Illinois's 15th congressional district
The 15th Congressional District of Illinois is located in eastern and southeastern Illinois. Republican John Shimkus represents the district; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Champaign and Madison counties, all of Clark, Clinton, Crawford, Douglas, Edwards, Fayette, Hamilton, Jasper, Lawrence, Massac, Pope, Saline, Vermilion, Washington and White counties. All or parts of Centralia, Danville, Effingham, Glen Carbon and Rantoul will be included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Republican John Shimkus representing the 19th district, was on the 2012 ballot for the 15th congressional district. Angela Michael, a retired nurse and pro-life activist, ran on a single-issue pro-life Democratic ticket. Shimkus won reelection again, after facing a primary challenge from Illinois State Senator Kyle McCarter with Tea Party backing and funding from the Club for Growth. Shimkus continues to loom large in the 15th, but faces credible Democratic opposition from a local teacher and former Obama campaign worker.
The district included the cities of Charleston, Urbana and Champaign, all or parts of Livingston, Ford, McLean, DeWitt, Vermillion, Piatt, Edgar, Coles, Clark, Lawrence, Edwards, White and Gallatin counties. District created March 4, 1873 As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 15th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Tim Lee Hall on November 12, 2008. The most serving representative to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7, 1994. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture - 15th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 15th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau - 15th District Fact Sheet
Randolph County, Illinois
Randolph County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 33,476, its county seat is Chester. Owing to its role in the state's history, the county motto is "Where Illinois Began." It contains the important village of Kaskaskia, Illinois's first capital. The county is part of Southern Illinois in the southern portion of the state known locally as "Little Egypt", includes fertile river flats, part of the American Bottom. Randolph County was organized in 1795 out of a part of St. Clair County, it was named in honor of Governor of Virginia. George Rogers Clark of the army of Virginia captured the area from the British on July 4, 1778, near the end of the Revolutionary War; the area became the seat, for several years, of Illinois County, although the Congress of the Confederation legislated the existence of the Northwest Territory on July 13, 1787. Edmund Randolph was Governor of Virginia at the time Virginia ceded the Northwest Territory to the United States.
In 1809, when Illinois became a separate territory, Territorial Secretary Nathaniel Pope, in his capacity as acting governor, issued a proclamation establishing Randoloph as one of the Illinois' two original counties. The county's boundaries were last changed in 1827; the Mississippi River has played a prominent role in the county's history, altering its boundaries in 1881 when it severed the isthmus that connected Kaskaskia to the Illinois mainland, destroying the original village of Kaskaskia and forcing its historic cemetery to be relocated across the river to Fort Kaskaskia. Crains Island, southeast of Chester, is another enclave of Illinois west of the Mississippi, created by a change in the river's course. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 597 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the Kaskaskia River flows into the Mississippi River in Randolph County. At this point the Mississippi, which defines the border between Illinois and Missouri, is in Illinois.
The Mississippi changed its course in the late-nineteenth century, leaving Kaskaskia, the former state capital, on the west side of the river. The boundary of the State, follows the old course of the river, leaving Illinois with an exclave on the western shore of the Mississippi River. A smaller enclave, Crains Island, is a few miles further down the river. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Chester have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 91 °F in July, although a record low of −18 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.85 inches in January to 4.30 inches in May. Monroe County St. Clair County Washington County Perry County Jackson County Perry County, Missouri Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri Randolph County is among the few counties in the United States to border two counties with the same name; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 33,476 people, 12,314 households, 8,188 families residing in the county.
The population density was 58.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,707 housing units at an average density of 23.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.6% white, 9.7% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 40.3% were German, 11.3% were Irish, 9.4% were English, 5.7% were American. Of the 12,314 households, 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 41.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,020 and the median income for a family was $55,113. Males had a median income of $43,359 versus $28,376 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,950. About 7.0% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. The Illinois Department of Corrections Menard Correctional Center is located in Chester. Prior to the January 11, 2003 commutation of death row sentences, male death row inmates were housed in Menard and Pontiac correctional centers. After that date, only Pontiac continued to host the male death row. Randolph is a rural conservative county in southern Illinois that has trended Republican in recent presidential elections; the county was dominated by organized labor and family farms. This put it into the Democratic column; the area might be described as economically populist and conservative. There are two AM radio stations licensed in the county — WHCO 1230AM in Sparta and KSGM 980AM in Chester. Weekly newspapers in the county are The Randolph County Herald Tribune located in Chester, The County Journal, based in Percy and covers Perry and Jackson Counties, the North County News in Red Bud, the Sparta News-Plaindealer.
