The Flash is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, the original Flash first appeared in Flash Comics #1. Nicknamed the "Scarlet Speedster", all incarnations of the Flash possess "super speed", which includes the ability to run and think fast, use superhuman reflexes, violate certain laws of physics, thus far, at least four different characters—each of whom somehow gained the power of "the speed force"—have assumed the mantle of the Flash in DC's history: college athlete Jay Garrick, forensic scientist Barry Allen, Barry's nephew Wally West, Barry's grandson Bart Allen. Each incarnation of the Flash has been a key member of at least one of DC's premier teams: the Justice Society of America, the Justice League, the Teen Titans; the Flash is one of DC Comics' most popular characters and has been integral to the publisher's many reality-changing "crisis" storylines over the years. The original meeting of the Golden Age Flash Jay Garrick and Silver Age Flash Barry Allen in "Flash of Two Worlds" introduced the Multiverse storytelling concept to DC readers, which would become the basis for many DC stories in the years to come.
Like his Justice League colleagues Wonder Woman and Batman, the Flash has a distinctive cast of adversaries, including the various Rogues and the various psychopathic "speedsters" who go by the names Reverse-Flash or Zoom. Other supporting characters in Flash stories include Barry's wife Iris West, Wally's wife Linda Park, Bart's girlfriend Valerie Perez, friendly fellow speedster Max Mercury, Central City police department members David Singh and Patty Spivot. A staple of the comic book DC Universe, the Flash has been adapted to numerous DC films, video games, animated series, live-action television shows. In live action, Barry Allen has been portrayed by Rod Haase for the 1979 television special Legends of the Superheroes, John Wesley Shipp in the 1990 The Flash series and Grant Gustin in the 2014 The Flash series, by Ezra Miller in the DC Extended Universe series of films, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. Shipp portrays a version of Jay Garrick in the 2014 The Flash series.
The various incarnations of the Flash feature in animated series such as Superman: The Animated Series, Justice League, Batman: The Brave and the Bold and Young Justice, as well as the DC Universe Animated Original Movies series. The Flash first appeared in the Golden Age Flash Comics #1, from All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, this Flash was Jay Garrick, a college student who gained his speed through the inhalation of hard water vapors; when re-introduced in the 1960s Garrick's origin was modified gaining his powers through exposure to heavy water. Jay Garrick was a popular character in the 1940s, supporting both Flash Comics and All-Flash Quarterly. With superheroes' post-war decline in popularity, Flash Comics was canceled with issue #104 which featured an evil version of the Flash called the Rival; the Justice Society's final Golden Age story ran in All Star Comics #57. In 1956, DC Comics revived superheroes, ushering in what became known as the Silver Age of comic books.
Rather than bringing back the same Golden Age heroes, DC rethought them as new characters for the modern age. The Flash was the first revival, in the tryout comic book Showcase #4; this new Flash was, a police scientist who gained super-speed when bathed by chemicals after a shelf of them was struck by lightning. He adopted the name The Scarlet Speedster after reading a comic book featuring the Golden Age Flash. After several more appearances in Showcase, Allen's character was given his own title, The Flash, the first issue of, #105. Barry Allen and the new Flash were created by writers Robert Kanigher and John Broome and cartoonist Carmine Infantino; the Silver Age Flash proved popular enough that several other Golden Age heroes were revived in new incarnations. A new superhero team, the Justice League of America, was created, with the Flash as a main, charter member. Barry Allen's title introduced a much-imitated plot device into superhero comics when it was revealed that Garrick and Allen existed on fictional parallel worlds.
