Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, has played at its current home ground, St James' Park since; the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and has a capacity of 52,354. The club has been a member of the Premier League for all but three years of the competition's history, spending 85 seasons in the top tier as of May 2016, has never dropped below English football's second tier since joining the Football League in 1893, they have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup. Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club; the club's most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles.
The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s without winning any trophies, but have been struggling since the 2006–07 season, were relegated in 2009 and 2016. They returned to the Premier League for the 2017–18 season after winning the Championship title the preceding year. Newcastle has a fierce local rivalry with Sunderland, the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898; the club's traditional kit colours are black shorts and black socks. Their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms. Prior to each home game the team enters the field to "Local Hero", written by Newcastle native Mark Knopfler, while "Blaydon Races" is invariably sung during games; the club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman and owner Sir John Hall. The club is the 17th-highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169.3 million in 2015. Newcastle's highest placing was in 1999, when they were the fifth-highest revenue producing football club in the world, second in England only behind Manchester United.
The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club. That year, Newcastle's first football club, Tyne Association, was formed; the origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a football club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the cricket club in Stanley, County Durham. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later. In 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, in May 1886, the club moved into St James' Park. The two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a professional team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the other hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble and approached East End with a view to a take over.
Newcastle West End were dissolved, a number of their players and backroom staff joined Newcastle East End merging the two clubs, with Newcastle East End taking over the lease on St James' Park in May 1892. With only one senior club in the city for fans to support, development of the club was much more rapid. Despite being refused entry to the Football League's First Division at the start of the 1892–93 season, they were invited to play in their new Second Division. However, with no big names playing in the Second Division, they turned down the offer and remained in the Northern League, stating "gates would not meet the heavy expenses incurred for travelling". In a bid to start drawing larger crowds, Newcastle East End decided to adopt a new name in recognition of the merger. Suggested names included Newcastle F. C. Newcastle Rangers, Newcastle City and City of Newcastle, but Newcastle United was decided upon on 9 December 1892, to signify the unification of the two teams; the name change was accepted by the Football Association on 22 December, but the club was not constituted as Newcastle United Football Club Co. Ltd. until 6 September 1895.
At the start of the 1893–94 season, Newcastle United were once again refused entry to the First Division and so joined the Second Division, along with Liverpool and Woolwich Arsenal. They played their first competitive match in the division that September against Woolwich Arsenal, with a score of 2–2. Turnstile numbers were still low, the incensed club published a statement stating, "The Newcastle public do not deserve to be catered for as far as professional football is concerned"; however figures picked up by 1895–96, when 14,000 fans watched the team play Bury. That season Frank Watt became secretary of the club, he was instrumental in promotion to the First Division for the 1898–99 season. However, they lost their first game 4–2 at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and finished their first season in thirteenth place. In 1903–04, the club built up a promising squad of players, went on to dominate English football for a decade, the team known for their "artistic play, combining team-work and quick, short passing".
Long after his retirement, Peter McWilliam, the team's defender at the time, said, "The Newcastle team of the 1900s would give any modern side a two goal start and beat them, further more, beat them at a trot." Newcastle United went on to win the League on three occasions during the 1900s. In 1904 -- 05, they nearly did the double. The
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club referred to as Tottenham or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, England, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the club's home ground since 2019, replacing their former home of White Hart Lane, demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site, their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield. Tottenham have played in a first strip of white shirts and navy blue shorts since the 1898–99 season; the club's emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, with a Latin motto Audere est Facere. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup.
They were the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups; the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. Named Hotspur Football Club, the club was formed on 5 September 1882 by a group of schoolboys led by Bobby Buckle, they were members of the Hotspur Cricket Club and the football club was formed to play sports during the winter months. A year the boys sought help with the club from John Ripsher, the Bible class teacher at All Hallows Church, who became the first president of the club and its treasurer. Ripsher helped and supported the boys through the club's formative years and found premises for the club.