The area is served by the on-line newspaper based in Chester, SunTimesNews.com Chester Red Bud Sparta National Register of Historic Places listings in Randolph County, Illinois KBDZ 93.1 FM Radio KSGM AM 980 Radio Randolph County Government Su
Pope County, Illinois
Pope County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 4,470, making it the second-least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Golconda. The county was organized in 1816 from portions of Gallatin and Johnson counties and named after Nathaniel Pope, a politician and jurist from the Illinois Territory and State of Illinois; the first permanent settlement in future Pope County was established in 1798 at the modern-day site of Golconda a part of the Northwest Territory which operated as a ferry point across the Ohio River. The county was formed in 1816 from portions of Johnson Counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 374 square miles, of which 369 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. The entire county is hilly and during rainy weather rivulets cascade down the hills in the park forming waterfalls of varying sizes and heights; the county contains Dixon Springs State Park, one of many state parks in the Illinois Shawnee Hills, is part of the Shawnee National Forest.
It is bordered to the south and east by the Ohio River, which marks the state's border with Kentucky. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Golconda have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches in October to 5.02 inches in May. Illinois Route 34 Illinois Route 145 Illinois Route 146 Illinois Route 147 Saline County - north Hardin County - east Livingston County, Kentucky - southeast Massac County - southwest Johnson County - west Williamson County - northwest Shawnee National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 4,470 people, 1,829 households, 1,209 families residing in the county; the population density was 12.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,491 housing units at an average density of 6.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.7% white, 6.0% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 31.8% were German, 19.1% were Irish, 11.4% were English, 5.4% were American. Of the 1,829 households, 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age was 46.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,672 and the median income for a family was $51,500. Males had a median income of $45,865 versus $28,519 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,134. About 6.6% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Golconda Eddyville. Brownfield Dixon Springs Hamletsburg Herod Lusk's Ferry McCormick Rosebud Temple Hill James L. Alcorn, born near Golconda, American Civil War general in the Union Army John R. Hodge, born in Golconda.
S. Third Army C. L. McCormick, born in McCormick, Illinois state representative and businessman Green B. Raum, born in Golconda, American Civil War general in the Union Army James A. Rose, born in Golconda, Illinois Secretary of State Dixon Springs State Park National Register of Historic Places listings in Pope County Ohio River Shawnee National Forest http://genealogytrails.com/ill/pope/cohist.htm http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/shawnee
Interstate 24 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. It runs diagonally from I-57, 10 miles south of Marion, Illinois, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, at I-75; as an even-numbered Interstate, it is signed as an east–west route, though the route follows a more southeast–northwest routing, passing through Nashville, Tennessee. Because the routing of I-24 is diagonal, the numbering is a bit unusual as it does not follow the Interstate Highway System numbering conventions. I-24 constitutes the majority of a high-traffic corridor between St. Louis and Atlanta; this corridor utilizes I-64 and I-57 northwest of I-24, I-75 southeast of I-24. I-24 begins near the community of Pulleys Mill; the highway heads southeast into rural Johnson County. It reaches an exit at Tunnel Hill Road, which serves Tunnel Hill; the highway continues south to its next exit at U. S. Route 45 north of Vienna, it reaches its next exit at Illinois Route 146 in eastern Vienna. I-24 heads southeast from Vienna into Massac County.
Its first exit in Massac County is at Big Bay Road, which serves the communities of Big Bay and New Columbia. I-24 continues southward; the highway passes west of Fort Massac State Park. It crosses the Interstate 24 Bridge over the Ohio River. After that, it continues into Kentucky. I-24 crosses into Kentucky on a bridge over the Ohio River, it passes to the west of Paducah and intersects US Routes 60, 45, 62. The freeway passes near Woodlawn-Oakdale and Reidland and connects with US 68; the welcome center in Paducah is Whitehaven. This is the only historic house in the country used as a rest area. East of this point, I-24 runs concurrently with I-69. Through this, it crosses the Tennessee and the Cumberland Rivers; the roadway travels along the north shore of the Cumberland River. I-69 splits off to the east just north of Mineral Mound State Park. I-24 continues away from the river, it runs through farmland for several miles. It passes south of Hopkinsville and interchanges with I-169. Near the Tennessee border, I-24 passes north of Fort Campbell.
