Oxford County, Ontario
Oxford County is a regional municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Southwestern portion of the province. Highway 401 runs east-west through the centre of the county, creating an urban industrial corridor with more than half the county's population, spanning twenty-five kilometres between the Toyota auto assembly plant in Woodstock and the CAMI General Motors auto assembly plant in Ingersoll; the local economy is otherwise dominated by agriculture the dairy industry. The Oxford County regional seat is in Woodstock. Oxford County has been a regional municipality since 2001, despite still having the word "county" in its name, it has a two-tier municipal government structure, with the lower-tier municipalities being the result of a merger in 1975 of a larger number of separate municipalities that existed before restructuring. It comprises a single Statistics Canada census division, a single electoral division for federal and provincial elections, for which the precise boundaries have been revised from time to time.
For part of its history, it was divided into two ridings, Oxford North, for federal and provincial elections, Oxford South, for federal and provincial elections, for each of which see their own pages. Oxford County had its own School Board until 1998, when it was merged into the Thames Valley District School Board, it had its own Health Unit until 2018. Oxford County consists of eight lower-tier municipalities: City of Woodstock Town of Tillsonburg Town of Ingersoll Township of Norwich Township of Zorra Township of South-West Oxford Township of Blandford-Blenheim Township of East Zorra-Tavistock Local municipal governments in Ontario exercise authority delegated to them by the provincial government, which may choose at any time to increase or decrease the powers given to them through enabling statutes. In the early days of Upper Canada the relevant legislation provided for convening an annual meeting of property owners in each township, who were obligated to choose such officers as a township clerk, a constable, property tax assessors and collectors, fence viewers and pound keepers.
It was a matter of pride in each township to keep track of population growth, several townships were divided as they grew, giving separate town meetings and local officers to East and North divisions of Oxford-on-the-Thames and West divisions of Nissouri, East and West divisions of Zorra. These individuals were responsible for the administrative work necessary to enforce the laws of the province and to carry out decisions made at the district level by the area's Justices of the Peace, appointed by the Governor, who met periodically at the designated district courthouse for deliberations known as Quarter Sessions; the paternalistic authority of the Governor and his chosen Justices of the Peace continued as the hierarchy for local government until 1841. From the earliest days of settlement the District Court was convened in the Long Point Settlement, first at Turkey Point at the village of Vittoria, it was moved to London in 1826. The Brock District, containing Oxford County's territory, was split off from the London District in 1840.
By the time a court house had been built for the Brock District at Woodstock, legislative changes were introduced by the province to provide for election of district council members from each township to take over the local government role from the Justices of the Peace, but appointment of the warden and senior administrative officers for each district council remained the responsibility of the provincial government. District councils were abolished and replaced with elected county councils through the implementation of the Baldwin Act in 1850, provincial legislation which defined the structure for elected local municipal government in Ontario for the next century. In addition to defining the powers of the county council, the legislation created authority for township councils and provided for creation of village and city councils. Woodstock, Ingersoll and other communities within Oxford County were in time incorporated under these provisions as separate municipalities. At around the same time as the Baldwin Act came into force, some of the townships, included in the Brock District were severed off to become parts of a new Brant County and a reconfigured Middlesex County.
Norwich township was divided into North and South in 1855. In the 1960s the Ontario government began simplifying the structure of local government in select parts of the province, this process reached Oxford County in 1975, when the number of separate township and village councils was reduced to the current five townships. Three urban municipalities remained, namely Ingersoll and Woodstock; the county boundaries were enlarged to include the entire urban areas of Tavistock in the north and of Tillsonburg in the south. The geographical area, now Oxford County was populated with Neutral/Attawandaron longhouse villages for many centuries but was abandoned to First Nations nomadic peoples by the 1650s as a result of warfare with Iroquois and epidemics resulting from European contact; the land was acquired by the Crown through three treaties, signed in 1792, in 1796 and 1827. These depended for their certainty on an earlier treaty known as the McKee Purchase of 1790, signed at Detroit with thirty-five chiefs from the Potawatomi, Wyandot and Odawa First Nations.
