Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Fort Eustis is a United States Army installation near Newport News, Virginia. In 2010, it was combined with nearby Langley Air Force Base to form Joint Base Langley–Eustis; the post is the home to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, home to the U. S. Army Aviation Logistics School. Fort Eustis is the home of the Army Aviation Logistics 7th Transportation Brigade. Other significant tenants include the Army Training Support Center and the Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate. At Fort Eustis and Fort Story and enlisted soldiers receive education and on-the-job training in all modes of transportation, aviation maintenance and deployment doctrine and research; the headquarters of the Army Transportation Corps was at Fort Eustis until 2010 when it moved to Fort Lee. In accordance with the 2005 BRAC legislation, The administration of Fort Eustis was passed to the 633d Air Base Wing The 733d Mission Support Group manages the installation's garrison operations. Much of the low-lying land along the James River which now constitutes Fort Eustis was known in colonial times as Mulberry Island, was first settled by English colonists shortly after Jamestown was established in 1607.
An important event in Virginia's history occurred in the James River off Mulberry Island in the summer of 1610. Survivors of the ill-fated Third Supply mission from England and the Starving Time in the Colony had boarded ships intent on abandoning the floundering Colony of Virginia and were met off Mulberry Point by Lord Delaware with a fleet of ships headed upriver bringing supplies from England and a fresh determination to stay, he turned the situation around by convincing the colonists, who had just abandoned Jamestown, to turn their ships around and go back to colonizing in the area, rather than return to England. Among those who left was John Rolfe, who had departed England with his wife and child in 1609, with some promising seeds for a different strain of tobacco which he hoped would prove more favorable to export from Virginia than had been the experience to date, he had been shipwrecked on Bermuda in the Sea Venture, lost his wife and child by this time, but still had the untried seeds.
The turning point at Mulberry Island delivered Lord Delaware and businessman-farmer John Rolfe, two different men, back to Jamestown, where they and the others were to find new success. Lord Delaware's skills and resources combined with Rolfe's new strain of tobacco to provide the colony with effective leadership structure as the new cash crop began financial stabilization by 1612. By 1614, Rolfe owned an interest in a tobacco plantation; that same year, he became the husband of Pocahontas. For the next 300 years, Mulberry Island remained rural, until it was bought by the Federal Government in 1918. During the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War in 1862, Fort Crafford on Mulberry Island anchored the southern end of the Warwick Line, a line of Confederate defensive works across the Virginia Peninsula extending to Yorktown on the north at the York River. On 7 March 1918, the Army bought Mulberry Island and the surrounding land for $538,000 as part of the military build-up for World War I.
200 residents were relocated, many to the Jefferson Park area nearby in Warwick County. Camp Abraham Eustis was established as a coast artillery replacement center for Fort Monroe and a balloon observation school, it was named for Brevit Brigadier General Abraham Eustis, a 19th-century U. S. military leader, the first commanding officer of Fort Monroe, a defensive fortification at the mouth of Hampton Roads about 15 miles east at Old Point Comfort in what is now the city of Hampton. A few miles upstream along the James River, a satellite facility, Camp Wallace, was established in 1918 as the Upper Firing Range of for artillery training. Consisting of 30 barracks, six storehouses, eight mess halls, it was located on 160 acres on the edge of Grove, just west of the Carter's Grove Plantation property, south of U. S. Route 60, east of the old Kingsmill Plantation in nearby James City County. Camp Wallace bluffs overlooking the river, it was the site of anti-aircraft training during World War II. Many years the Army's aerial tramway was first erected at Camp Wallace and moved to Fort Eustis near the Reserve Fleet for further testing.
