest publisher of law books in the country. The paper's presses were used for much of the state government's printing. After Atwood's passing, the State Journal Printing Co. was formed as a stock company, with Horace A. “Hod" Taylor taking over the paper. Although he had managed newspapers in La Crosse and Hudson, WI and Stillwater, Minnesota he was not a journalist, but instead used the paper to further his strong political ambitions. Taylor ran for governor as a stalwart Republican in 1888, he lost the nomination to William H. Upham, he held a consularship in Marseilles, France, as well as an appointment as U. S. Railroad Commissioner. During the 1890s the paper's circulation began to catch up to its main rival, the Madison Democrat, due to the 1894 arrival of Yale-educated Amos P. Wilder. Earning $30 a week as editor-in-chief, he purchased a major interest in the paper.
Wilder began to transform the State Journal into a more civic-minded newspaper, focusing on local problems but falling short of embarking on crusades. A supporter of Governor Robert M. La Follette Sr. in 190
People is an American weekly magazine of celebrity and human-interest stories, published by Time Inc. a subsidiary of the Meredith Corporation. With a readership of 46.6 million adults, People has the largest audience of any American magazine. People had $997 million in advertising revenue in 2011, the highest advertising revenue of any American magazine. In 2006, it had revenue expected to top $1.5 billion. It was named "Magazine of the Year" by Advertising Age in October 2005, for excellence in editorial and advertising. People ranked number 6 on Advertising Age's annual "A-list" and number 3 on Adweek's "Brand Blazers" list in October 2006; the magazine runs a 50/50 mix of celebrity and human-interest articles. People's editors claim to refrain from printing pure celebrity gossip, enough to lead celebrity publicists to propose exclusives to the magazine, evidence of what one staffer calls a "publicist-friendly strategy". People's website, People.com, focuses on celebrity news and human interest stories.
In February 2015, the website broke a new record: 72 million unique visitors. People is best known for its yearly special issues naming the "World's Most Beautiful", "Best & Worst Dressed", "Sexiest Man Alive"; the magazine's headquarters are in New York, it maintains editorial bureaus in Los Angeles and in London. For economic reasons, it closed bureaus in Austin and Chicago in 2006; the concept for People has been attributed to Andrew Heiskell, Time Inc.'s chief executive officer at the time and the former publisher of the weekly Life magazine. The founding managing editor of People was Richard B. Stolley, a former assistant managing editor at Life and the journalist who acquired the Zapruder tapes of the John F. Kennedy assassination for Time Inc. in 1963. People's first publisher was another Time Inc. veteran. Stolley characterized the magazine as "getting back to the people who are causing the news and who are caught up in it, or deserve to be in it. Our focus is on people, not issues." Stolley's religious determination to keep the magazine people-focused contributed to its rapid early success.
It is said that although Time Inc. pumped an estimated $40 million into the venture, the magazine only broke 18 months after its debut in March 1974. The magazine was sold on newsstands and in supermarkets. To get the magazine out each week, founding staff members slept on the floor of their offices two or three nights each week and limited all non-essential outside engagements; the premier edition for the week ending March 4, 1974 featured actress Mia Farrow starring in the film The Great Gatsby, on the cover. That issue featured stories on Gloria Vanderbilt, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and the wives of U. S. Vietnam veterans; the magazine was, apart from its cover, printed in black-and-white. The initial cover price was 35 cents; the core of the small founding editorial team included other editors, writers and photo editors from Life magazine, which had ceased publication just 13 months earlier. This group included managing editor Stolley, senior editors Hal Wingo, Sam Angeloff and Robert Emmett Ginna.
Many of the noteworthy Life photographers contributed to the magazine as well, including legends Alfred Eisenstaedt and Gjon Mili and rising stars Co Rentmeester, David Burnett and Bill Eppridge. Other members of the first editorial staff included editors and writers: Ross Drake, Ralph Novak, Bina Bernard, James Jerome, Sally Moore, Mary Vespa, Lee Wohlfert, Joy Wansley, Curt Davis, Clare Crawford-Mason, Jed Horne an editor of The Times-Picayune in New Orleans. In 1996, Time Inc. launched a Spanish-language magazine entitled People en Español. The company has said that the new publication emerged after a 1995 issue of the original magazine was distributed with two distinct covers, one featuring the murdered Tejano singer Selena and the other featuring the hit television series Friends. Although the original idea was that Spanish-language translations of articles from the English magazine would comprise half the content, People en Español over time came to have original content. In 2002, People introduced People Stylewatch, a title focusing on celebrity style and beauty – a newsstand extension of its Stylewatch column.