In April 1884 the club was renamed "Tottenham Hotspur Football Club" to avoid confusion with another club, London Hotspur, whose post had been mistakenly delivered to North London. Nicknames for the club include "Spurs" and "the Lilywhites"; the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. The first recorded match took place on 30 September 1882 against a local team named the Radicals, which Hotspur lost 2–0; the team entered their first cup competition in the London Association Cup, won 5–2 in their first competitive match on 17 October 1885 against a company's works team called St Albans. The club's fixtures began to attract the interest of the local community and attendances at its home matches increased. In 1892, they played for the first time in the short-lived Southern Alliance; the club turned professional on 20 December 1895 and, in the summer of 1896, was admitted to Division One of the Southern League. On 2 March 1898, the club became a limited company, the Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company.
Soon after, Frank Brettell became the first manager of Spurs, he signed John Cameron, who took over as player-manager when Brettell left a year later. Cameron would have a significant impact on Spurs, helping the club win its first trophy, the Southern League title in the 1899-1900 season; the following year Spurs won the 1901 FA Cup by beating Sheffield United 3–1 in a replay of the final, after the first game ended in a 2-2 draw. In doing so they became the only non-League club to achieve the feat after the formation of The Football League in 1888. In 1908, the club was elected into the Football League Second Division and won promotion to the First Division in their first season, finished runners-up in their first year in the league. In 1912, Peter McWilliam became manager. Spurs were relegated to the Second Division on the resumption of league football after the war, but returned to the First Division as Second Division champions of the 1919–20 season. On 23 April 1921, McWilliam guided Spurs to their second FA Cup win, beating Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–0 in the Cup Final.
Spurs finished second to Liverpool in the league in 1922, but would finish mid-table in the next five seasons. Spurs were relegated in the 1927–28 season after McWilliam left. For most of the 1930s and 40s, Spurs languished in the Second Division, apart from a brief return to the top flight in the 1933–34 and 1934–35 seasons. Former Spurs player Arthur Rowe became manager in 1949. Rowe developed a style of play, known as "push and run", that proved to be successful in his early years as manager, he took the team back to the First Division after finishing top of the Second Division in the 1949–50 season. In his second season in charge, Tottenham won their first top tier league championship title when they finished top of the First Division for the 1950–51 season. Rowe resigned in April 1955 due to a stress-induced illness from managing the club. Before he left, he signed one of Spurs' most celebrated players, Danny Blanchflower, who would win the FWA Footballer of the Year twice while at Tottenham.
Bill Nicholson took over as manager in October 1958. He would become the club's most successful manager, guiding the team to major trophy success three seasons in a row in the early 1960s: the Double in 1961, the FA Cup in 1962 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1963. Nicholson signed Dave Mackay and John White in 1959, two influential players of the Double-winning team, Jimmy Greaves in 19
Swindon Town F.C.
Swindon Town Football Club is a professional football club in Swindon, England. Founded as Swindon AFC in 1879, they became Spartans in 1880 and Swindon Town in 1883; the team compete in the fourth tier of the English football league system. The club's home since 1896 is the County Ground, having a capacity of 15,728; the club went professional in 1894 and entered the Football League in 1920. It enjoyed a period of success between 1968–70, winning the 1969 League Cup Final and securing promotion to the Second Division, led by the club's talisman winger Don Rogers, whom the South Stand has been named after since the 2007–08 season; the club's three biggest victories were 10–2 over Norwich City on 5 September 1908, 10–1 over Farnham United Breweries F. C. in 1925–26 and 9–1 over Luton Town in 1920, while the heaviest defeat was 1–10 against Manchester City in 1930. Swindon Town won promotion to the Premier League in the 1992–93 season, the only time the club has played in the top level of English football.