The purpose of the tramway was to provide cargo movement from ship-to-shore, shore-to-ship, overland. The tramway supplemented beach and pier operations, used unloading points deemed unusable due to inadequate or non-navigable waters, or to traverse land, otherwise impassable. In 1971, the U. S. Army agreed to a land swap with Anheuser-Busch in return for a larger parcel, located directly across Skiffe's Creek from Fort Eustis. Along with land owned by Colonial Williamsburg, the former Camp Wallace land became part of a massive development. Nearby, the Busch Gardens Williamsburg theme park opened in 1975, as well as a large brewery, the Kingsmill Resort. Camp Abraham Eustis became Fort Eustis and a permanent military installation in 1923. In 1925 Eustis National Forest was established on the installation; the post was garrisoned by artillery and infantry units until 1931, when it became a federal prison for bootleggers during Prohibition. The repeal of Prohibition resulted in a prisoner decline and the post was taken over by various other military and non-military activities including a WPA camp that utilized some of the barracks on the post during the Great Depression.
Fort Eustis was reopened as a military installation in August 1940 as the Coast Artillery Replacement Training Center. In 1943, the Caribbean Regiment of the British Army was formed there
Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling
Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling is a 905-acre military installation, located in Southwest, Washington, D. C. established on 1 October 2010 in accordance with congressional legislation implementing the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. The legislation ordered the consolidation of Naval Support Facility Anacostia and Bolling Air Force Base, which were adjoining, but separate military installations, into a single joint base, one of twelve formed in the country as a result of the law; the only aeronautical facility at the base is a 100-by-100-foot helipad. Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling is responsible for providing installation support to 17,000 military, civilian employees and their families, 48 mission and tenant units, including ceremonial units, various Army, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, Joint Service commands and other DOD and federal agencies. Bolling Air Force Base units provide ceremonial support to the White House, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Air Force Chief of Staff through 11th Wing, the United States Air Force Honor Guard and The United States Air Force Band.
NSF Anacostia falls under the command of Naval District Washington. The tenant commands for the navy aspect of the base include: Commander, Naval Installations Construction Battalion Unit 422 District of Columbia Army National Guard Department of Defense Inspector General Marine Forces Reserve Center Marine Helicopter Squadron Navy Operational Support Center NEXCOM BEM Gary Elliott Office of Chief of Information White House Communications AgencyAdditionally, the Defense Intelligence Agency Headquarters has been located at Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling since 1987, Coast Guard Station Washington, D. C. is located on the post next to the Capitol Cove Marina. The Naval Research Laboratory is not part of the Joint Base but is located adjacent to it. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General is located in the base; the Naval Media Center was transferred to Fort Meade in 2011. The Navy began testing seaplanes at this facility in 1918 and it became a naval air station supporting conventional aircraft.
Located north of Bolling Air Force Base, NAS Anacostia remained in service as an active naval air station until 1962, when its runways were deactivated concurrent with Bolling's due to traffic pattern issues with nearby Washington National Airport. Redesignated as a naval support facility, NSF Anacostia serves as headquarters for Commander, Naval Installations, Navy Office of the Chief of Information and continues to maintain a large heliport facility used by Marine Helicopter Squadron One in support of "Marine One" presidential transport operations with VH-3D and VH-60N aircraft. Bolling's property has been a Department of Defense asset since 1917. From its beginning, the installation has included the Army Air Corps and Navy aviation and support elements; the tract of land selected for the base was scouted by William C. Ocker at the direction of General Billy Mitchell; the base began near Anacostia in 1918, as the only military airfield near the United States Capitol and was named The Flying Field at Anacostia on 2 October 1917.
It was renamed Anacostia Experimental Flying Field in June 1918. Not long after its acquisition by the military, the single installation evolved into two separate, adjoining bases. Bolling Field was opened 1 July 1918 and was named in honor of the first high-ranking air service officer killed in World War I, Colonel Raynal C. Bolling. Colonel Bolling was the Assistant Chief of the Air Service, was killed in action near Amiens, France, on 26 March 1918 while defending himself and his driver, Private Paul L. Holder, from an attack by German soldiers. In the late 1940s, Bolling Field’s property became Naval Air Station Anacostia and a new Air Force base, named Bolling Air Force Base, was constructed just to the south on 24 June 1948. Bolling AFB has served as a research and testing ground for new aviation equipment and its first mission provided aerial defense of the capital, it moved along the Potomac in the city's southwest quadrant, in the 1930s. Over the years, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and National Guard units, as well as DOD and federal agencies found the installation to be an ideal place from which to operate.
