Regional Transportation Authority (Illinois)
The Regional Transportation Authority is the financial and oversight body for the three transit agencies in northeastern Illinois. RTA serves Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry and Will counties; the RTA Board consists of 16 directors, with 5 appointed by the Mayor of Chicago, 4 by the members of the Cook County Board elected outside of Chicago, one by the Cook County Board President, one each by the County Board Chairman of the five collar counties. The Chairman of the RTA Board is the 16th member, is appointed with the concurrence of 11 of the other RTA Board members, including at least 2 each from Chicago, suburban Cook County, the collar counties, respectively; the chief executive officer is the executive director, appointed by the Chairman with the concurrence of 11 of the other directors. The RTA system provides nearly 2 million rides per day, making it the third largest public transportation system in North America; the RTA provides several services to the public, including the RTA Travel Information line at 836-7000 from all Chicago area area codes, an automated Trip Planner, "try transit" advertising.
The RTA has the authority to enter into agreements to provide service between points within the metropolitan region and outside of its territory, including into Indiana and Wisconsin. RTA was created after a referendum in 1974. In 1973, CTA had instituted its first major service cuts, several suburban bus companies, including Evanston Bus Company and Glenview Bus Company had ceased operations, forcing Evanston to make arrangements with CTA and Wilmette to start a municipal service; the Rock Island and Milwaukee Road were facing financial distress, which would lead to their eventual bankruptcy, the Illinois Central was petitioning the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase commuter fares, on the basis that the cost of operating its commuter train system was a burden on interstate commerce. While several suburbs had organized Mass Transit Districts to purchase equipment for the carriers with federal financial assistance, the Rock Island was still operating old equipment that it could not replace.
In an attempt to deal with these problems in the six-county area, the RTA was established, with some taxing powers, to provide financial support through grants to the CTA and suburban mass transit districts, purchase of service agreements with the private bus and rail operators. In 1983, after a financial crisis, the RTA taking over several private bus companies and the Rock Island and Milwaukee Road lines, the RTA Act was amended to create the Suburban Bus Division, now known as Pace, the Commuter Rail Division, now known as Metra. RTA's role changed, so that it is now responsible for reviewing the operating and capital plans and expenditures of the Service Boards, developing an annual budget and program as well as a five-year plan, distributing sales tax receipts to the Service Boards, in accordance with a statutory formula. However, RTA no longer provides service directly, as the Service Boards have the authority to determine the level and kind of public transportation to be provided, to establish fares.
RTA entered into purchase of service agreements with carriers, but the 1983 amendment gives the Service Boards the power to enter into those agreements with transportation agencies. The 1983 legislation imposed the requirements that the level of fares must be sufficient, in the aggregate, to equal 50 percent of the cost of providing transportation, that the RTA Board inform each Service Board, as part of the budget process, of its required recovery ratio for the next fiscal year. In 2004, the CTA, projecting a $55 million funding shortfall in its 2005 budget, called for a "long term funding solution," involving a change to the sales tax distribution formula in the RTA Act. In response, the Illinois General Assembly appropriated $54 million to cover the cost of CTA's paratransit service for 2005. An amendment to the RTA Act made the RTA responsible for the funding, financial review and oversight of all ADA paratransit services, effective July 1, 2005, transferred responsibility for operating or providing for the operation of paratransit service to Pace starting July 1, 2006, thereby relieving the CTA of that responsibility.
The General Assembly directed the Illinois Auditor General to audit the RTA and the Service Boards, as part of its review of the funding issue. The Auditor General's preliminary report, while agreeing that public funding was insufficient to support the level of transit services, said that the legislature must address other issues, including underfunded pensions, high salaries and the lack of strong, centralized planning, resulting in several of the service boards competing for customers in the same areas, the Auditor General calling for "an end to the transit agencies fighting each other for customers and federal funding for pet projects that may not fit into an overall regional transit plan."The RTA approved 2007 Service Board budgets premised on the assumption that "a new funding source would be identified in 2007 to meet the funding requirements of budget." Nonetheless, the CTA budget recognized, "Without this new funding source, CTA will be forced to cut service." With no legislative action by August, 2007, CTA and Pace announced proposals for service cuts, popularly known as "Doomsday Plans," to be implemented September 16.
