Vinings is a census-designated place in Cobb County, United States, just across the Chattahoochee River from Atlanta. As of the 2010 census, the CDP had a total population of 9,734. A part of the Vinings, Cumberland area, it is located between the affluent West Paces Ferry section of Buckhead in northwest Atlanta, suburban Smyrna in Cobb County, adjacent to the Cumberland Mall; the U. S. Postal Service assigns both "Atlanta" to the ZIP code; the Home Depot is headquartered in Vinings. Early on, Vinings was known as Crossroads, Paces, after Hardy Pace, circa 1830, he operated Pace's Ferry across the Chattahoochee River, in this area between Atlanta and Smyrna. Paces Ferry Road is still the main east/west road through Vinings; the Western and Atlantic Railroad laid rail tracks from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Atlanta in the 1840s. Vinings became a construction station for the railroad, was inadvertently named for William H. Vining, as he worked on the railroad construction of "Vining's Bridge" laying tracks in the area.
The railroad is still state-owned as it was from the beginning, is now leased to CSX. The Union Army occupied the Vinings area during Sherman's Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War in 1864 and the subsequent March to the Sea. Pace's home, used as a hospital for Union troops, was destroyed in the process. Vinings recovered after the war, as Governor Brown leased the railroad to Vinings to bring passengers to the springs and pavilions built to encourage a respite from the reconstruction of Atlanta. Vinings was recognized as a community in 1904, the same year the one-lane bridge was constructed across the Chattahoochee River; the town was never incorporated, though it had been discussed whether it should become a "township". The Vinings Historic Preservation Society seeks to keep the town's history alive. Vinings is located at 33°51′58.9″N 84°27′57.85″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.3 square miles, of which 3.2 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 3.34%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,677 people, 5,227 households, 1,740 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3,039.2 people per square mile. There were 5,670 housing units at an average density of 1,780.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 81.97% White, 12.09% African American, 0.19% Native American, 3.69% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.83% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.26% of the population. There were 5,227 households out of which 11.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.3% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 66.7% were non-families. 43.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.84 and the average family size was 2.61. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 10.8% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 50.9% from 25 to 44, 16.6% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $88,876, the median income for a family was $105,121. Males had a median income of $78,685 versus $46,315 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $61,068. About 3.3% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. Vinings residents attend schools in the Cobb County School District. Residents are zoned to Teasley Elementary School, Campbell Middle School, Campbell High School. Vinings is unincorporated, is therefore under the jurisdiction of Cobb's county commission and other public services. After the success of Sandy Springs, there was discussion and at least one public meeting on whether the town should incorporate as a "city". With residents evenly split, there was no consensus, the idea was shelved due to concerns about potential property tax increases.
However, some expressed optimism that the Georgia Township Act might allow it to become a "township", equivalent in function to a village in many other U. S. states. This would allow it control of zoning and other land uses, as written would cap additional property taxes at a half mill; as of 2013, the bill has not been reintroduced in the Georgia General Assembly. The proposed boundaries were Interstate 285 along the northwest side, Interstate 75 at the northeast end, the Chattahoochee River on the southeast side, Atlanta Road at the southwest end. Vinings Business Association Vinings Historic Preservation Society
Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives prior to switching allegiance to the Confederacy, he was appointed as the United States Secretary of War, serving from 1853 to 1857, under President Franklin Pierce. Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children, he grew up in Wilkinson County and lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis's appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army, he fought as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the American Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, owned as many as 113 slaves. Although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union.
Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor in 1835. They were both stricken with malaria soon thereafter, Sarah died after three months of marriage. Davis recovered and suffered from recurring bouts of the disease throughout his life. At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North, they had six children. Only two survived him, only one married and had children. Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy's weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis, his preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, resistance to public opinion all worked against him. Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia.
He was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came seeing him as a Southern patriot, he became a hero of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the post-Reconstruction South. Jefferson Finis Davis was born at the family homestead in Fairview, Kentucky, on June 3, 1808, he sometimes gave his year of birth as 1807. He dropped his middle name in life, although he sometimes used a middle initial. Davis was the youngest of ten children born to Samuel Emory Davis, he was named after then-incumbent President Thomas Jefferson. In the early 20th century, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site was established near the site of Davis's birth. Coincidentally, Abraham Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, only eight months less than 100 miles to the northeast of Fairview.
