Champagne Landing is a small First Nations settlement on the Alaska Highway in Canada's Yukon. The few residents are citizens of the Aishihik First Nations; the resident population was 25 in the Canada 2011 Census. Champagne is on one of the tributaries of the Alsek; the original Dalton Trail connected to this settlement, a roadhouse was built there in 1902. The Alaska highway no longer routes through the community, having been rerouted in the fall of 2002; the old roadway is still open to provide access. Many residents have moved to Haines Junction. Champagne and Aishihik First Nations web site
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Geography of Yukon
Yukon is in the northwestern corner of Canada and is bordered by Alaska and the Northwest Territories. The sparsely populated territory abounds with natural scenic beauty, with snowmelt lakes and perennial white-capped mountains, including many of Canada's highest mountains; the territory's climate is Arctic in the north, subarctic in the central region, between north of Whitehorse and Old Crow, has a humid continental climate in the far south, south of Whitehorse and in areas close to the British Columbia border. The long sunshine hours in the short summer allow a profusion of flowers and fruit to blossom. Most of the territory is boreal forest, tundra being the main vegetation zone only in the extreme north and at high elevations; the territory is about the shape of a right triangle, bordering the American state of Alaska to the west, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Yukon covers 482,443 km2, of which 474,391 km2 is 8,052 km2 is water, it is bounded on the south by the 60th parallel of latitude.
Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its western boundary is 141° west longitude, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon River Basin and the Mackenzie River watershed to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Except for the coastal plain on the Beaufort Sea coast, most of Yukon is part of the American cordillera; the terrain includes mountain ranges and river valleys. The southwest is dominated by the Kluane icefields in Kluane National Park and Reserve, the largest non-polar icefields in the world. Kluane National Park contains eight of Canada's ten highest mountains, including the five highest, all in the Saint Elias Mountains. A number of glaciers flow out of the icefields, including the Logan Glacier, the Hubbard Glacier and the Kaskawulsh Glacier. Permafrost is common; the northern part of Yukon has continuous permafrost. The southern Yukon has scattered patches of permafrost. Two major faults, the Denali Fault and the Tintina Fault have created major valleys called trenches: the Shakwak Trench and the Tintina Trench.
The Shakwak Trench separates the Kluane ranges from other mountain ranges north of it. The Haines Highway and the Alaska Highway north of Haines Junction are built in the Shakwak Trench; the Tintina Trench bisects the Yukon from northwest to southeast and its edges have rich mineral deposits including the Klondike gold and the lead-zinc deposits near Faro. The volcanoes in Yukon are part of the circle of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Yukon includes more than 100 separate volcanic centres; the Fort Selkirk Volcanic Field in central Yukon is the northernmost Holocene volcanic field in Canada, including the young active cinder cone, Volcano Mountain. A volcanic field in south-central Yukon is called Alligator Lake volcanic complex, it contains two well-preserved cinder cones. Lava from the cones were erupted at the same time. Volcanoes in south-western Yukon are part of the Wrangle Volcanic Field, related to the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate at the easternmost end of the Avalanche Trench.
Yukon volcanoes include: Volcano Mountain Alligator Lake volcanic complex Fort Selkirk Volcanic Field Pelly Formation Bennett Lake Caldera Sifton Range volcanic complex Rabbit Mountain Felsite Peak Ibex Mountain Mount McNeil Miles Canyon Basalts Ne Ch'e Ddhawa Skukum Group Upper Becker Creek Cone The Saint Elias mountains are part of the Coast Mountains which range from southern British Columbia to Alaska and cover the southeastern Yukon. While the Saint Elias Mountains contain the highest mountains, there are numerous other mountain ranges, from the British Mountains in the far north and the Richardson Mountains in the northeast, both of which are part of the Brooks Range, to the Selwyn Mountains and Mackenzie Mountains in the east, the Cassiar Mountains in the south-east, the Pelly Mountains in the central Yukon, the Ogilvie Mountains north of Dawson City and along the Dempster Highway. Yukon mountain ranges include: Brooks Range British Mountains, Yukon Richardson Mountains, Yukon Cassiar Mountains, British Columbia and Yukon Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories and Yukon Logan Mountains, Yukon Selwyn Mountains, Yukon Hess Mountains, Yukon Nadaleen Range, Yukon Bonnet Plume Range, Yukon Wernecke Mountains, Yukon Knorr Range, Yukon Pacific Coast Ranges, Mexico to Alaska Coast Mountains in British Columbia and Alaska Panhandle Saint Elias Mountains, southern Alaska and British Columbia Kluane Ranges, Yukon Alsek Ranges, British Columbia and Alaska Yukon Ranges Anvil Range Dawson Range Miners Range, Yukon Nisling Range Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon Nahoni Range Pelly Mountains, Yukon Big Salmon Range, Yukon Glenlyon Range Saint Cyr Range Ruby Range, Yukon See also: List of Yukon lakes and List of Yukon rivers Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River, which flows into the Bering Sea.
Southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include: Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a smaller lake flowing into Tagish Lake. Other rivers flow either directly into the Pacific Ocean or directly or indirectly into the Arctic Ocean; the Alsek-Tatshenshini drainage flows directly into the Pacific from southwestern Yukon. A number of rivers in northern Yukon flow directly into the Arctic Ocean; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie Riv
Whitehorse is the capital and only city of Yukon, the largest city in northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska; the city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed. Because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have up to about 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse, as reported by Guinness World Records, is the city with the least air pollution in the world; as of the 2016 census, the population was 25,085. Archeological research south of the downtown area, at a location known as Canyon City, has revealed evidence of use by First Nations for several thousand years.
The surrounding area had seasonal fish camps and Frederick Schwatka, in 1883, observed the presence of a portage trail used to bypass Miles Canyon. Before the Gold Rush, several different tribes passed through the area seasonally and their territories overlapped; the discovery of gold in the Klondike in August, 1896, by Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Washington Carmack set off a major change in the historical patterns of the region. Early prospectors used the Chilkoot Pass, but by July 1897, crowds of neophyte stampeders had arrived via steamship and were camping at "White Horse". By June 1898, there was a bottleneck of stampeders at Canyon City, many boats had been lost to the rapids as well as five people. Samuel Steele of the North-West Mounted Police said: "why more casualties have not occurred is a mystery to me." On their way to find gold, stampeders found copper in the "copper belt" in the hills west of Whitehorse. The first copper claims were staked by Jack McIntyre on July 6, 1898, Sam McGee on July 16, 1899.
Two tram lines were built, one 8 km stretch on the east bank of the Yukon River from Canyon City to the rapids, just across from the present day downtown, the other was built on the west bank of the river. A small settlement was developing at Canyon City but the completion of the White Pass railway to Whitehorse in 1900 put a halt to it; the White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railway linking Skagway to Whitehorse had begun construction in May 1898, by May 1899 construction had arrived at the south end of Bennett lake. Construction began again at the north end of Bennett lake to Whitehorse, it was only in June–July 1900 that construction finished the difficult Bennett lake section itself, completing the entire route. By 1901, the Whitehorse Star was reporting on daily freight volumes; that summer there were four trains per day. Though traders and prospectors were all calling the city Whitehorse, there was an attempt by the railway people to change the name to Closeleigh, this was refused by William Ogilvie, the territory's Commissioner.
Whitehorse was booming. On May 23, 1905, a small fire in the barber shop of the Windsor Hotel got out of control when the fire engine ran out of water, spreading throughout the city and causing $300,000 in damage, though no lives were lost. Robert Service participated in suppressing the flame; the White Horse Restaurant and Inn was among the buildings destroyed, after its co-founder Frederick Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, had sold his shares and left the city. In 1920 the first planes landed in Whitehorse and the first air mail was sent in November 1927; until 1942, rail and air were the only way to get to Whitehorse, but in 1942 the US military decided an interior road would be safer to transfer troops and provisions between Alaska and the US mainland and began construction of the Alaska Highway. The entire 2,500 km project was accomplished between March and November 1942; the Canadian portion of the highway was only returned to Canadian sovereignty after the war. The Canol pipeline was constructed to supply oil to the north with a refinery in Whitehorse.
In 1950 the city was incorporated and by 1951, the population had doubled from its 1941 numbers. On April 1, 1953, the city was designated the capital of the Yukon Territory when the seat was moved from Dawson City after the construction of the Klondike Highway. On March 21, 1957, the name was changed from White Horse to Whitehorse. Whitehorse is located at kilometre 1,425 of the Alaska Highway and is framed by three nearby mountains: Grey Mountain to the east, Haeckel Hill to the northwest and Golden Horn Mountain to the south; the rapids which were the namesake of the city have disappeared under Miles Canyon and Schwatka Lake, formed by the construction of a hydroelectricity dam in 1958. Whitehorse is the 64th largest city in Canada by area; the city limits present a near rectangular shape orientated in a NW-SE direction. Like most of Yukon, Whitehorse has a dry subarctic climate. However, because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than other comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife.