The September plans were postponed. A new Doomsday date was set for November 4, but, avoided when the Governor engineered a transfer of capital funds. Again, the legislature having failed to pass a transit bill, the three service boards pr
Charles Joseph Hiller was an American professional baseball player and manager. Hiller, a second baseman, appeared in 704 games over eight seasons in Major League Baseball as a member of the San Francisco Giants, New York Mets, Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates, he became the first National League player in history to hit a grand slam home run in World Series play. The homer came at Yankee Stadium during the seventh inning of Game 4 of the 1962 World Series against left-handed relief pitcher Marshall Bridges on October 8, it provided the winning margin in San Francisco's eventual 7 -- 3 victory. Born in Johnsburg, Hiller batted left-handed, threw right-handed, was listed as 5 feet 11 inches tall and 170 pounds. After he attended the University of St. Thomas, he was signed by the Cleveland Indians in 1957, he spent two seasons in the lower echelons of Cleveland's farm system before the Giants selected him in the minor league baseball draft. After a 70-game trial with the 1961 Giants, Hiller made the 1962 edition and became the Giants' regular second baseman.
He set a career high in games played, runs scored, hits and runs batted in. He went three-for-10 and played errorless ball in the field during the tie-breaker series with the Los Angeles Dodgers. During the World Series won by the New York Yankees, he batted.269 overall and turned seven double plays during the Series' seven games. Hiller's batting average plummeted from 1962's.276 to.223 in 1963 and the following season he was supplanted by Hal Lanier as the Giants' regular second baseman. For the remainder of his active MLB career, he was a utility infielder, he hit.243 with 20 home runs in his 704 games the Majors. When he retired after the 1968 season, he became a minor league manager in the Pirates' organization for a year returned to the Mets in a similar capacity, working for the Mets' director of player development, Whitey Herzog, through 1972, he served under manager Herzog as an MLB coach with the Texas Rangers, Kansas City Royals and St. Louis Cardinals, spent brief terms in the post with the Giants and the Mets.
In between his big-league assignments, Hiller served the Mets as a longtime infield instructor in their minor league system, managed in the Cardinals' organization. He died from leukemia at age 70 in Florida. List of St. Louis Cardinals coaches Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Chuck Hiller at Find a Grave
Metra is a commuter railroad in the Chicago metropolitan area. The railroad operates 242 stations on 11 different rail lines, it is the fourth busiest commuter rail system in the United States by ridership and the largest and busiest commuter rail system outside the New York City metropolitan area. There were 83.4 million passenger rides in 2014, up 1.3% from the previous year. The estimated busiest day for Metra ridership occurred on November 4, 2016—the day of the Chicago Cubs 2016 World Series victory rally. Using Chicago's rail infrastructure, much of which dates to the 1850s, the Illinois General Assembly established the parent Regional Transportation Authority to consolidate all public transit operations in the Chicago area, including commuter rail; the RTA's creation was a result of the anticipated failure of commuter service operated and owned by various private railroad companies in the 1970s. In 1984, RTA formed a commuter rail division to focus on rail operations, which branded itself as Metra in 1985.
Freight rail companies still operate some Metra routes under contracted service agreements. Metra owns all rolling stock and is responsible for all stations along with the respective municipalities. Since its inception, Metra has directed more than $5 billion into the commuter rail system of the Chicago metropolitan area. Since its founding in the 19th century, Chicago has been a major Midwestern hub in the North American rail network, it has more trackage radiating in more directions than any other city in North America. Railroads set up their headquarters in the city and Chicago became a center for building freight cars, passenger cars and diesel locomotives. By the 1930s Chicago had the world's largest public transportation system, but commuter rail services started to decline. By the mid-1970s, the commuter lines faced an uncertain future; the Burlington Northern, Milwaukee Road and North Western and Illinois Central were losing money and were using passenger cars dating as far back as the 1920s.