Davis's paternal grandparents were born in the region of Snowdonia in North Wales, immigrated separately to North America in the early 18th century. His maternal ancestors were English. After arriving in Philadelphia, Davis's paternal grandfather Evan settled in the colony of Georgia, developed chiefly along the coast, he married the widow Lydia Emory Williams, who had two sons from a previous marriage, their son Samuel Emory Davis was born in 1756. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, along with his two older half-brothers. In 1783, after the war, he married Jane Cook, she was born in 1759 to William Cook and his wife Sarah Simpson in what is now Christian County, Kentucky. In 1793, the Davis family relocated to Kentucky, establishing a community named "Davisburg" on the border of Christian and Todd counties. During Davis's childhood, his family moved twice: in 1811 to St. Mary Parish and less than a year to Wilkinson County, Mississippi. Three of his older brothers served in the War of 1812.
In 1813, Davis began his education at the Wilkinson Academy in the small town of Woodville, near the family cotton plantation. His brother Joseph encouraged Jefferson in his education. Two years Davis entered the Catholic school of Saint Thomas at St. Rose Priory, a school operated by the Dominican Order in Washington County, Kentucky. At the time, he was the only Protestant student at the school. Davis returned to Mississippi in 1818, he returned to Kentucky in 1821. His father Samuel died on July 1824, when Jefferson was 16 years old. Joseph arranged for Davis to get an appointment and attend the United States Military Academy starting in late 1824. While there, he was placed under house arrest for his role in the Eggnog Riot during Christmas 1826. Cadets smuggled whiskey into the academy to make eggnog, more than one-third of the cadets were involved in the incident. In June 1828, Davis graduated 23rd in a class of 33. Fol
Francis A. Shoup
Francis Asbury Shoup, a lawyer from Indianapolis, became a brigadier general for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Shoup was born near Laurel, the first of nine children, he attended Indiana Asbury University in Greencastle and went to the United States Military Academy, graduating in 1855 fifteenth out of a class of thirty-four. After leaving West Point, he served in the United States Army as a member of the First United States Artillery and fought against the Seminoles in Florida, he decided to become a lawyer in Indianapolis. Shoup was serving as a leader of an Indianapolis Zouave militia, but once the Civil War started, he moved to Florida to fight for the Confederacy, proclaiming he had "aristocratic inclinations and admiration for the South.". This shocked those in the Indianapolis militia, who had loved him as friend, gave him a special set of revolvers with holsters and trappings, believing he would serve in the Union army, that officers would always ride horses and thus would need such a set.
All Indianapolis reported of the incident was. In 1860, he moved to St. Augustine, where the Governor commissioned him a Lieutenant, he was admitted to the bar in Florida, although whether he practiced law is obscure. At the Battle of Shiloh, he served as chief of artillery under William J. Hardee. In the summer of 1862 he started serving in Arkansas as Inspector General under Major General Thomas C. Hindman. On September 12, 1862, the First Confederate Congress made him a brigadier general, after which he commanded Hindman's Second Division. After the Battle of Prairie Grove, he went back across the Mississippi River. After he was captured in the Battle of Vicksburg, he met some compatriots from his Indianapolis militia days, but they rejected him for fighting for the Confederacy. After he was paroled, he fought in the Battle of Atlanta, he designed a defensive line and, following its approval by General Johnston, oversaw the construction in late June 1864 of what would become known as Johnston's River Line.
Shoup's design consisted of what would total 36 unique forts called "Shoupades." While the River Line was deemed an engineering success, its potential force was negated when General Sherman's army crossed the Chattahoochee north of the line. Johnston's River Line is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the war, he wrote texts on infantry and artillery drill and advocated for blacks to serve in the Confederate Army, he served as Chief of Staff for the commander of the Army of Tennessee, John Bell Hood. After the war, Shoup became a professor at the University of Mississippi, at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee. Shoup was an Episcopal rector and wrote books about mathematics and metaphysics. While he was a professor, Shoup wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin, Forty Years After", an essay for the Sewanee Review that considered the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel. Shoup praises Stowe's book for its broad circulation, but he laments the loss of a patriarchal system for controlling black people while expressing relief that white southerners are free of the burden of their slaves.