Their powers allowed them to cross the dimensional boundary between worlds, the men became good friends. Flash of Two Worlds was the first crossover in which a Golden Age character met a Silver Age character. Soon, there were crossovers between the Justice Society. Allen's adventures continued in his own title until the event of Crisis on Infinite Earths; the Flash ended as a series with issue #350. Allen's life had become confused in the early 1980s, DC elected to end his adventures and pass the mantle on to another character. Allen died heroically in Crisis on Infinite Earths #8. Thanks to his ability to travel through time, he would continue to appear oc
Alan Scott is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, the first character to bear the name Green Lantern. He fights evil with the aid of a magical ring, he was created by Martin Nodell first appearing in the comic book All-American Comics #16, published in 1940. Alan Scott was created after Nodell became inspired by the characters from Greek and Norse myths, seeking to create a popular entertainment character who fought evil with the aid of a magic ring which grants him a variety of supernatural powers. After debuting in All-American Comics, Alan Scott soon became popular enough to sustain his own comic book, Green Lantern. Around this time DC began experimenting with fictional crossovers between its characters, leading towards a shared universe of characters; as one of the publisher's most popular heroes, Alan became a founding member of the Justice Society of America, one of the first such teams of "mystery men" or superheroes in comic books. Following World War II, the character's popularity began to fade along with the decline of the Golden Age of Comic Books, leading to cancellation.
After 12 years out of print, DC chose to reinvent Green Lantern as science fiction hero Hal Jordan in 1959. DC would again revisit Alan Scott, establishing that Alan and Hal were the Green Lanterns of two different parallel worlds, with Alan residing on Earth-Two and Hal on Earth-One. Stories set on Earth-Two thereafter showed that Alan became the father to two superheroic children, the twins Obsidian and Jade, each with powers a bit like his own; when in 1985 DC chose to reboot its internal continuity, it merged the worlds of Earth-One and Earth-Two, Alan was again reimagined as an elder statesman of the DC Universe, the magical Green Lantern of an earlier generation who coexists with the more science fiction-oriented heroes of the Green Lantern Corps. When DC brought back its internal Multiverse concept in the 2000s, it reintroduced a new, young version of Alan on the new Earth-Two, this time as a gay man and the owner of a media conglomerate whose magical powers stem from his role as champion of the Green, an entity embodying plant life on Earth.
The original Green Lantern was created by an American artist named Martin Nodell. Nodell mentions Richard Wagner's opera cycle The Ring of the Nibelung and the sight of a trainman's green railway lantern as his inspiration. After seeing this opera, Nodell sought to create a superhero who wielded a variety of magical powers from a magic ring, which he recharged from a green lantern. Nodell wanted a colorful and interesting costume for his character, deriving from elements of Greek mythology; as Nodell recalled in an undated, latter-day interview, When I sent it in, I waited into the second week before I heard the word to come in. I was ushered into Mr. Gaines' office and after sitting a long time and flipping through the pages of my presentation, he announced, "We like it!" And "Get to work!" I did the first five pages of an eight-page story, they called in Bill Finger to help. We worked on it for seven years. Nodell chose the name "Alan Scott" by flipping through New York telephone books until he got two names he liked.
The character of Alan Scott made his debut in All-American Comics #16, fighting crime under the masked identity of "Green Lantern". He appeared as part of the superhero team Justice Society of America in All Star Comics #3, he served as the team's second chairman in #7, but departed following that issue and returned a few years remaining a regular character. His villains tended to be ordinary humans, but he did have a few paranormal ones, such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Green Lantern proved popular and was given his own series, Green Lantern that year. Most of his adventures were set in New York. In 1941, Alan Scott was paired with a sidekick named Doiby Dickles, a rotund Brooklyn taxi driver, who would appear on a regular basis until 1949. In 1948, Alan got a canine sidekick named Streak; the dog proved so popular. After World War 2, superheroes declined in popularity. Green Lantern was cancelled in 1949 after 38 issues and All-American Comics dropped superheroes in favor of westerns.
Alan Scott's final Golden Age appearance was in All-Star Comics #57. He remained out of publication for 12 years, after his revival he never got another solo series. In 1959, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz reinvented Green Lantern as a science fiction hero; the new Green Lantern, named Hal Jordan, was empowered by alien masters to serve as an interstellar lawman and had many adventures set in outer space. His powers were similar to Alan's but he was otherwise unrelated—Alan Scott never existed as far as the new stories were concerned. Hal Jordan proved popular; some years Alan Scott reappeared as a guest star in The Flash #137. To avoid continuity conflicts with the Hal Jordan character, Alan Scott and all his old stories were written as being from a parallel universe. For most of the 1960s and 1970s, Alan Scott made guest appearances in books belonging to Silver Age characters, visiting their universe through magical or technological means. In 1976, he appeared alongside his Justice Society comrades in the revived All-Star Comics and Adventure Comics in stories set in the 1970s.