Throughout World War II, the installation served as a training and organizational base for personnel and units going overseas. In 1962, fixed-wing aircraft operations at the air force and naval installations ceased, due to congested airspace around Washington National Airport on the opposite shore of the Potomac River. Although fixed-wing aircraft operations ceased, the installations continued their important service to the country and the world, serving in many capacities, including service with the Military Airlift Command. On 15 July 1994, AFDW was inactivated, but was reactivated 5 January 2005 to "provide a single voice for Air Force requirements in the National Capital Region" according to the base's website. Residents are zoned to District of Columbia Public Schools. Residents are zoned to Leckie Elementary School, Hart Middle School
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Balad Air Base
Balad Air Base is an Iraqi Air Force base located near Balad in the Sunni Triangle 40 miles north of Baghdad, Iraq. Built in the early 1980s it was named Al-Bakr Air Base. In 2003 the base was occupied by the United States Armed Forces as part of the Iraq War and called both Balad Air Base by the United States Air Force and Logistical Support Area Anaconda by the United States Army before being renamed Joint Base Balad on 15 June 2008; the base was handed back to the Iraqi Air Force on 8 November 2011 during the U. S. withdrawal from Iraq, after which it returned to being called Balad Air Base. During the Iraq War it was the second largest U. S. base in Iraq and today is home to the Iraqi Air Force's General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcons. Balad was known as Al-Bakr Air Base, named in honor of Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the president of Iraq from 1968 to 1979, it was considered by many in the Iraqi military to be the most important airfield of the Iraqi Air Force. During most of the 1980s, it operated with at least a brigade level force, with two squadrons of Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 fighters.
Al-Bakr Air Base was well known for the large number of hardened aircraft shelters built by Yugoslavsian contractors during the Iran–Iraq War in the mid-1980s. It had four hardened areas—one each on either end of the main runways—with 30 individual aircraft shelters; the base was captured in early April 2003 during the Invasion of Iraq. The US Army's 310th Sustainment Command and the US Air Force's 332d Air Expeditionary Wing were headquartered at JBB, it was decided that the facility share one name though for many reasons and for its many occupants, it had differing names. Until mid-2008 the US Army had been in charge of Balad but, when it was re-designated as a joint base, the US Air Force assumed overall control. Balad was the central logistical hub for forces in Iraq. Camp Anaconda has been more colloquially-termed "Life Support Area Anaconda" or the "Big Snake", it housed 8,000 civilian contractors. Like most large bases in Iraq, LSA Anaconda offered amenities, circa 2006 and including a base movie theater, two Base/Post Exchanges, fast food courts including Subway, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Burger King, Green Beans Coffee, a Turkish Cafe, an Iraqi Bazaar, multiple gyms, dance lessons, an Olympic size swimming pool, an indoor swimming pool.
The base was a common destination for celebrities and politicians visiting US troops serving in Iraq on USO Tours including the Charlie Daniels band, Vince Vaughn, Carrie Underwood, Wayne Newton, Toby Keith, Gary Sinise, Chris Isaak, Neal McCoy, Oliver North, WWE. 129th CSSB 372nd Transportation Company 172nd Corps Support Group 1-142 Aviation Maintenance Battalion M/158 Aviation Regiment 213th Area Support Group 13th CSSB 142ND ECB & 957 MRBC April 2003 - Feb 2004 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment, Jan 2005-Jan 2006 557 Maintenance Co. Oct 2007 - Dec 2008 602nd Maintenance Co. Apr 2008 - Jun 2009 A/51st Signal Battalion took control in mid April 2003 from the 1st Battalion, 124th Infantry Regiment until V corps arrived around 01 May 2003 532nd Expeditionary Security Forces Squadron 411th Engineer Brigade between 2006 and 2007 NMCB 28 and NMCB 4 - 2007 Headquarters and Support Company, 463d Engineer Combat Battalion between 2004 and 2005 63rd Ordnance Company (United States between 2004 and 2005 77th Sustainment Brigade 2011 13th Corps Support Command between 2004 and 2005 1st Sustainment Command between 2006 and 2007 316th Sustainment Command between 2007 and 2008 1st Sustainment Command between 2008 and 2009 103rd Sustainment Command between 2009 and 2011 100th Infantry Battalion Task Force 34 864th Engineer Battalion 29th Brigade Combat Team January 2005 - February 2006 323rd Military Police Company April 2003 - July 2003 Bravo Company 279th Signal Battalion, Alabama National Guard, 2004-2005 332d Air Expeditionary Wing 332d Expeditionary Operations Group 22d Expeditionary Fighter Squadron – F-16CM Block 50 Fighting Falcons.