Swindon Town Football Club was founded by Reverend William Pitt of Liddington in 1879. The team turned professional in 1894 and joined the Southern League, founded in the same year. During this period Septimus Atterbury played for the club. Swindon reached the FA Cup semi-finals for the first time in the 1909–10 season, losing to eventual winners Newcastle United. Barnsley and Swindon were invited to compete for the Dubonnet Cup in 1910 at the Parc des Princes Stadium in Paris; the result was a 2–1 victory for Swindon with Harold Fleming scoring both of the club's goals. The following season, 1910–11, Swindon Town won the Southern League championship, earning them a Charity Shield match with the Football League champions Manchester United. This, the highest-scoring Charity Shield game to date, was played on 25 September 1911 at Stamford Bridge with Manchester United winning 8–4; some of the proceeds of this game were donated to the survivors of the Titanic. In 1912 Swindon Town reached the semi finals of the FA Cup for a second time in 3 years, losing to Barnsley after a replay 1–0.
Swindon's exploits at this time owed a lot to the skilful forward H. J. Fleming, capped by England 11 times between 1909 and 1914 despite playing outside the Football League. Fleming remained with Swindon throughout a playing career spanning 1907 and 1924 and went on to live in the town for his entire life. Swindon entered the Football League in 1920 as a founding member of Division Three and defeated Luton Town 9–1 in their first game of the season; this result stands. After the outbreak of World War II, the War Department took over the County Ground in 1940, where for a while POWs were housed in huts placed on the pitch, for this the club received compensation of £4,570 in 1945. World War II affected Swindon Town more than most other football clubs and the club was disbanded, the club needed a large amount of time to recover and for this reason it failed to make any real impression in the league and would not climb into the second division until 1963 when they finished runners up to Northampton Town.
The club was relegated back into Division Three in 1965 but it was about to create a sensation. In 1969, Swindon beat Arsenal 3–1 to win the League Cup for the only time in the club's history; as winners of the League Cup, Swindon were assured of a place in their first European competition: the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. However, the Football Association had agreed to inclusion criteria with the organizers which mandated that only League Cup winners from Division One would be able to take part; as the team were not eligible, the short lived Anglo-Italian competitions were created to give teams from lower divisions experience in Europe. The first of these, the 1969 Anglo-Italian League Cup, was contested over two legs against Coppa Italia winners A. S. Roma. Swindon won 5–2, with the scorer of two goals in the League Cup final – Don Rogers – scoring once and new acquisition Arthur Horsfield acquiring his first hat-trick for the club; the team went on to win the 1970 Anglo-Italian Cup competition in a tournament beset by hooliganism.
The final against S. S. C. Napoli was abandoned after 79 minutes following pitch invasions and a missile barrage, with teargas being employed to allow the teams to return to the dressing room. Following management changes, Swindon had a long unsuccessful period culminating in them being relegated in 1982 to the Fourth Division, the lowest professional Football League at the time, they were promoted as champions in 1986 with the club achieving a Football League record of 102 points, the second club to score over 100 points in a season, York City having totalled 101 two years earlier. A year they won the Third Division play-offs to achieve a second successive promotion. Promotion campaign Manager Lou Macari left in 1989 to take charge of West Ham United with veteran midfielder, former Argentine international, Ossie Ardiles replacing him. In his first season, Swindon were Second Division play-off winners, but the club admitted 36 charges of breaching league rules, 35 due to illegal payments made to players, were relegated to the Third Division — giving Sunderland promotion to the First Division and Tranmere Rovers to the Second Division.
The scandal saw chairman Brian Hillier being given a six-month prison sentence and chief accountant Vince Farrar being put on probation. A appeal saw Swindon Town being allowed to stay in the Second Division. Ardiles remained in charge until March 1991, when he departed for Newcastle United and was succeeded by new player-manager Glenn Hoddle. Swindon progressed well during the 1991–92 season, Hoddle's first full season as manager, just missed out on the Second Division play-offs, having
A hat-trick or hat trick is the achievement of a positive feat three times in a game, or another achievement based on the number three. The term first appeared in 1858 in cricket, to describe H. H. Stephenson's taking three wickets with three consecutive deliveries. Fans held a collection for Stephenson, presented him with a hat bought with the proceeds; the term was used in print for the first time in 1865. The term was adopted by many other sports including hockey, association football, water polo, team handball. A hat-trick occurs in association football when a player scores three goals in a single game, whereas scoring two goals constitutes a brace. In common with other official record-keeping rules, penalty-kick goals are counted but goals in a penalty shootout are excluded from the tally; the extra time in a knockout cup match may be calculated towards a player's potential hat-trick. The fastest recorded time to score a hat-trick is 70 seconds, a record set by Alex Torr in a Sunday league game in 2013.