Due to its success, the frequency of People Stylewatch was increased to 10 times per year in 2007. In spring 2017, People Stylewatch was rebranded as PeopleStyle. In late 2017, it was announced that there would no longer be a print version of PeopleStyle and it would be a digital-only publication. In Australia, the localized version of People is titled Who because of a pre-existing lad's mag published under the title People; the international edition of People has been published in Greece since 2010. On July 26, 2013, Outlook Group announced that it was closing down the Indian edition of People, which began publication in 2008. In September 2016, in collaboration with Entertainment Weekly, People launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network; the network is "a free, a
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
University of Wisconsin System
The University of Wisconsin System is a university system of public universities in the state of Wisconsin. It is one of the largest public higher-education systems in the country, enrolling more than 174,000 students each year and employing 39,000 faculty and staff statewide; the University of Wisconsin System is composed of two doctoral research universities, eleven comprehensive universities, thirteen freshman-sophomore branch campuses. The present-day University of Wisconsin System was created on October 11, 1971, by Chapter 100, Laws of 1971, which combined the former University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Universities systems into an enlarged University of Wisconsin System; the merger was supposed to take effect in 1973. The merger took effect on July 1974, combining two chapters of the Wisconsin statutes; the former Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 were merged to create a new Chapter 36. The University of Wisconsin was created by the state constitution in 1848, held its first classes in Madison in 1849.
In 1956, pressed by the growing demand for a large public university that offered graduate programs in Wisconsin's largest city, Wisconsin lawmakers merged Wisconsin State College of Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin–Extension's Milwaukee division as the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. The new campus consisted of both the WSCM campus near the lakefront and the UW extension in downtown Milwaukee. Starting in the 1940s, freshman-sophomore centers were opened across the state. In 1968, the Green Bay center was upgraded to a full-fledged four-year institution as the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, while the Kenosha and Racine centers were merged as the University of Wisconsin–Parkside. By 1971, the University of Wisconsin system consisted of campuses at Madison, Green Bay and Kenosha/Somers, along with 10 freshman-sophomore centers and the statewide University of Wisconsin–Extension; the total enrollment of the University of Wisconsin system at that time was 69,554. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin system consisted of ten members, nine of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for nine-year terms.
The tenth was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction who served ex officio on both the University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State University boards. In 1866, the state legislature established a normal school at Platteville—the first of eight teacher-training schools across the state. In 1911, the legislature permitted the normal schools to offer two years of post-high school work in art, liberal arts and sciences, pre-law, pre-medicine; the broadened curriculum proved popular and soon accounted for over one-third of the normal schools' enrollment. In 1920, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching issued a report on "The Professional Education of Teachers of American Public Schools", which attacked such programs, arguing that normal schools should not deviate from their purpose as trainers of teachers; when the Milwaukee Normal School persisted with its popular enhanced curriculum, the regents of the Normal School system, the legislature, the governor all became involved.
MNS President Carroll G. Pearse was forced to resign in 1923, the regents ordered the discontinuation of non-teacher-education programs; the issue was not settled, though. In 1926, the regents repurposed the Normal Schools as "State Teachers Colleges", offering a four-year course of study leading to a Bachelor of Education degree that incorporated significant general education at all levels; the thousands of returning World War II veterans in Wisconsin needed more college choices for their studies under the G. I. Bill, popular demand pushed the State Teachers College system Regents to once again allow the teacher training institutions to offer bachelor's degrees in liberal arts and fine arts. In 1951 the state teachers colleges were redesignated as "Wisconsin State Colleges," offering a full four-year liberal-arts curriculum. In 1955, the Stout Institute in Menomonie, founded as a private engineering school in 1891 and was sold to the state in 1911, was merged into the Wisconsin State Colleges system.