34th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron from May to October 2008 332d Expeditionary Fighter Squadron – F-16 Block 30 Fighting Falcons 107th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 111th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 119th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 120th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 121st Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 124th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 125th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 170th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 176th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 179th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 186th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 188th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron 777th Expeditionary Airlift Squadron – C-130 Hercules 64th Expeditionary Rescue Squadron – HH-60 Pave Hawk 46th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron – MQ-1B Predator 332d Expeditionary Operations Support Squadron – airfield management 362d Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron – MC-12W Liberty 727th Expeditionary Air Control Squadron – tactical command and control agency 1st Battalion, 131st Aviation Regiment from September 2006.
Task Force 11th Aviation Regimentfrom April 2003 until February 2004 Starting in 2003, several mortar rounds and rockets were fired per day by insurgen
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare. It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications and other fields; the strategic offensive role of a navy is projection of force into areas beyond a country's shores. The strategic defensive purpose of a navy is to frustrate seaborne projection-of-force by enemies; the strategic task of the navy may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Naval operations can be broadly divided between riverine and littoral applications, open-ocean applications, something in between, although these distinctions are more about strategic scope than tactical or operational division. In most nations, the term "naval", as opposed to "navy", is interpreted as encompassing all maritime military forces, e.g. navy, naval infantry/marine corps, coast guard forces. First attested in English in the early 14th century, the word "navy" came via Old French navie, "fleet of ships", from the Latin navigium, "a vessel, a ship, boat", from navis, "ship".
The word "naval" came from Latin navalis, "pertaining to ship". The earliest attested form of the word is in the Mycenaean Greek compound word, na-u-do-mo, "shipbuilders", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word denoted fleets of both commercial and military nature. In modern usage "navy" used alone always denotes a military fleet, although the term "merchant navy" for a commercial fleet still incorporates the non-military word sense; this overlap in word senses between commercial and military fleets grew out of the inherently dual-use nature of fleets. Although nationality of commercial vessels has little importance in peacetime trade other than for tax avoidance, it can have greater meaning during wartime, when supply chains become matters of patriotic attack and defense, when in some cases private vessels are temporarily converted to military vessels; the latter was important, common, before 20th-century military technology existed, when adding artillery and naval infantry to any sailing vessel could render it as martial as any military-owned vessel.
Such privateering has been rendered obsolete in blue-water strategy since modern missile and aircraft systems grew to leapfrog over artillery and infantry in many respects. Naval warfare developed. Prior to the introduction of the cannon and ships with sufficient capacity to carry the large guns, navy warfare involved ramming and boarding actions. In the time of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, naval warfare centered on long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen designed to ram and sink enemy vessels or come alongside the enemy vessel so its occupants could be attacked hand-to-hand. Naval warfare continued in this vein through the Middle Ages until the cannon became commonplace and capable of being reloaded enough to be reused in the same battle; the Chola Dynasty of medieval India was known as one of the greatest naval powers of its time from 300 BC to 1279 AD. The Chola Navy, Chola kadarpadai comprised the naval forces of the Chola Empire along with several other Naval-arms of the country.