Oxford County was created by the legislature of the province of Upper Canada in 1798, by an
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Parliament of Upper Canada
The Parliament of Upper Canada was the legislature for Upper Canada. It was created when the old Province of Quebec was split into Upper Canada and Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791; as in other Westminster-style legislatures, it consisted of three components: The Crown of the United Kingdom, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, assisted by the Executive Council of Upper Canada The Legislative Council of Upper Canada The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada Following the Rebellions of 1837 and Lord Durham's 1839 Report to the British Government, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were rejoined in 1841 to create the Province of Canada. The Parliament of Upper Canada was therewith replaced by the newly created Parliament of the United Province of Canada; the Parliament was convened thirteen times in its history: 1st Parliament of Upper Canada 1792-1796 2nd Parliament of Upper Canada 1797-1800 3rd Parliament of Upper Canada 1801-1804 4th Parliament of Upper Canada 1805-1808 5th Parliament of Upper Canada 1808-1812 6th Parliament of Upper Canada 1812-1816 7th Parliament of Upper Canada 1817-1820 8th Parliament of Upper Canada 1821-1824 9th Parliament of Upper Canada 1825-1828 10th Parliament of Upper Canada 1829-1830 11th Parliament of Upper Canada 1831-1834 12th Parliament of Upper Canada 1835-1836 13th Parliament of Upper Canada 1837-1840
Grenville County, Ontario
Grenville County is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. The county was created in 1792, named in honour of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Secretary of State in 1790, it consisted of five townships, which were settled by United Empire Loyalists in the late 1700s after the Revolutionary War. Prior to being settled by Europeans, the area was home to many generations of native cultures. Grenville County merged with Leeds County in 1850 to create Grenville County; the county covered an area of 272,261 acres. Prior to European settlement, numerous Native American villages were present in Grenville County; the French occupied this area at present-day Johnstown, in what was to become Edwardsburgh township, at Pointe au Baril in what would be Augusta township. These French settlements date back to 1759 respectively. In the late 1700s, land was surveyed in and around what would become Grenville County to be distributed as land grants to the United Empire Loyalists and their families for their loyalty to the Crown.
The first townships laid out were called the Royal Townships, were situated along the St. Lawrence River where land was most productive and travel was convenient. In the 1790s, three more townships were created further north of the existing townships which became part of Grenville County: Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford townships. Shortly after the Loyalists arrival and Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area as well; the European settlers dotted the new townships with small agricultural communities which were self-sustaining. These communities were established out of necessity, as roads in the area were not well-established during nineteenth century and people were travelling via horse and buggy, or on foot; every few kilometres, a village or hamlet was present. Most residents made their living through small-scale mixed farming operations. In 1850, Grenville county was amalgamated with the neighbouring county of Leeds, to become the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville; this occurred when the area ceased to be divided by districts, Canada began to be divided instead by province.
Prior to confederation, the area of Upper Canada was divided by districts, which held the counties, which held the townships. During the mid-1800s, counties began the districts were dropped. Grenville County consisted of five separate townships, two of which still exist, one under a different name; the five townships were Augusta, Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford. Augusta township, covers an area of 75,083 acres, it was first surveyed in 1783, was named in honour of Princess Augusta Sophia, second daughter of George III. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River. Edwardsburgh township, covers an area of 66,669 acres; the township was first surveyed in 1783. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River, east of Augusta township. Oxford-on-Rideau township, covered an area of 59,350 acres and was first surveyed in 1791; the township was amalgamated in the 1990s with South Gower township and the town of Kemptville to become North Grenville.
This township was located north of both Edwardsburgh and Augusta townships, between Wolford and South Gower. South Gower township, covered an area of 27,709 acres and was first surveyed in 1799; this township was located north of Edwardsburgh. Wolford township covered an area of 46,851 acres and was first surveyed in 1795, it was named for the Devonshire seat of John Graves Simcoe. This township was located west of Oxford-on-Rideau, north of Augusta. In the 1990s, Wolford township became known as its own municipality, was renamed Merrickville–Wolford. 1951 map of Grenville County
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin, it traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, is part of the international boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Saint Lawrence River begins at the outflow of Lake Ontario and flows adjacent to Gananoque, Morristown, Massena, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City before draining into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the largest estuary in the world. The estuary begins at the eastern tip of just downstream from Quebec City; the river becomes tidal around Quebec City. The Saint Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario; these numbers include the estuary. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Minnesota.
Its drainage area, which includes the Great Lakes, the world's largest system of freshwater lakes, is 1,344,200 square kilometres, of which 839,200 km2 is in Canada and 505,000 km2 is in the United States. The basin covers parts of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, parts of Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, nearly the entirety of the state of Michigan in the United States; the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s; the average discharge at the river's source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s. The Saint Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield and Lac Saint-Pierre east of Montreal, it encompasses four archipelagoes: the Thousand Islands chain near Alexandria Bay, New York and Kingston, Ontario. Other islands include Île d'Orléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé, it is the second longest river in Canada.
Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Saint-Maurice, Saint-François and Saguenay rivers drain into the Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is in a seismically active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; the faults in the area comprise the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Saint Lawrence Valley is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain and Northern physiographic section. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is instead considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division, not part of the Appalachian division at all; the Norse explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the 11th century and were followed by fifteenth and early sixteenth century European mariners, such as John Cabot, the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real. The first European explorer known to have sailed up the Saint Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier.
At that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; because Cartier arrived in the estuary on Saint Lawrence's feast day, he named it the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is within the U. S. and as such is that country's sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf and River in pursuit of whales from the early 16th century; the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencible's disaster, when the Spanish Basque whaling fleet was confiscated by King Philip II of Spain and destroyed; the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat. Until the early 17th century, the French used the name Rivière du Canada to designate the Saint Lawrence upstream to Montreal and the Ottawa River after Montreal.
The Saint Lawrence River served as the main route for European exploration of the North American interior, first pioneered by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. Control of the river was crucial to British strategy to capture New France in the Seven Years' War. Having captured Louisbourg in 1758, the British sailed up to Quebec the following year thanks to charts drawn up by James Cook. British troops were ferried via the Saint Lawrence to attack the city from the west, which they did at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the river was used again by the British to defeat the French siege of Quebec under the Chevalier de Lévis in 1760. In 1809, the first steamboat to ply its trade on the St. Lawrence was built and operated by John Molson and associates, a scant two years after Fulton's steam-powered navigation of the Hudson River; the Accommodation with ten passengers made her maiden voyage from Montreal to Quebec City in 66 hours, for 30 of which she was at anch
Huron County, Ontario
Huron County is a county of the province of Ontario, Canada. It is located on the southeast shore of its namesake, Lake Huron, in the southwest part of the province; the county seat is Goderich the county's largest community. The population reported in the 2016 Census for this predominantly agricultural area with many villages and small towns was 59,297 in a land area of 3,399 square kilometers. Of the total population, 7,628 reside in Goderich; the portion of the Huron Tract ceded to the Canada Company was established as the "County of Huron" in 1835, with the exception of certain townships that were transferred to other counties: Adelaide Township went to Middlesex County The townships of Moore and Sarnia, Enniskillen, Warwick and Bosanquet went to Kent County In 1835, the County was declared to consist of the following townships: They have since devolved to the following counties: Legislation was passed by the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada in 1838 to authorize the separation of the County from the London District and constitute it as the Huron District.
The County was extended northward in 1840, upon the survey of a new range of townships on its northern boundary, beginning with Ashfield Township, including Wawanosh, Morris and Elma. The District itself came into being in October 1841. Huron County was continued for electoral purposes in 1845, the District was extended northwards as far as the Bruce Peninsula in 1846; the District was abolished at the beginning of 1850. Legislation passed in the same session of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada provided for the County to be reconstituted as the United Counties of Huron and Bruce, with the territory of the Bruce Peninsula withdrawn and annexed to Waterloo County; the townships were distributed as follows: The Bruce Peninsula was returned to Bruce in 1851. The County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, was separated from the United Counties in 1853. Several townships were transferred to Middlesex County: Williams, in 1845 Biddulph and McGillivray, in 1862.
Legislation was passed in 1866 to provide for the dissolution of the United Counties on January 1, 1867, with Huron and Bruce County becoming separate counties for all purposes. The Huron County Council consists of fifteen members from the nine area municipalities to ensure that each is represented on this Council; each year, a Warden is elected from the group. In 2017, the Reeve was Ben Van Diepenbeek from the Ashfield-Colborne-Wawanosh ward. Most of the population of the county resides in the Huron—Bruce Huron and Huron—Middlesex, federal electoral district; the majority reside in the Huron—Bruce known as Huron and Huron—Middlesex. The County's Official Plan addresses the following issues: "agriculture, community services, the economy, natural environment, extractive resources, settlement patterns." According to this document, agriculture is a significant part of the economy since "Huron leads all counties and regions in Ontario in total value of production. Huron County comprises nine lower-tier municipalities: Municipality of South Huron Municipality of Huron East Town of Goderich Municipality of Central Huron Municipality of Bluewater Township of Ashfield–Colborne–Wawanosh Township of North Huron Municipality of Howick Municipality of Morris-TurnberryThe boundaries of the county's municipalities have been in effect since 2001, after the provincial government imposed mergers throughout the province.
Huron County comprises a single Statistics Canada census division. The population has been quite stable in recent years. Historic populations: Population in 2001: 59,701 Population in 1996: 60,220 List of municipalities in Ontario List of Ontario Census Divisions List of townships in Ontario Goderich, Ontario Huron County government site Huron County Tourism website