The state colleges were all granted university status as "Wisconsin State Universities" in 1964. As of 1971, the Wisconsin State Universities comprised nine public universities and four freshman-sophomore branch campuses, with a total enrollment of 64,148; the board was made up of 14 members, 13 of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for five-year terms. The 14th was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; the University of Wisconsin system merged with the Wisconsin State University system in 1971 to create today's University of Wisconsin System. The 1971 merger law approved by the State Senate combined the two higher education systems in Wisconsin under a single Board of Regents, creating a system with 13 universities, 14 freshman-sophomore centers, a statewide extension with offices in all 72 counties; each university is named "University of Wisconsin–" followed by the location or name. Each two-year college was named "University of Wisconsin
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
National Lampoon's Van Wilder is a 2002 comedy film directed by Walt Becker and written by Brent Goldberg and David T. Wagner; this movie was inspired by the real life experiences of "The Real Van Wilder" Bert Kreischer while he attended Florida State University. National Lampoon's Van Wilder stars Ryan Reynolds as the title character alongside Tara Reid, Kal Penn, Tim Matheson; the film follows the misadventures of its lead character Van Wilder, a seventh year senior, who has made his life goal in helping undergrads at Coolidge College succeed in the future. An article is written for the campus newspaper by a fellow student, Gwen Pearson, played by Reid, bringing to light Van Wilder's college life; this attracts the attention of Van's father, played by Matheson, which leads to his tuition being cut off. Van Wilder gets stuck in the middle of a love triangle between Gwen and her mean-spirited boyfriend, Richard "Dick" Bagg while struggling to graduate. Van tries various schemes to earn enough money to pay his tuition and graduate, with help from Gwen and the rest of the student body, except a couple of sinister enemies who attempt to sabotage his efforts.
A sequel, Van Wilder: The Rise of Taj, was released on December 1, 2006. A prequel, Van Wilder: Freshman Year, was released straight-to-DVD on July 14, 2009. Vance “Van” Wilder is a confident and sardonic seventh year senior at Coolidge College, popular among most of the student body. With no ambition to graduate, Van spends his days driving around campus in his customized golf cart, posing nude for figure drawing classes, organizing soirees and fundraisers for his peers. Among his friends are his roommate and close confidant Hutch and his newly hired assistant Taj Badalandabad, a sexually repressed foreign exchange student from India. Upon learning that his son is still in school, Van's father arrives at Coolidge intent on bringing him home; when Van refuses, his father decides to sever Van's financial support. Faced with disenrollment due to unpaid tuition, Van seeks a payment extension from the registrar, Deloris. After Van has sex with her, Deloris hands him the paperwork for an extension, which Van realizes he only needed to ask for in the first place.
Gwen Pearson works for the school paper, despite her talents for journalism, her articles do not generate interest from the student body. Her editor assigns her to get an “unattainable” human interest story on Van Wilder as he refuses to do interviews for the paper. After a couple of attempts to get money fast, Van is approached by the Lambda Omega Omega fraternity, offering to pay him a thousand dollars to throw them a blowout party and boost their popularity. Overhearing two of the Lambdas expressing their excitement over the party's success and their satisfaction with Van's work, Gwen writes a story crediting Van as the host of the party. Though Van hates the article at first, he realizes it can be the "cash cow" he needs to stay in school. Van agrees to sit down with Gwen for the follow-up piece after losing a hockey bet to her. Gwen's boyfriend, Richard “Dick” Bagg, is a pre-medical student and the president of his fraternity Delta Iota Kappa as well as the student government; as he learns of Gwen's work with Van and suspects a growing bond between them, he moves to sabotage their prospective romance.
Van and Richard exchange escalating pranks until it culminates in Van and Van's roommate Hutch replacing the cream filling of a batch of pastries with canine semen taken from Van's English Bulldog Colossus. Though Gwen grows closer to Van, she accesses his transcripts from the Admissions & Records office while doing background work on her piece, learning that Van has avoided graduating for the past seven semesters. Angry that Gwen dug into such personal details, Van dissociates himself from Gwen and takes a contemplative look at his life. Richard arranges to sabotage Van's latest party with Jeannie, a member of a sister sorority by smuggling underaged children into the party and getting them drunk calling a campus police officer to the scene; as a result, Van faces expulsion from Coolidge. A depressed Van prepares to leave Coolidge; the student body pools its resources to defend Van against the charges before a university panel featuring, among others, Van's collegiate adversary Professor McDougal and Richard.