In 1981, DC Comics launched All-Star Squadron, which featured Alan Scott and the Justice Society in a World War 2 setting. In 1986, the editors at DC Comics decided that all its characters should exist within the same setting and effected this change with the Crisis on Infinite Earths minis
Adventure Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics from 1938 to 1983 and revived from 2009 to 2011. In its first era, the series ran for 503 issues, making it the fifth-longest-running DC series, behind Detective Comics, Action Comics and Batman, it was revived in 2009 by writer Geoff Johns with the Conner Kent incarnation of Superboy headlining the title's main feature, the Legion of Super-Heroes in the back-up story. It returned to its original numbering with #516; the series ended with #529, prior to DC's The New 52 company reboot as a result of the Flashpoint storyline. Adventure Comics began its nearly 50-year run in December 1935 under the title New Comics, only the second comic book series published by National Allied Publications, now DC Comics; the series was retitled New Adventure Comics with its 12th issue in January 1937. Issue #32 saw the title changed again to Adventure Comics, which would remain the book's name for the duration of its existence. A humor series, it evolved into a serious adventure series.
In issue #12 when the series was titled New Adventure Comics, Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel introduced the first version of the character Jor-L as a science fiction detective in the far future. The series' focus shifted to superhero stories starting with the debut of the Sandman in issue #40. Other superheroes who appeared in the early days of Adventure included Hourman. A pivotal issue of the series was #103, when Superboy, Green Arrow, Johnny Quick, Aquaman moved from More Fun Comics, being converted to a humor format to Adventure. Starman's and Sandman's series were canceled to make room for the new features, while Genius Jones moved to the comic the new arrivals had just vacated. Superboy became the star of the book, would appear on each cover into 1969. Superboy's popularity in Adventure resulted in the character receiving his own title in 1949, when superhero titles in general were losing popularity. Krypto the Superdog debuted in issue # 210 in a Curt Swan. In issue #247, by Otto Binder and artist Al Plastino, Superboy met the Legion of Super-Heroes, a team of super-powered teens from the future.
The group became popular, would replace "Tales of the Bizarro World" as the Adventure backup feature with #300, soon be promoted to its lead. Lightning Lad, one of the Legion's founding members, was killed in Adventure Comics #304 and revived in issue #312. Issue #260 saw the first Silver Age appearance of Aquaman. In Adventure Comics #346, Jim Shooter, 14 years old at the time, wrote his first Legion story. Shooter wrote the story in which Ferro Lad died – the first "real" death of a Legionnaire – and introduced the Fatal Five; the Legion feature lasted until issue #380. With the next issue, Supergirl migrated from the backup slot in Action Comics to the starring feature in Adventure and ran until issue #424; the series reached its 400th issue in December 1970 and featured a Supergirl story written and drawn by Mike Sekowsky. As of #425, the book's theme changed from superhero adventure to fantasy/supernatural adventure; that issue debuted one new feature along with three non-series stories, the pirate saga "Captain Fear".
The next edition added a semi-anthology series, "The Adventurers' Club". Soon, editor Joe Orlando was trying out horror-tinged costumed heroes such as the Black Orchid, the Spectre. Before long, conventional superheroes returned to the book, beginning behind the Spectre, first a three-issue run of Aquaman and a newly drawn 1940s Seven Soldiers of Victory script. Aquaman was promoted to lead, backing him up were three-part story arcs featuring the Creeper, the Martian Manhunter, bracketed by issue-length Aquaman leads, he was awarded his own title and Superboy took over Adventure with Aqualad and Eclipso backups. Following this was a run as a Dollar Comic format giant-sized book, including such features as the resolution of Return of the New Gods, "Deadman", the "Justice Society of America"; the standard format returned, split between a new Starman named Plastic Man. With an increase in the story-and-art page count, the last four issues included one more run of Aquaman. All three were dropped to make way for a new version of an old feature, "Dial H for Hero".