Afterwards, it crosses into Tennessee. I-69 runs concurrently with I-24 for 17 miles from Calvert City to Eddyville. I-24 crosses into Tennessee traveling in a southeasterly and northwesterly direction in Clarksville, Montgomery County; the first interchange is with SR 48. I-24 has interchanges with US 79, SR 237, SR 76, crosses the Red River, it enters a long straight section, crossing into Robertson County, has interchanges with SR 256, SR 49 near Springfield, respectively. The route enters the rolling hilly terrain of the Nashville Basin, crosses into Cheatham County, where it has an interchange with SR 249. I-24 crosses into Davidson County, has an interchange with US 431; the interstate continues for several miles through rural woodlands before coming to an interchange with SR 45. Three miles I-24 crosses the Nashville Urban Boundary, widens to six lanes, has an interchange with SR 155, the northern beltway around Nashville. Less than a mile I-24 joins a concurrency with Interstate 65, where the combined routes carry ten through lanes, travel due south.
About two miles I-65 splits off, I-24 enters downtown Nashville, where it has interchanges with US 41, US 431, US 31E, as well as several city streets. I-24 crosses the Cumberland River, joins in a concurrency with Interstate 40, travelling southeast with eight through lanes, two miles I-40 splits off eastwardly, heading toward Knoxville. Located at this interchange is an interchange with US 41, less than a mile is an interchange with the eastern terminus of Interstate 440, accessible from I-40 nearby. About a mile is once again an interchange with SR 155/Briley Parkway near the Nashville International Airport, I-24 continues southeast, bisecting a major residential area. Here I-24 carries eight through lanes, beginning at the next exit, SR 255, the left lanes operate as HOV lanes during rush hour. I-24 continues southeast through the growing suburbs of Nashville, crosses into Rutherford County near the city of LaVergne, where there are three exits. Beginning at this point, I-24 is straight and flat for most of its distance through Middle Tennessee.
The straightest stretch of highway in Tennessee is located on I-24 between Lavergne and eastern Murfreesboro, where the route is straight for about fifteen miles, although the median widens and narrows. Four miles is an interchange with SR 102, which connects to Smyrna and the Nissan Motor Manufacturing Plant. Another four miles is an interchange with Interstate 840, the outer southern beltway around Nashville, I-24 enters Murfreesboro, the largest suburb of Nashville. In Murfreesboro, I-24 has interchanges with SR 96, SR 99, US 231 and at the final Murfreesboro exit, the HOV lane designation ends, I-24 narrows to six lanes and four lanes a short distance later. Three miles is an interchange with the Joe B. Jackson Parkway, which serves as an outer beltway around southeast Murfreesboro. I-24 enters a more rural area, at exit 97 has an interchange with SR 64, which connects to Shelbyville. I-24 curves to the south the east enters Bedford County, Coffee County. At exit 105 is an inter
Shawnee National Forest
The Shawnee National Forest is a United States National Forest located in the Ozark and Shawnee Hills of Southern Illinois, United States. Administered by the U. S. D. A. Forest Service, it consists of 280,000 acres of federally managed lands. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Pope, Union, Alexander, Gallatin and Massac counties. Forest headquarters are located in Illinois. There are local ranger district offices in Vienna; the Shawnee National Forest is the single largest publicly owned body of land in the state of Illinois. Designated as the Illini and Shawnee Purchase Units, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared these purchase units to be the Shawnee National Forest in September 1939. Most of the land added to the Forest in its first decade of existence was exhausted farmland. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, the Civilian Conservation Corps planted pine trees to prevent erosion and help rebuild the soil. However, the Forest is home to many hardwood trees and other plant and animal species characteristic of the region.
In the 1980s and 1990s, there was an active history of conservation and protest efforts by local and national environmental groups and individuals ranging from radical movements such as Earth First! to mainstream organizations such as the Sierra Club and the Green Party. The wise use movement once played an active role in lobbying for its vision of the Shawnee National Forest. Today a more cooperative atmosphere has developed. In 2006, the Forest Service completed the development of a new Forest Management Plan for the Shawnee National Forest; this plan, adopted every 10–15 years, outlines the policies and practices of the U. S. Forest Service in overseeing the management of the Shawnee National Forest; the 2006 Forest Plan was completed in collaboration with many environmental and public groups and is designed to maintain and enhance the forest's unique biodiversity. During the Illinoian Stage, the Laurentide ice sheet covered up to 85 percent of Illinois; the southern margin of this ice sheet was located within what is now the area of the Shawnee National Forest.