Upon his death on September 4, 1896, in Columbia, Tennessee, he was buried in the cemetery of University of the South. In 2006 the Indiana Historical Bureau, Franklin County Historical Society, the Indiana Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans placed a historical marker honoring Shoup at Conwell Cemetery in Laurel, Indiana. Shoup Park and historical marker is located on the campus of the University of the South. Indianapolis in the American Civil War List of American Civil War generals Banasik, Michael. Serving with Honor: The Diary of Captain Eathan Allen Pinnell Bodenhamer, David; the Encyclopedia of Indianapolis pg.441 Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Holliday, Hampden. Indianapolis and the Civil War'.' Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
Redan is a term related to fortifications. It is a work in a V-shaped salient angle towards an expected attack, it can be made from other material. The redan developed from the lunette a half-moon-shaped outwork. Redans were a common feature in the coastal batteries built in Malta between 1715 and the end of the 18th century. Surviving batteries with redans include Mistra Battery and Saint Anthony's Battery; the Russians used redans on their left at the Battle of Borodino against Napoleon. A small redan whose faces make an obtuse angle with a vertex toward the enemy is called a flèche; the Bagration flèches were three redans backwards in echelon. The Shevardino Redoubt was erected as an early warning post a mile in front of the Bagration flèches. A Redan hole or Redan is an aspect of golf course architecture associated with golf architect Charles B. Macdonald; the term alludes to the "Redan" type of fortification. A Redan hole has a green which slopes downwards and away from the point of entrance the front right portion of the green.
Links golf is played on the ground as much as in the air and the green slopes away from the golfer playing to the green from the tee or fairway. Thus, it is played in an indirect manner. Macdonald's oft-quoted description from Scotland's Gift: Golf is as follows: Take a narrow tableland, tilt it a little from right to left, dig a deep bunker on the front side, approach it diagonally and you have a Redan; this definition serves well to explain the basic concept. Macdonald built his original American Redan as the fourth hole at the National Golf Links of America known as NGLA, he and his design cohorts, Seth Raynor and Charles "Steamshovel" Banks built a Redan or a reverse version of it at nearly every course that they constructed. It is a design element, copied by modern architects - most notably the husband & wife team of Pete and Alice Dye, Tom Doak; the design element can be used as a green complex of any "par" hole - a par 3 most but it may be used as a par 4 or par 5 green complex. Many Redan holes are flanked by a variety of deep bunkers, in the typical arrangement one fronts on the left side.
The original "Redan" is the 15th hole on the West Links of North Berwick. A frequent feature is a somewhat raised portion of ground called a kick mound or kick plate,with or without a bunker to the right side of the green which can be skillfully used to propel the ball onto the green and nearer the hole by the more skilled golfer. Redan holes in which the green is visible from the tee can produce a particular excitement for the golfer as the ball tracks its way to the hole. At the original Redan design in North Berwick, the green is invisible from the tee; the NGLA version, more the inspiration for modern copies than the original hole, introduced this concept of green visibility to the design. Many golf architecture connoisseurs feel that the NGLA hole is the the greatest example of this design, exceeding the original; the name'Redan' in golf comes from the Crimean War, when the British captured a Russian-held fort, or redan. A serving officer—John White-Melville—is credited on his return as describing the 6th like the formidable fortress, or redan, he had encountered at Sebastopol.
It was conquered only after nearly a year of attrition, in which deaths totalled more than 20,000 British and 80,000 French soldiers. The word'Redan' is now part of the English language, the definition given by the Oxford Dictionary is'Fort—A work having two faces forming a salient towards the enemy. At the time of the Crimean War, several public houses in Britain adopted the name; the Redan Inn in North Berwick shared its name with the famous hole on the golf course, while there is a Redan Inn in Chilcompton, Somerset. A street in Shepherd's Bush, London is named Redan Street, there is a street in Ipswich named Redan Street, its sign carried an illustration purportedly from a Napoleonic era battle, but it was more a Crimean War scene. The flag carried was British, but the defenders appeared to be wearing Russian uniform of the mid 19th century. Any engagement between Russians and Napoleonic armies would not have featured a British flag. Pub names like this and the Alma came into prominence after the Crimean War.