While the law club invests time coaching Van to plead innocent to the charges, the rest of the student body works to generate support for Van. Having learned from his past mistakes and what Gwen has shown him, Van goes off book during the hearing and takes responsibility for the kids at the party, he throws himself at the mercy of the court and asks that rather than expelling him they force him to graduate since he is only 18 units shy of his degree. Professor McDougal surprises everyone with his swing vote, casting the 3-2 vote in favor of Van's reinstatement, Van studies for the quickly-approaching finals. In retaliation for Richard's underhandedness, Gwen spikes Richard's ritual protein shake with a powerful laxative just prior to his taking the Medical College Admission Test. Unable to hold out, Richard “dials down the middle” of most his multiple-choice exam sheet, hurriedly exits the exam room; as he rushes to find a bathroom, he is intercepted by one of the doctors from the group meant to interview him for admission to Northwestern Medical School, who pulls him into an office to meet with
Good Morning America
Good Morning America is an American morning television show, broadcast on ABC. It debuted on November 3, 1975, first expanded to weekends with the debut of a Sunday edition on January 3, 1993; the Sunday edition was canceled in 1999. The weekday program airs from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in all U. S. time zones. The Saturday and Sunday editions are one hour long and are transmitted to ABC's stations live at 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time, although stations in some markets air them at different times. Viewers in the Pacific Time Zone receive an updated feed with a specialized opening and updated live reports. A third hour of the weekday broadcast aired from 2007 to 2008 on ABC News Now; the program features news, weather forecasts, special-interest stories, feature segments such as "Pop News", the "GMA Heat Index" and "Play of the Day". It is produced by ABC News and broadcasts from the Times Square Studios in New York City's Times Square district; the primary anchors are Robin Roberts, George Stephanopoulos, Michael Strahan alongside breaking news anchor Amy Robach, entertainment anchor Lara Spencer and weather anchor Ginger Zee.
Good Morning America has been the most watched morning show in total viewers and key demos each year since Summer 2012. GMA placed second in the ratings, behind NBC's Today from 1995 to 2012, it overtook its rival for a period from the early to mid-1980s with anchors David Hartman and Joan Lunden, from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s with Charles Gibson and Lunden, in April 2012 with Roberts and Stephanopoulos. Good Morning America won the first three Daytime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Morning Program", sharing the inaugural 2007 award with Today and winning the 2008 and 2009 awards outright. On January 6, 1975, ABC launched AM America in an attempt to compete with NBC's Today; the program was hosted by Bill Beutel and Stephanie Edwards, with Peter Jennings and Robert Kennedy reading the news. Because the show could not find an audience against Today, ABC sought a new approach; the network found that one of its affiliates, WEWS in Cleveland, had been pre-empting AM America in favor of airing a locally produced show called The Morning Exchange.
Unlike AM America and Today, The Morning Exchange featured an easygoing and less dramatic approach by offering news and weather updates only at the top and bottom of every hour and used the rest of the time to discuss general-interest/entertainment topics. The Morning Exchange established a group of regular guests who were experts in certain fields, including health, consumer affairs and travel. Unlike both the NBC and ABC shows, The Morning Exchange was not broadcast from a newsroom set but instead one that resembled a suburban living room. In the process of screening the Cleveland morning program as a creative source, ABC began looking at another local show, Good Morning!, produced by Boston ABC affiliate WCVB-TV. Good Morning! was similar in format to The Morning Exchange, but with a lesser emphasis on news and weather. In fact, once the revamped ABC morning show took to the air late in 1975 under the title Good Morning America, WCVB station manager Bob Bennett accused ABC entertainment president Fred Silverman of deliberately stealing the title of Good Morning!.
The launch of Good Morning America did result in the Boston morning show changing its name—to Good Day!. ABC used it as a pilot episode. After positive reviews for the pilot, the format replaced AM America on Monday, November 3, as Good Morning America; the first host was actor David Hartman, with actress Nancy Dussault as co-host. For the first seven years, weather forecasts were presented by John Coleman, former chief meteorologist for ABC owned-and-operated station WLS-TV in Chicago, who left GMA in 1982 to start The Weather Channel with Landmark Communications CEO Frank Batten. Dave Murray provided the forecasts for both Good Morning America and ABC's early morning news program ABC News This Morning from 1983 to 1986. In August 1986, he was replaced by Spencer Christian, who worked at WABC-TV in New York City and served as fill-in meteorologist for both Coleman and Murray whenever they were away on vacation or assignment; the program's ratings climbed but throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s while Today experienced a slight slump in viewership with Walters' decision to leave NBC for a job at ABC News.
On August 30, 1976, Tom Brokaw began anchoring Today while the program began a search for a female co-host. Within a year, Today managed to beat back the Good Morning America ratings threat with Brokaw and new co-host Jane Pauley, featuring art and entertainment contributor Gene Shalit. Good Morning America continued to threaten Today's ratings dominance into the 1980s after Brokaw left the latter program to become co-anchor of NBC Nightly News with Roger Mudd for 17 months before being named sole anchor of that program. For the first time, Good Morning America became the highest-rated morning news program in the United States as Today fell to second place. At the outset, Good Morning America was a talk program with a main host, joined by a side