There are many points of interest marking the southern edge of the glacier. Some are located within the Forest boundary, others are on public land in proximity. Little Grand Canyon is located within the Shawnee National Forest; this is accessible off Illinois Route 127 south of Illinois. A small creek with a tiny watershed has carved an impressive rock canyon, more than 200 feet deep, leading down to the Big Muddy River; the southern edge of the ice sheet was just to the north of Little Grand Canyon. Blocks of ice slid off the face of the glacier, carried by enormous volumes of meltwater, to carve this tiny canyon. In the deep shade of the canyon are relict species of Arctic plants left over from its ancient origin. Cedar Lake is an artificial lake formed by damming Cedar Creek; the lake is accessible off Illinois Route 127, south of Murphysboro, off U. S. 51, south of Carbondale. In this area, the Illinoian Glacier climbed the Shawnee Hills at its southern margin; the glacier blocked the waterways flowing north down the hills.
This drainage formed a creek running northwest along the face of the glacier. This became Cedar Creek, the watershed of, asymmetrical. While the watershed extends only a few thousand feet to the south, up the face of the terminal moraine, the creek is fed by waterways extending miles to the south. Within the area of the Shawnee National Forest, but not at this time US property, is Hicks Dome, an igneous feature in Hardin County, Illinois; this was speculated to be the result of a hot spot, but some argue it was caused by a meteorite impact. There are seven designated wilderness areas lying within Shawnee National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Bald Knob Wilderness Bay Creek Wilderness Burden Falls Wilderness Clear Springs Wilderness Garden of the Gods Wilderness Lusk Creek Wilderness Panther Den WildernessThere are three natural vegetation research areas: Cave Hill and Whoopie Cat Mountain Research Natural Areas in the Shawnee National Forest. Shawnee National Forest appeared on the thirty-first quarter in the America the Beautiful Quarters series in 2016.
The Shawnee National Forest was among the best sites from which to view the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 with two minutes 44 seconds of totality. Shawnee National Forest - The official Forest Service site for the Shawnee National Forest
Massac County, Illinois
Massac County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 15,429. Established in 1843 and named for a French fort founded in the 18th century, its county seat is Metropolis. Massac County is included in KY-IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located along the Ohio River, in the portion of the state known locally as "Little Egypt". This area was occupied by various cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European contact; the most complex and last was that of the Mississippian culture, which built the complex mounds and plaza at the Kincaid Site. They abandoned the site in centuries before European contact. Part of the Illinois Country was claimed by French explorers. During the French and Indian War against the British, the French built a fort here in 1757, it was named Fort Massac after Claude Louis d'Espinchal, Marquis de Massiac, the French Naval Minister. Massiac is a commune in France. Although beginning to be settled by Americans after the American Revolution, Massac County was formally organized on February 8, 1843, out of territory from both Johnson and Pope counties.
In the mid-19th century, after the revolutions of 1848, the Midwest received many German immigrants. Their descendants today comprise nearly one-third of the population of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 242 square miles, of which 237 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Metropolis have ranged from a low of 25 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −21 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.00 inches in August to 4.76 inches in May. Interstate 24 U. S. Route 45 Illinois Route 145 Illinois Route 169 Pope County - north Livingston County, Kentucky - east McCracken County, Kentucky - south Pulaski County - west Johnson County - northwest Shawnee National Forest Whereas according to the 2010 U. S. Census Bureau: 91.0% White 5.9% Black 0.4% Native American 0.3% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.0% Two or more races 0.4% Other races 1.9% Hispanic or Latino As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,429 people, 6,362 households, 4,242 families residing in the county.
The population density was 65.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,113 housing units at an average density of 30.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.0% white, 5.9% black or African American, 0.4% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.7% were German, 16.1% were Irish, 8.5% were English, 8.5% were American. Of the 6,362 households, 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 42.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,077 and the median income for a family was $51,794. Males had a median income of $46,231 versus $25,717 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,216.
About 9.7% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Brookport Metropolis Joppa Bargerville New Columbia Round Knob Shady Grove Unionville In its pre-Civil War history, Massac County, like all of Southern-leaning Southern Illinois, was powerfully Democratic as it was opposed to the abolitionist politics of the northern regions of the state; the county’s electorate gave a Democratic majority in every Presidential election up to and including 1860. However, the region was to provide a number of Union soldiers rivaled on a per-capita basis only by a few fiercely Unionist counties in Appalachia and this was to make Massac County overwhelmingly Republican for the next century. During this period, the county’s voters gave a plurality to every Republican nominee, it supported William Howard Taft in 1912 when the GOP was mortally divided, Franklin D. Roosevelt lost the county in 1936 by a greater margin than he did in 1932.