The previous record of 90 seconds was held by Tommy Ross playing for Ross County against Nairn County on 28 November 1964. The first hat-trick in an international game was by Scottish player John McDougall, against England on 2 March 1878. American player Bert Patenaude scored the first hat-trick in the FIFA World Cup, against Paraguay in the inaugural event. Two hat-tricks have been scored in a World Cup final, by Geoff Hurst for England in the 1966 final during extra time against West Germany, Carli Lloyd for the USA against Japan in the 2015 Women's World Cup final. Lloyd's was the fastest hat-trick scored in a World Cup final at 13 minutes from first to last goal, at 16 minutes the fastest from kickoff in any World Cup match for either sex. However, the fastest World Cup hat-trick for either men or women, as measured by time between goals, belongs to Fabienne Humm of Switzerland, who scored in the 47th, 49th and 52nd minutes against Ecuador in the 2015 group stage. Football has extended the term to include the phrase perfect hat-trick, achieved when a player scores one right-footed goal, one left-footed goal and one headed goal within one match.
In Germany and Austria, the term Hattrick refers to when a player scores three goals in a row in one half without the half-time break or a goal scored by another player interrupting the performance. Traditionally, a player who scores a hat-trick is allowed to keep the match ball as a memento. In the past, the term was used to describe when a player struck out three times in a baseball game, the term golden sombrero was more used when a player struck out four times in a game. In recent years, hat trick has been more used to describe when a player hits three home runs in a game. For example, on 29 August 2015, Toronto Blue Jays fans celebrated Edwin Encarnación's third home run of the game by throwing hats onto the field, similar to the tradition in ice hockey; the phenomenon continued during the 2016 season, on 17 June 2016, a number of Blue Jays fans at Oriole Park at Camden Yards threw hats on to the field after Toronto Blue Jays player Michael Saunders hit his third home run of the night, again on 28 August at Rogers Centre, when Blue Jays player Josh Donaldson hitting his third home run of the game in the eighth inning against the Minnesota Twins.
A hat-trick occurs in cricket. The deliveries may be interrupted by an over bowled by another bowler from the other end of the pitch or the other team's innings, but must be three consecutive deliveries by the individual bowler in the same match. Only wickets attributed to the bowler count towards a hat-trick. Hat-tricks are rare, as such are treasured by bowlers. In Test cricket history there have been just 43 hat-tricks, the first achieved by Fred Spofforth for Australia against England in 1879. In 1912, Australian Jimmy Matthews achieved the feat twice in one game against South Africa; the only other players to achieve two hat-tricks are Australia's Hugh Trumble, against England in 1902 and 1904, Pakistan's Wasim Akram, in separate games against Sri Lanka in 1999, England's Stuart Broad. In One Day International cricket there have been 36 hat-tricks, the first by Jalal-ud-Din for Pakistan against Australia in 1982, the most recent by Trent Boult. Lasith Malinga is the only bowler to take three hat-tricks in any form of international cricket with his three in ODI.
Three players have taken at least two ODI hat-tricks in their careers: Wasim Akram and Saqlain Mushtaq of Pakistan and Chaminda Vaas of Sri Lanka.. Taking two wickets in two consecutive deliveries is known as a brace, or being on a hat-trick; the feat of taking four wickets in four balls has occurred only once in international one-day cricket, in the 2007 World Cup, when Sri Lanka's Lasith Malinga managed the feat against South Africa by dismissing Shaun Pollock, Andrew Hall, Jacques Kallis and Makhaya Ntini, though it has occurred on other occasions in first-class cricket. Kevan James of Hampshire took four wickets in four balls and scored a century in the same county game against India in 1996; the Cricinfo report on the game claimed. Nuwan Zoysa of Sri Lanka is the only bowler to achieve a hat-trick off his first three balls in a Test, dismissing Murray Goodwin, Neil Johnson and Trevor Gripper of Zimbabwe. In 2006 Irfan Pathan of India achieved a hat-trick in the first over of the test match, off the last three balls, when dismissing Salman Butt, Younis Khan and Mohammad Yousuf of Pakistan.