With an average annual temperature of −0.1 °C Whitehorse is the warmest place in the Yukon. The temperature measurements for the city are taken at the airport; the Whitehorse Riverdale weather station situated at a lower elevation than the airport is warmer at 0.2 °C. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have just over 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse has an average daily high of 20.6 °C in
Haines Junction is a village in Yukon, Canada. It is located at Kilometre 1,632 of the Alaska Highway at its junction with the Haines Highway, hence the name of the community. According to the 2006 Census, the population was 589. Haines Junction is east of Reserve, it is a major administrative centre for the Aishihik First Nations. For around two thousand years, the Southern Tutchone people had seasonal hunting and fishing camps in the area of present-day Haines Junction; the original name of the area was "Dakwakada", a Southern Tutchone word meaning "high cache". It was common for Tutchone people to use raised log caches to store food year-round or temporarily while they hunted and fished in an area; the Haines Junction area was important for trade between the coastal and interior peoples. It lies at the interior end of the Chilkat Pass, one of only three passes that allowed travel between the coast and the interior, used extensively for trade between the coastal Tlingit and Southern Tutchone people.
The current town of Haines Junction was established in 1942 and 1943 during the construction of the Alaska Highway. In 1943, a second highway, the Haines Highway, was built to connect the Alaska Highway with the coastal town of Haines, over the Chilkat Pass. Situated at the junction of these two highways, Haines Junction was a construction camp and a supply and service centre for the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers building the highway; the 626-mile Haines–Fairbanks petroleum pipeline was constructed in 1953–55, a pumping station was built just north of Haines Junction. By road, Haines Junction is served by the Haines Highway. By air, it is served by the Haines Junction Airport; the publicised local tourist information centre, funded by Parks Canada, is only open during the peak May 25–September 25 season. Local residents and some out-of-town commentators suggest that year-round operation would boost local income levels and job opportunities, as well as increase winter tourism to the region. List of municipalities in Yukon Village of Haines Junction Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Kluane National Park and Reserve
Burwash Landing is a small community, at historical mile 1093 on the Alaska Highway, in Yukon, Canada along the southern shore of Kluane Lake. The present location of Burwash Landing was first used as a summer camp by the Southern Tutchone Athabascans until a trading post was built in the early 1900s by the Jacquot brothers. At the 2011 census, the population was an increase of 30.1 % over the 2006 census. The majority of the population are First Nations; the community is the administrative centre of the Kluane First Nation. In addition to the Alaska Highway, the community is served by the Burwash Airport, it is the home of the Kluane Museum of Natural History and the Kluane First Nation, home to the world's largest gold pan. In July 1937, Robert Bates and Bradford Washburn, two members of the Harvard Mountaineering Club, made their way into Burwash Landing after climbing the 17,146 ft Lucania peak and hiking over 150 mi across the wilderness after their bush pilot was unable to retrieve them.
Burwash Landing is 2,647 ft above sea level at the airport. The elevation can be lower in the others. Burwash Landing is located on the Historic Milepost 1093 Alaska Highway, it sits on the northwest shore of Kluane Lake. Several prominent geographic features have been renamed in Southern Tutchone language. Burwash landing is the traditional home of the Southern Tutchone Athabascans, it used to be a summer camp. A revival of the Southern Tutchone language and culture has been taking place in this quiet lakeside community; this is apparent to visitors when they pull into town and are met with Southern Tutchone street and traffic signs and nearby Burwash Landing. Several prominent geographic features have been renamed in Southern Tutchone and signs can be seen along the Alaska Highway. Burwash Landing is known for its black spruce burls. Burls start as an irritation in the spruce; the tree sends extra sap as healant. Burls are either "green," harvested from live trees in the spring, or they are "dry burls," taken from dead burl trees.
Burls are peeled off their bark and used in their natural form as fenceposts, for example, or they may be shaped and finished into a variety of objects, such as bowls. Check the Burlbilly Hill on the Milepost 1061.6, the visitor will see rows of "burly logs" on the hill. Burwash Landing holds the record for the warmest temperature recorded in the Yukon in January at 16.5 °C. The previous Yukon record of 10.9 °C, was set in Whitehorse on January 13, 2013. Burwash Landing and Destruction Bay at the Government of Yukon tourist info Kluane First Nation
Tagish is an unincorporated community in Yukon, Canada. It is 30 kilometres east of Yukon, on the Tagish Road at the northern end of Tagish Lake; the greater Tagish area includes the Tagish Estates, Tagish Beach and Taku subdivisions, the latter two developed for cottages but now serving for many year-round homes. Tagish Beach and Taku have their own community hall; the population of Tagish in 2016 was 249. The Tagish Road was built in 1942 as part of an oil pipeline project, the community sprouted around a bridge built over the narrow water between Tagish Lake and Marsh Lake. A previous community known as Tagish was located about 3 km south of the current community, along Tagish Lake; the North-West Mounted Police maintained a post in that community during the Klondike Gold Rush. The area code for Yukon is 867. In it, Tagish is served by prefix 399. Community profile