Issue #490 saw the comic's cancellation. "Dial'H' for Hero" was moved to New Adventures of Superboy as of that series' issue #28. Adventure Comics was soon rescued; as of the September issue it was revived as a digest-sized comic. This format lasted from issues #491–503, with most stories during this period being reprints, with new stories featuring the Marvel Family and the Challengers of the Unknown including a
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty before replacing Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1940. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874; the couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.
It was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during which she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack would be warm, they were close at various points in their lives. In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess, while he and his brother were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany". Visits home were to Connaught Place in L
Eobard Thawne, otherwise known as Professor Zoom and the Reverse-Flash, is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. Created by John Broome and Carmine Infantino, he made his debut in The Flash #139; the most well-known character to assume the "Reverse-Flash" mantle, Thawne is the archenemy of Barry Allen, a descendant of Malcolm Thawne, a maternal forefather of Bart Allen, Thaddeus Thawne, Owen Mercer. He has been established as one of the fastest speedsters in the DC Universe. IGN ranked Eobard Thawne as the 31st Greatest Comic Book Villain Of All Time in 2009 and #2 on their Top 5 Flash Villains list in 2015. Tom Cavanagh and Matt Letscher have portrayed the character on various television series set within the CW's live-action Arrowverse. Eobard Thawne found a time capsule in the 25th century containing a costume of the Flash and with a Tachyon device amplified the suit's speed energy, giving himself speedster abilities. Reversing the costume's colors, he adopted the moniker of "Professor Zoom" and went on a crime spree.
However, the time capsule contained an atomic clock, to prevent a nuclear explosion, Flash pursued and defeated Zoom, hoping he knew where the clock was. He did not, but Flash found the clock, detonated it safely, destroyed Thawne's costume. Blaming the Flash for his defeat, Thawne became obsessed with "replacing" Barry and traveled back in time to exact his revenge; when Iris West rejected his romantic pursuits, Thawne killed Iris. After Flash had found love again, Thawne threatened to kill Fiona Webb on their wedding day. Fearful that history was repeating itself, Barry killed Thawne by breaking his neck; the post-Crisis extended origin "The Return of Barry Allen" storyline revealed that Eobard was once a scientist obsessed with the Flash undergoing cosmetic surgery to resemble his hero. Obtaining the Cosmic Treadmill from an antique shop, Eobard gained all of the Flash's powers after replicating the electrochemical accident that created Flash. Seeking to use the Cosmic Treadmill to travel back in time and meet his idol, Eobard arrived at the Flash Museum several years after Barry's death, discovering that he was destined to become "Professor Zoom" and die at his idol's hands.
As a result, the unstable Eobard convinced himself that he was Barry and subsequently attacked Central City for "forgetting him". Wally West tricked Eobard into returning to the 25th century with no memory of the incident. Despite this, Eobard still managed to bring the remains of his older self's costume with him, cluing him further into his destiny. After the events of Zero Hour: Crisis in Time, it is revealed that Malcolm Thawne is Eobard's ancestor and Barry's long-lost twin brother, meaning that Barry is Eobard's great uncle. In 2009, Thawne was re-imagined as a major villain in the DC Universe by writer Geoff Johns in The Flash: Rebirth, his resurrection is foreshadowed to occur in a near-future event. It is revealed that Thawne's recreation of the accident behind Barry's powers made Thawne able to lure Barry out of the Speed Force during the Final Crisis and temporarily turn his nemesis into the Black Flash; when Thawne reappears, he murders the revived Johnny Quick, before proceeding to trap Barry and the revived Max Mercury inside the negative Speed Force.
Thawne attempts to kill Wally's children through their Speed Force connection in front of Linda Park-West, only to be stopped by Jay Garrick and Bart Allen. Thawne defeats Jay and prepares to kill Bart, but Barry, Wally, Jesse Quick and Impulse arrive to prevent the villain from doing so. In the ensuing fight, Thawne reveals that he is responsible for every tragedy that has occurred in Barry's life, including the death of Nora Allen. Thawne decides to destroy everything the Flash holds dear by killing Iris before they met; as Barry chases after Thawne, Wally joins Barry in the time barrier. They reach Thawne and in doing so, they become the lightning bolt that turns Barry into the Flash as they are able to stop Thawne from killing Iris; the Flashes push Thawne back through time, showing his future. They return to the present, where the Justice League, the Justice Society, the Outsiders have built a device intended to disconnect Barry from the Speed Force as the Black Flash. Barry tosses Thawne in and Jay activates the device, severing his connection to the negative Speed Force.