Chaminda Vaas is the only o
£sd is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae and denarii. In the United Kingdom, one of the last to abandon the system, these were referred to as pounds and pence; this system originated in the classical Roman Empire. It was re-introduced into Western Europe by Charlemagne, was the standard for many centuries across the continent. In Britain, it was King Offa of Mercia who adopted the Frankish silver standard of librae and denarii in the late 8th century, the system was used in much of the British Commonwealth until the 1960s and 1970s, with Nigeria being the last to abandon it in the form of the Nigerian pound on 1 January 1973. Under this system, there were 20 shillings, or 240 pence, in a pound; the penny was subdivided into 4 farthings until 31 December 1960, when they ceased to be legal tender in the UK, until 31 July 1969 there were halfpennies in circulation.
The advantage of such a system was its use in mental arithmetic, as it afforded many factors and hence fractions of a pound such as tenths, eighths and sevenths and ninths if the guinea was used. When dealing with items in dozens and division are straightforward; as countries of the British Empire became independent, some abandoned the £sd system while others retained it as long as the UK itself. Australia, for example, only changed to using a decimal currency on 14 February 1966. Still others, notably Ireland, decimalised only; the UK abandoned the old penny on Decimal Day, 15 February 1971, when one pound sterling became divided into 100 new pence. This was a change from the system used in the earlier wave of decimalisations in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, in which the pound was replaced with a new major currency called either the "dollar" or the "rand"; the British shilling was replaced by a 5 new pence coin worth one-twentieth of a pound. For much of the 20th century, £sd was the monetary system of most of the Commonwealth countries, the major exceptions being Canada and India.
Similar systems based on Roman coinage were used elsewhere. In the classical Roman Empire, standard coinage was established to facilitate business transactions. 12 denarii were rated equal to 1 gold solidus – a 4th-century Roman coin, rare but which still circulated. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, new currencies were introduced in Western Europe though Roman currencies remained popular. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the currencies evolved away from the solidi and denarii. In the eighth century, Charlemagne re-introduced and refined the system by decreeing that the money of the Holy Roman Empire should be the silver denarius, containing 22.5 grains of silver. As in the old Roman Empire, this had the advantage that any quantity of money could be determined by counting coins rather than by weighing silver or gold. Different monetary systems based on units in ratio 20:1 & 12:1 were used in Europe in medieval times; the English name pound is a Germanic adaptation of the Latin phrase libra pondo'a pound weight'.
There were several ways to represent amounts of money in writing and speech, with no formal convention. Spoken, unless there was cause to be punctilious, "two pound and six". Whether "pound" or "pounds" was used depended upon the speaker, varying with class and context. 1/–, colloquially "a bob". 11d. 1 1⁄2d. As spoken, the lf in halfpenny and halfpence was always silent. 3d, with reference to the above, this became thruppence referred to as a "threepenny bit". 6d known as half a shilling. 2/– 2/6 4/3 5/– £1.10s.– £1/19/11 3⁄4d. £14.8s.2d Halfpennies and farthings were represented by the appropriate symbol after the whole p
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Edward Joseph Drake was an English football player and manager. As a player, he first played for Southampton but made his name playing for Arsenal in the 1930s, winning two league titles and an FA Cup, as well as five caps for England. Drake is Arsenal's joint fifth highest goalscorer of all time, he holds the record for the most goals scored in a top flight game in English football, with seven against Aston Villa in December 1935. Drake has been described as a "classic number 9" and as a "strong, powerful and entirely unthinking" player who "typified the English view."After retiring from playing football, he became a manager, while in charge of Chelsea he took the club to its first league title. He was a cricketer, but only played sparingly for Hampshire. Born in Southampton, Drake started playing at Winchester City, whilst continuing to work as a gas-meter reader, he nearly missed the trial match with an injury. In June 1931, he was persuaded by George Kay to join Southampton playing in Division Two.