Between 1896 and 1928 no Democrat managed thirty percent of the county’s vote. The 1964 election saw Lyndon Johnson become the first Democrat in 104 years to carry Massac County due to opposition to Barry Goldwater’s economic policies and to his Deep Southern orientation, Southern Evangelical Jimmy Carter was to marginally better LBJ’s performance in 1976, whilst Bill Clinton was to win a larger plurality in 1992 due to a third-party challenge from Ross Perot. However, since 2000 overwhelming opposition by the county’s universally southern white population to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues like homosexuality has caused a reversion to strong Republican voting in Massac County. Hillary Clinton’s 23.3 percent share of the county’s vote is the lowest by a Democrat since John W. Davis in his landslide 1924 loss. National Register of Historic Places listings in Massac County, Illinois Massac County High School Massac County Sheriff's Office
Southern Illinois is the southern third of the state of Illinois. The southern part of Illinois has a unique regional history. Part of downstate Illinois, the Southern Illinois region is bordered by the two most voluminous rivers in the United States: the Mississippi River and its connecting Missouri River to the west, the Ohio River to the east and south with the Wabash as tributary. Southern Illinois' most populated city is Belleville at 44,478. Other principal cities include Alton, Collinsville, Effingham, O'Fallon, Herrin, Mt. Vernon and Carbondale, where the main campus of Southern Illinois University is located. Residents may travel to amenities in St. Louis and Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the region is home to a major military installation. The area has a population of 1.2 million people, who live in rural towns and cities separated by extensive farmland and the Shawnee National Forest. The two higher density areas of population are Metro-East, the industrialized Illinois portion of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area, centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area, home to 123,272 residents.
The first European settlers were French colonists in the part of their North American empire called Illinois Country. Settlers migrated from the Upland South of the United States, traveling by the Ohio River; the region was affiliated with the southern agricultural economy, based on enslaved African Americans as workers on major plantations, rural culture. Some settlers owned slaves before the territory was organized and slavery was prohibited. Many areas developed an economy based on coal mining. Except for the counties in the St. Louis MSA, much of Southern Illinois is still culturally affiliated with the Mid-South: Western Kentucky, Southwestern Indiana, West Tennessee, the Missouri Bootheel; the people speak with similar accents throughout this area. Southern Illinois, the earliest settled and once the wealthiest part of Illinois, is known for its rich history and the abundance of antebellum architecture remaining in its small towns and cities; the earliest inhabitants of Illinois are thought to have arrived about 12,000 BC.
They were indigenous hunter-gatherers, but they developed a primitive system of agriculture. After AD 1000, the production of agricultural surpluses resulted in the development of complex, hierarchical societies. With the rise of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, tribal leaders organized thousands of workers to build complex urban areas featuring numerous large earthworks – pyramidal and conical mounds used for religious and ceremonial purposes. Cahokia, located within the boundaries of present-day Collinsville, was the major regional center of this culture, it contains the largest prehistoric earthworks in the Americas, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mound builders' culture seems to have collapsed between AD 1400–1500; the Mississippians had abandoned Cahokia long. The Illinois tribes, for whom the state is named, other historic tribes migrated to Southern Illinois around AD 1500. Archeologists say, they had migrated from eastern areas, where Algonquian-language tribes emerged along the Atlantic Coast and waterways.
The Illini left numerous artifacts, including burial sites, burned-out campfires along the bases of bluffs, flint implements, weapons. Structures built by them include stone forts or "pounds". Visitors can see a stone fort in Giant City State Park near Makanda. At least eight other such structures are known in the region. In about 1673, French explorers from Quebec became the first Europeans to reach Illinois; the French named the area Illinois after the Indians. The French explored the Mississippi River, establishing outposts and seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Far East; as increasing Indian unrest and warfare began in Northern Illinois over the lucrative fur trade along the Great Lakes, the French concentrated on building outposts in Southern Illinois. The earliest European settlers were concentrated along the Mississippi and Wabash rivers, which provided easy routes for travel and trade; the settlements including Cahokia town and Chartres became important market villages and supply depots between Canada and the French ports on the lower Mississippi River.
Other important early outposts in Southern Illinois were at Old Shawneetown and Fort Massac on the Ohio River. After defeating the French in the French and Indian War and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the English ruled the Great Lakes region. At the time, many French settlers moved from towns on the eastern side of the Mississippi to the western side, ruled by Spain after the war, it took over all the Louisiana Territory west of the river. During the American Revolutionary War, the Southern Illinois area was the scene of the best known campaign in what was the American west, when Virginians sought to occupy it against the British. European-American settlers were slow to arrive in Illinois after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. By 1800, fewer than 2,000 European Americans lived in Illinois. Soon more settlers came from the backwoods areas of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas; these early settlers w