The Redan public house on Thorpe Road in Norwich was named The Hero of the Redan, in reference to Major-General Charles Ashe Windham who took part in the storming of the Redan at Sevastopol during the Crimean campaign in 1855. An area of Maryhill, Glasgow was known as'The Redan' for many years and there is a closed-down pub called'The Redan' close to this area on Maryhill Road, Glasgow. There was a beerhouse called The Redan at the junction of Blue Ball Road and Cross Wells Road, near Ripponden, West Yorkshire, it opened in 1890 and closed in 1937. The pub was demolished; as at November 2018, CAMRA's WhatPub website lists only two extant pubs called the Redan: one in Wokingham and one in Chilcompton, near Bath. The census-designated place of Redan, Georgia was named for the redans built in the area during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. Redan is a southern suburb of the regional city of Ballarat in central western Victoria, Australia, it was named for the fortifications used d
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy. Flanking is useful. Therefore, to circumvent a force's front and attack a flank is to concentrate offense in the area where the enemy is least able to concentrate defense. Flanking can occur at the operational and strategic levels of warfare; the flanking maneuver is a basic military tactic, with several variations. Flanking an enemy means attacking from one or more sides, at an angle to the enemy's direction of engagement. One type is employed in an ambush, where a unit performs a surprise attack from a concealed position. Units friendly to the ambushing unit may be hidden to the sides of the ambush site to surround the enemy, but care must be taken in setting up fields of fire to avoid friendly fire. Another type is used in the attack. Upon receiving fire from the enemy, the unit commander may decide to order a flank attack. A part of the attacking unit "fixes" the enemy with suppressive fire, preventing them from returning fire, retreating or changing position to meet the flank attack.
The flanking force advances to the enemy flank and attacks them at close range. Coordination to avoid friendly fire is important in this situation; the most effective form of flanking maneuver is the double envelopment, which involves simultaneous flank attacks on both sides of the enemy. A classic example is Hannibal's victory over the Roman armies at the Battle of Cannae. Another example of the double envelopment is Khalid ibn al-Walid's victory over the Persian Empire at the Battle of Walaja. Despite being associated with land warfare, flanking maneuvers have been used in naval battles. A famous example of this is the Battle of Salamis, where the combined naval forces of the Greek city-states managed to outflank the Persian navy and won a decisive victory. Flanking on land in the pre-modern era was achieved with cavalry due to their speed and maneuverability, while armored infantry was used to fix the enemy, as in the Battle of Pharsalus. Armored vehicles such as tanks replaced cavalry as the main force of flanking maneuvers in the 20th century, as seen in the Battle of France in World War II.
The threat of flanking has been existent since the dawn of warfare and the art of being a commander entailed the choice of terrain to allow flanking attacks or prevent them. In addition, proper adjustment and positioning of soldiers is imperative in assuring the protection against flanking. A commander could prevent being flanked by anchoring one or both parts of his line on terrain impassable to his enemies, such as gorges, lakes or mountains, e.g. the Spartans at Thermopylae, Hannibal at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, the Romans at the Battle of Watling Street. Although not impassable, forests, rivers and marshy ground could be used to anchor a flank, e.g. Henry V at Agincourt. However, in such instances it was still wise to have skirmishers covering these flanks. In exceptional circumstances, an army may be fortunate enough to be able to anchor a flank with a friendly castle, fortress or walled city. In such circumstances it was not necessary to fix the line to the fortress but to allow a killing space between the fortress and the battle line so that any enemy forces attempting to flank the field forces could be brought under fire from the garrison.
As good was if natural strongholds could be incorporated into the battle line, e.g. the Union positions of Culp's Hill, Cemetery Hill on the right flank, Big Round Top and Little Round Top on the left flank, at the Battle of Gettysburg. If time and circumstances allowed field fortifications could be created or expanded to protect the flanks, such as the Allied forces did with the hamlet of Papelotte and the farmhouse of Hougoumont on the left and right flanks at the Battle of Waterloo; when the terrain favoured neither side it was down to the disposition of forces in the battle line to prevent flanking attacks. For as long as they had a place on the battlefield, it was the role of cavalry to be placed on the flanks of the infantry battle line. With speed and greater tactical flexibility, the cavalry could both make flanking attacks and guard against them, it was the marked superiority of Hannibal's cavalry at Cannae that allowed him to chase off the Roman cavalry and complete the encirclement of the Roman legions.