He made his Saints debut on 14 November 1931 at Swansea Town, signed as a professional in November, becoming first-choice centre-forward by the end of the 1931–32 season. In the following season he made 33 league appearances. After only one full season, his bravery and skill attracted the attention of Arsenal's Herbert Chapman, who tried to persuade Drake to move to north London. Drake decided to remain at The Dell, he started the 1933–34 season by scoring a hat-trick in the opening game against Bradford City, following this with at least one goal in the next four games, thereby amassing eight goals in the opening five games. By early March he had blasted his way to the top of the Football League Division Two goal-scoring table with 22 goals. Arsenal, with George Allison now in charge, renewed their interest and Drake decided to join the Gunners. Saints had declined several previous offers, but were forced to sell to balance their books. Drake made a total of 74 appearances for Southampton. Drake moved to Arsenal in March 1934 for £6,500, scored on his league debut against Wolves on 24 March 1934, in a 3–2 win.
Although he joined too late to qualify for a League Championship medal in 1933–34, Drake would win one in 1934–35, scoring 42 goals in 41 league games in the process – this included three hat-tricks and four four-goal hauls. With two more goals in the FA Cup and Charity Shield, Drake scored 44 in all that season, breaking Jack Lambert's club record, one that still holds to this day; the following season, 1935–36 Drake scored seven in a single match against Aston Villa at Villa Park on 14 December 1935, a club record and top flight record that still stands. Drake claimed an eighth goal hit the crossbar and went over the line, but the referee waved away his appeal. Drake would go on to win the FA Cup in 1935–36 with him scoring the only goal in the final and the League title again in 1937–38 with Arsenal. Despite being injured Drake's speed, fierce shooting and brave playing style meant he was Arsenal's first-choice centre forward for the rest of the decade, he was the club's top scorer for each of the five seasons from 1934–35 to 1938–39.
The Second World War curtailed Drake's career, although he served in the Royal Air Force as well as turning out for Arsenal in wartime games and appearing as a guest player for West Ham United in World War II. However, Drake's career would not last long into peacetime. With 139 goals in 184 games, he is along with Jimmy Brain the joint-fifth all-time scorer for Arsenal. Drake is as well one of 32 Arsenal legends who are emblazoned in a mural upon the walls of the club's Emirates Stadium. Drake's exploits at club level brought him recognition at international level, he made his England debut against Italy in the "Battle of Highbury" on 14 November 1934; as one of seven Arsenal players in the side, he scored the third goal in a heated 3–2 win. With England Drake went on to win the 1935 British Home Championship title. In total he won five caps, scoring six times for the Three Lions, he made his debut for Hampshire in 1931 and shared a vital stand of 86 with Phil Mead against Glamorgan. He made 45 but never reached this score again in the 15 further matches he played over the next six years, first as an amateur and as a professional.
After retiring as a player, Drake managed Hendon in 1946, Reading from 1947. He led the club to the runners-up spot in Division Three South in 1948–49 and again in 1951–52, though at the time only the champions were promoted. Without much ado he was appointed manager of First Division Chelsea in June 1952; this is so due to the rivalry between the Gunners and the Blues being non existent at the time. Upon Drake's arrival at Chelsea, he made a series of sweeping changes, doing much to rid the club of its previous amateurish, music hall image, he discarded the club's Chelsea pensioner crest and with it the Pensioners nickname, insisted a new one be adopted. From these changes came the Lion Rampant Regardant crest and the Blues nickname, he introduced scouting reports and a new, training regime based on ballwork, a rare practice in English football at the time. The club's previous policy of signing unreliable big-name players was abandoned; these included John McNichol, Frank Blunstone, Derek Saunders, Jim Lewis and Peter Sillett Within three years, in the 1954–55 season