As the Flashes tie him up to stop him from running, Iris discovers Thawne's weapon back in the past, which she keeps. In the present, he is imprisoned in the Iron Heights. Hunter Zolomon speaks to him. In Gorilla City, one of the apes warns that Professor Zoom has done something horrible to their jungles, but just what he has done is something they do not know. In the 2009–2010 storyline "Blackest Night", Thawne's broken-necked corpse is reanimated as a member of the Black Lantern Corps; the black power ring downloaded the corpse's memories, resulting in him not knowing of Barry's death and resurrection. Declaring himself the new "Black Flash", he attacks Barry; when Black Lantern Rogues attack Iron Heights, the living Thawne is encountered and the Black Lanterns' rings strangely malfunction, displaying a strange symbol. When Thawne's corpse approaches his living counterpart, he stops moving and is frozen by Captain Cold's "cold grenade". Thawne's corpse is brought back to life by the white light of creation, manages to escape.
In the follow-up "Brightest Day" storyline, the present Professor Zoom is still imprisoned in Iron Heights. When Deadman
Crisis on Infinite Earths
Crisis on Infinite Earths is an American comic book published by DC Comics. The story, written by Marv Wolfman and pencilled by George Pérez, was first serialized as a twelve-issue maxiseries from April 1985 to March 1986; as the main piece of a crossover event, some plot elements were featured in tie-in issues of other DC publications. Since its initial publication, the series has been reprinted in various editions; the idea for the series stemmed from Wolfman's desire to abandon the DC Multiverse seen in the company's comics—which he thought was unfriendly to readers—and create a single, unified DC Universe. The foundation of Crisis on Infinite Earths developed through a character introduced in Wolfman's The New Teen Titans in July 1982 before the series itself started. Pérez was not the intended artist for the series, but was excited when he learned of it and called illustrating it some of the most fun he had. At the start of Crisis on Infinite Earths, the Anti-Monitor is unleashed on the DC Multiverse and begins to destroy the various Earths that it comprises.
The Monitor tries to recruit heroes from around the Multiverse but is murdered, while Brainiac collaborates with the villains to conquer the remaining Earths. However, both the heroes and villains are united by the Spectre. Crisis on Infinite Earths is infamous for its high death count; the series was a bestseller for DC and has been reviewed positively by comic book critics, who praised its ambition and dramatic events. The story is credited with popularizing the idea of a large-scale crossover in comics, its events caused the entire DCU to be rebooted. Crisis on Infinite Earths is the first installment in; the story will serve as inspiration for the 2019 Arrowverse crossover. DC Comics is an American comic book publisher best known for its superhero stories featuring characters including Batman and Wonder Woman; the company debuted in February 1935 with New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine. Most of DC's comic books take place within a shared universe called the DC Universe, allowing plot elements and settings to crossover with each other.
The concept of the DCU has provided DC's writers some challenges in maintaining continuity, due to conflicting events within different comics that need to reflect the shared nature of the universe. "The Flash of Two Worlds" from The Flash #123, which featured Barry Allen teaming up with Jay Garrick, was the first DC comic to suggest that the DCU was a part of a multiverse. The DC Multiverse concept was expanded in years with the DCU having infinite Earths. For example, the Golden Age versions of DC heroes resided on Earth-Two, while DC's Silver Age heroes were from Earth-One. Since "Crisis on Earth-One!", DC has used the word "Crisis" to describe important crossovers within the DC Multiverse. Over the years, various writers took liberties creating additional parallel Earths as plot devices and to house characters DC had acquired from other companies, making the DC Multiverse a "convoluted mess". DC's comic book sales were far below those of their competitor Marvel Comics. According to ComicsAlliance journalist Chris Sims, "the multiverse... felt old-fashioned, conjuring up images of'imaginary stories' and characters that DC acquired when they bought out Golden Age competitors and shuttled off to their own universes.