To provide stability to the commuter rail system, the Illinois General Assembly formed the Regional Transportation Authority in 1974. Its purpose was to plan the Chicago region's public transportation. In the beginning the Regional Transportation Authority commuter train fleet consisted of second-hand equipment, until 1976 when the first order of new EMD F40PH locomotives arrived; that F40PH fleet is still in service today. The companies that had long provided commuter rail in the Chicago area continued to operate their lines under contract to the RTA. Less than a decade the Regional Transportation Authority was suffering from ongoing financial problems. Additionally, two rail providers, the Rock Island Line and the Milwaukee Road, went bankrupt, forcing the RTA to create the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation to operate their lines directly in 1982. In 1983 the Illinois Legislature reorganized the agency; that reorganization left the Regional Transportation Authority in charge of day-to-day operations of all bus, heavy rail and commuter rail services throughout the Chicago metropolitan area.
It was responsible for directing fare and service levels, setting up budgets, finding sources for capital investment and planning. A new Commuter Rail Division was created to handle commuter rail operations; the board of the RTA Commuter Rail Division first met in 1984. In an effort to simplify the operation of commuter rail in the Chicago area, in July 1985 it adopted a unified brand for the entire system–Metra, or Metropolitan Rail; the newly reorganized Metra service helped to bring a single identity to the many infrastructure components serviced by the Regional Transportation Authority's commuter rail system. However, the system is still known as the Commuter Rail Division of the RTA. Today, Metra's operating arm, the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation, operates seven Metra owned routes. Four other routes continue to be operated by Union BNSF under contract to Metra. Service throughout the network is provided under the Metra name. Metra owns all rolling stock, controls fares and staffing levels, is responsible for most of the stations.
However, the freight carriers who operate routes under contract use their own employees and control the right-of-way for those routes. In the late 20th and early 21st century Metra experienced record ridership and expanded its services. In 1996 Metra organized its first new line, the North Central Service, running from Union Station to Antioch. By 2006 it added new intermediate stops to that same route, extended the Union Pacific / West Line from Geneva to Elburn and extended SouthWest Service from Orland Park to Manhattan. In 2012 it boasted 95.8% average on-time performance. It posted its fourth highest volume in its history despite decreases in employment opportunities in downtown Chicago. Metra continued to improve passenger service. Over the past three decades, Metra has invested more than $5 billion into its infrastructure; that investment has been used to purchase new rolling stock, build new stations, renovate tracks, modernize signal systems and upgrade support facilities. In addition to core improvements on the Union Pacific Northwest and Union Pacific West routes, planning advanced on two new Metra routes, SouthEast Service and the Suburban Transit Access Route.
Metra has been marred by allegations and investigations of corruption. In April 2002, board member
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Union Pacific / Northwest Line
The Union Pacific / Northwest Line is a commuter rail line provided by Metra and operated by the Union Pacific Railroad in Chicago and its surrounding suburbs. While Metra does not refer to any of its lines by colors, the timetable accents for the Union Pacific/Northwest line are bright "Viking Yellow," honoring the Chicago & North Western Railway's Viking passenger train; the line runs from Ogilvie Transportation Center to Harvard, with a branch line to McHenry, Illinois that operates during weekday rush hours. Overall, this is one of three routes with branches; the terminus of the McHenry branch was in Williams Bay, but was cut back to Lake Geneva, Wisconsin in 1965, Lake Geneva to Richmond, Illinois in 1975, Richmond to McHenry in 1980. As of April 2013, the public timetable indicated 33 trains leaving Chicago each weekday, with 3 terminating at McHenry, 14 terminating at Crystal Lake, 4 terminating at Barrington, 11 at Harvard, 1 at Des Plaines; the line has many riders from southern Wisconsin due to its proximity to places like Madison and Janesville.
The railroad in its entirety passes through Madison and Janesville, with the current official ending of the track located 4 miles North of Evansville Wisconsin, at or near milepost 124. Although the passenger service does not serve the Madison subvision at this time, upon reaching Evansville the ownership of the railroad shifts, is operated for freight and car storage under State of Wisconsin ownersip. Wisconsin Department of Transportation has funded studies on extending the line from Harvard into Janesville, with potential stops along the way; this line is used by a handful of commuters from the Rockford area. There has been talk of rebuilding the KD Line from Rockford to Harvard. A 1.6-mile extension of the McHenry branch to Johnsburg is proposed as part of CMAP’s Go to 2040 Priority Projects. This service enhancement would include the addition of two new stations: Prairie Grove on the McHenry branch and Ridgefield on the Harvard branch; the Union Pacific / Northwest Line is Metra's second busiest line, with an average of 38,600 boardings on a weekday.