With matched cavalry, commanders have been content to allow inaction, with the cavalry of both sides preventing the other from action. With no cavalry, inferior cavalry or in armies whose cavalry had gone off on their own it was down to the disposition of the infantry to guard against flanking attacks, it was the danger of being flanked by the numerically superior Persians that led Miltiades to lengthen the Athenian line at the Battle of Marathon by decreasing the depth of the centre. The importance of the flank positions led to the practise, which became tradition of placing the best troops on the flanks. So that at the Battle of Platea the Tegeans squabbled with Athenians as to who should have the privilege of holding a flank; this is the source of the tradition of giving the honour of the right to the most senior regiment present, that persisted into the modern era. With troops confident and reliable enough to operate in separate dispersed units, the echelon formation may be adopted; this can take different forms with either strong "divisions" or a massively reinforced wing or centre s
Roswell is a city in north Fulton County, United States. In the official 2010 U. S. Census it had a population of 88,346; the 2017 estimated population was 94,786. A suburb of Atlanta, Roswell has an affluent historic district. In 1830, while on a trip to northern Georgia, Roswell King passed through the area of what is now Roswell and observed the great potential for building a cotton mill along Vickery Creek. Since the land nearby was good for plantations, his idea was to put cotton processing near cotton production. Toward the middle of the 1830s, King returned to build a mill that would soon become the largest in north Georgia – Roswell Mill, he brought with him 36 African slaves from his own coastal plantation, plus another 42 skilled carpenter slaves bought in Savannah to build the mills. The slaves built the mills, houses, mill worker apartments, supporting buildings for the new town; the Africans brought their unique Geechee culture and religious traditions from the coast to north Georgia.
King invited investors from the coast to join him at the new location. He was joined by Barrington King, one of his sons, who succeeded his father in the manufacturing company. Archibald Smith was one of the planters who migrated there to establish a new plantation bringing enslaved African Americans from the coastal areas. Shortly after 1832 a survey of the area was conducted by Nathan Crawford Barnett as part of the Cherokee Purchase in preparation for the sixth state administrated land lottery culminating in the Cherokee removal. Barrington Hall, Smith Plantation and Bulloch Hall have been restored, they are now open to the public. According to the 1850 Slave Schedules, these three "founding families", together with the next three largest planters, held 192 slaves, 51% of the total 378 slaves held in Roswell District. Archibald Smith had a 300-acre cotton plantation. According to the 1850 Census, Barrington King held 70 slaves. Half of these slaves were under the age of 10; these slaves worked in Barrington's household.
Barrington King "leased" or "rented" some of his adult male slaves to the Roswell Manufacturing Company, but they did not work around the mill machinery. The Roswell area was part of Cobb County when first settled, the county seat of Marietta was a four-hour horseback ride to the west. Since Roswell residents desired a local government, they submitted a city charter for incorporation to the Georgia General Assembly; the charter was approved on February 16, 1854. By the time of the Civil War, the cotton mills employed more than 400 people women. Given settlement patterns in the Piedmont region, they were of Scots-Irish descent; as the mill increased in production, so did the number of people living in the area. During the Civil War, the city was captured by Union forces under the leadership of General Kenner Garrard. Under orders of General Sherman, Garrard shipped the mill workers north to prevent them from returning to work if the mills were rebuilt; this was a common tactic of Sherman to economically disrupt the South.
The mill was burned. The ruins of the mill and the 30-foot dam, built for power still remain. Most of the town's property was confiscated by Union forces; the leading families had left the town to go to safer places well before the Federal invasion, arranged for their slaves to be taken away from advancing Federal troops, as was the practice. Some slaves may have escaped to Union lines. After the war, Barrington King resumed production. While many freedmen stayed in the area to work as paid labor on plantations or in town, others migrated to Fulton County and Atlanta for new opportunities; the South suffered an agricultural depression resulting from the effects of the war and labor changes. According to the census, the population of Cobb County decreased from 14,242 in 1860, to 13,814 in 1870; the proportion of African-Americans decreased more, from 27% to 23%. During those years, nearby Fulton County more than doubled in population, from 14,427 to 33,336; the effects of dramatic African-American migration can be seen by the increase in Fulton County from 20.5% slave in 1860 to 45.7% colored in 1870.
At the end of 1931, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression. The difficult economic conditions drove Milton County, Roswell's neighboring county to the north, to merge in its entirety with Fulton County, Roswell's neighboring county to the south. To facilitate the merger, Roswell was ceded from Cobb County to become part of Fulton County; this became effective the 9th day of May in 1932. Roswell filed all legal records, including vital statistics, real estate, the results of torts with the county clerk of Cobb before this date. Roswell is now one of the largest cities in the state. Lori Henry, has served as mayor of Roswell since 2018, she is the first woman to assume the office. See also: List of Mayors of Roswell, Georgia Roswell is located in northern Fulton County at 34°2′2″N 84°20′39″W, it is bordered to the north by Milton, to the northeast by Alpharetta, to the east by Johns Creek, to the southeast by Peachtree Corners in Gwinnett County, to the south by Sandy Springs, to the west by unincorporated land in Cobb County, to the northwest by the city of Mountain Park and by unincorporated land in Cherokee County.
The southern boundary of the