Marvel, on the other hand, felt contemporary... and when you stack them up against each other, there's one difference that sticks out above anything else: Marvel feels unified". During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, writer Marv Wolfman became popular among DC's readers for his work on Weird War Tales and The New Teen Titans. George Pérez, who illustrated The New Teen Titans began to rise to prominence in this era. In 1984, Pérez entered into an exclusive contract with DC, extended one year. Although The New Teen Titans was a major success for DC, the company's comic book sales were still below Marvel's. Wolfman began to attribute this to the DC Multiverse, feeling "The Flash of Two Worlds" had created a "nightmare": it was not reader-friendly for new readers to be able to keep track of and writers struggled with the continuity errors it caused. In The New Teen Titans #21, Wolfman introduced a new character: the shadowy villainous Monitor. In 1981, Wolfman was editing Green Lantern, he got a letter from a fan asking why a character did not recognize Green Lantern in a recent issue despite the two having had worked together in an issue three years earlier.
Soon afterward, Wolfman pitched Crisis on Infinite Earths as The History of the DC Universe, seeing it as a way to simplify the DCU and attract new readers. The History of the DC Universe's title was changed to Crisis of Infinite Earths because its premise, involving the destruction of entire worlds, sounded more like a crisis. Wolfman said when he pitched the series to DC, he realized it was going to be a new beginning for the DCU. "I knew up front, they did too, how big this was going to be," he said. "But, no-one knew whether it would sell at all. It was a risk DC was willing to take, because my thoughts were th
Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern comic books were first published and increased in popularity; the superhero archetype was created and many well-known characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term "Golden Age" was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, "Re-Birth", published in issue one of the fanzine Comic Art in April 1960. An event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Superman's popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, which led rival companies to create superheroes of their own to emulate Superman's success. Between 1939 and 1941 Detective Comics and its sister company, All-American Publications, introduced popular superheroes such as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Doctor Fate, the Atom, Green Arrow and Aquaman.
Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Although DC and Timely characters are well-remembered today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era was Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel with sales of about 1.4 million copies per issue. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity. Patriotic heroes donning red and blue were popular during the time of the second World War following The Shield's debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with covers such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler; as comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres. Dell Comics' non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day; the publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and Tarzan.
It was during this era. Additionally, MLJ's introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, with the Archie Andrews character remaining in print well into the 21st century. At the same time in Canada, American comic books were prohibited importation under the War Exchange Conservation Act which restricted the importation of non-essential goods; as a result, a domestic publishing industry flourished during the duration of the war which were collectively informally called the Canadian Whites. The educational comic book Dagwood Splits. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power, it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including EC's Mad and Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge in Dell's Four Color Comics. In 1953, the comic book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
After the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent the following year that claimed comics sparked illegal behavior among minors, comic book publishers such as EC's William Gaines were subpoenaed to testify in public hearings. As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers. At this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned. To retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into other genres, such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were converted to other genres. In 1946, DC Comics' Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder and Dr. Mid-Nite, was replaced with All-American Western; the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled.
In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, became All-Star Western. The next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953; the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and World's Finest Comics. Plastic Man appeared in Quality Comics' Police Comics until 1950, when its focus switched to detective stories but his solo title continued bimonthly until issue 64, cover dated November 1956. Timely Comics' The Human Torch was canceled with issue #35 and Marvel Mystery Comics, featuring the Human Torch, with issue #93 became the horror comic Marvel Tales. Sub-Mariner Comics was cancelled with issue #42 and Captain America Comics, by Captain America's Weird Tales, with #75. Harvey Comics' Black Cat was cancelled in 1951 and rebooted as a horror comic that year—the title would change to Black Cat Mystery, Black Cat Mystic, Black Cat Western for the final two issues, which included Black Cat stories.
Lev Gleason Publications' Daredevil was edged out of his title by the Little Wise Guys in 1950. Fawcett Comics' Whiz Comics, Master Comics and Captain Marvel Adventure