It is second only to the BNSF Railway Line. The line is triple-tracked from Clybourn to just southeast of Barrington, with a bidirectional express track, double tracked from Barrington to Harvard; the McHenry branch is single-tracked. Double track was maintained from Harvard to Baraboo Wi. A now-gone portion of the Union Pacific / Northwest Line diverged at Harvard and passed though Beloit Wi, reconnected to the main line at Evansville junction to allow a separate passenger and freight line. Around the time the Beloit line was abandoned, the railroad single-tracked the line from Harvard Il to Janesville Wi. Metra Union Pacific/Northwest service schedule Media related to Metra Union Pacific/Northwest Line at Wikimedia Commons
Fox Lake, Illinois
Fox Lake is a village in Grant and Antioch townships in Lake County and Burton Township, McHenry County, United States. The population was 10,579 at the 2010 census; the village was incorporated on December 15, 1906, certified by the state on April 13, 1907. The area was first explored during the 17th century by the French. In the late 19th century, it was known as Nippersink Point. Early in the 20th century, there were but a few hundred residents. During the summer season, the population would reach an estimated 20,000 people, at its peak, the area had 50 hotels and 2,000 cottages. Infamous Chicago gangster Al Capone utilized an establishment now known as the Mineola Hotel and Restaurant as a hideout. In 1979, the Mineola was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and may be the largest wooden frame structure in the state. Many Chicagoans have established summer homes in Fox Lake; the village is situated among the Chain O'Lakes, where swimming, jet skiing and boarding are popular activities.
In 2006, there were an estimated 28,000 boats registered on the lake system. Boating accidents are prevalent in today's society, number of accidents on Fox Lake have decreased in part to stricter regulations on boating under the influence and other factors. Fiscal year 2010 had death by boat; that number rose in 2015 to 1 injury and 1 death. The two fatalities in 2015 were caused by drowning due to alcohol use. In September 2015, Police Lt. Joe Gliniewicz was found shot to death, the subsequent manhunt for the shooters impacted the entire community. Thousands of civilians gathered for a memorial procession of hundreds of supporting officers, to show their support for police fatalities. After a two-month investigation, authorities released information to the effect that Gliniewicz committed "a staged suicide", that he had been involved in financial malfeasance related to his job. "Fox Lake incorporated under a Village form of government, with an elected village president, six trustees, a village clerk.
The village president is recognized as the mayor." The table below is a list of mayors from the village's inception in 1907 to present. Fox Lake is located at 42°24′12″N 88°10′58″W, 55 miles northwest of downtown Chicago and 20 miles west of Waukegan, Illinois; the village center is located on the south shore of Pistakee Lake, Nippersink Lake, Fox Lake, three connected water bodies that form part of the Chain O'Lakes system, flowing southwest via the Fox River to the Illinois River. The village limits extend north in a sinuous manner all the way to the Wisconsin border. According to the 2010 census, Fox Lake has a total area of 9.942 square miles, of which 8.12 square miles is land and 1.822 square miles is water. Wilmot Road State Park Road Grass Lake Road U. S. Route 12 Grand Avenue Illinois Route 173 Rollins Road Big Hollow Road Nippersink Road As of the census of 2000, there were 9,178 people, 4,046 households, 2,330 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,249.1 people per square mile.
There were 4,652 housing units at an average density of 633.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.49% White, 0.76% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.80% of the population. There were 4,046 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village is $46,548, the median income for a family is $58,843. Males have a median income of $42,009 versus $29,063 for females; the per capita income for the village is $24,350. 6.4% of the population and 4.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.2% of those under the age of 18 and 9.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Grant Community High School Fox Lake Grade School District #114 Stanton Middle School Big Hollow Elementary School Big Hollow School District 38 Saint Bede School Gavin Elementary School Billy Klaus and third basemen for six Major League Baseball teams, his brother, Bobby Klaus, was a Major League Ball Player. Ann-Margret, Ann-Margret Olsson, singer, dancer Once lived in Fox Lake, she is related to former mayor. Alexander Joseph McGavick, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of La Crosse Village of Fox Lake
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University