The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansion of the Chola Tamil kingdom, including the conquest of the Sri Lanka islands, Sri Vijaya, the spread of Hinduism, Tamil architecture and Tamil culture to Southeast Asia and in curbing the piracy in Southeast Asia in 900 CE. In ancient China, large naval battles were known since the Qin dynasty, employing the war junk during the Han dynasty. However, China's first official standing navy was not established until the Southern Song dynasty in the 12th century, a time when gunpowder was a revolutionary new application to warfare. Nusantaran thalassocracies made extensive use of naval power and technologies; this enabled the seafaring Malay people to attack as far as the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with 1000 boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, about 7,000 km to their West, in 945-946 AD. In 1350 AD Majapahit launched its largest military expedition, the invasion of Pasai, with 400 large jong and innumerable smaller vessels.
The second largest military expedition, invasion of Singapura in 1398, Majapahit deployed 300 jong with no less than 200,000 men. The mass and deck space required to carry a large number of cannon made oar-based propulsion impossible, ships came to rely on sails. Warships were designed to carry increasing numbers of cannon and naval tactics evolved to bring a ship's firepower to bear in a broadside, with ships-of-the-line arranged in a line of battle; the development of large capacity, sail-powered ships carrying cannon led to a rapid expansion of European navies the Spanish and Portuguese navies which dominated in the 16th and early 17th centuries, helped propel the age of exploration and colonialism. The repulsion of the Spanish Armada by the English fleet revolutionized naval warfare by the succe
Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sam Houston is a U. S. Army post in Texas. Known colloquially as "Fort Sam," it is named for the U. S. Senator from Texas, U. S. Representative from Tennessee and Texas Governor, first President of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston; the installation's missions include serving as the command headquarters for the United States Army North, United States Army South, the Army Medical Command headquarters, the Army Medical Department Center and School, the Fifth Recruiting Brigade, Navy Regional Recruiting, the San Antonio Military Entrance and Processing Station, the Medical Education and Training Campus. On October 1, 2010, Fort Sam Houston joined Lackland Air Force Base and Randolph Air Force Base to create Joint Base San Antonio, under Air Force administration. U. S. Department of Defense Elements Medical Education and Training Campus United States Military Entrance Processing Command Elements MEPS San AntonioU. S. Army Elements U. S. Army North Elements HQ, U. S. Army North U. S. Army Installation Management Command Elements HQ, U.
S. Army IMCOM IMCOM West Mission Training Complex U. S. Army Medical Command Elements HQ, U. S. Army MEDCOM U. S. Army Veterinary Command U. S. Army Dental Command Southern Regional Medical Command Brooke Army Medical Center Troop Command, Brooke Army Medical Center, HHC & companies A–D Warrior Transition Battalion, Brooke Army Medical Center U. S. Army Institute of Surgical Research U. S. Army Medical Department Center and School Health Readiness Center of Excellence Academy of Health Sciences 32nd Medical Brigade 187th Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–D 232rd Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–H 264th Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–F Training Support Company U. S. Army Medical Department Student Detachment Non-Commissioned Officer Academy Defense Medical Readiness Training Institute US Army Medical Information and Technology Center U. S. Army South Elements HQ, U. S. Army South U. S. Army Forces Command Elements 5501st US Army Hospital 418th Medical Logistics Company 591st Medical Logistics Company 470th Blood Detachment 79th Ordnance Battalion U.
S. Army Recruiting Command Elements U. S. Army Fifth Recruiting Brigade 5th Brigade, U. S. Army Cadet Command Army Contracting Command Elements 410th Contracting Support Brigade Mission and Installation Contracting Command 412th Contracting Support Brigade U. S. Army Criminal Investigation Command 6th Region CID Ft. Sam Houston 25th Military Police Detachment U. S. Army Intelligence and Security Command Elements 470th Military Intelligence Brigade, HHC & companies A–B U. S. Army Network Enterprise & Technology Command 106th Signal Brigade U. S. Army Environmental CommandU. S. Air Force Elements HQ, 502nd Air Base Wing 502nd Mission Support Group Camp Bullis United States Army North is the senior command and responsible for all Army activities on Fort Sam Houston, but not for the post itself. Commanded by Lt. Gen. Jeffrey S. Buchanan, Army North's primary missions are land-based Homeland Defense, Defense Support of Civil Authorities and Theater Security Cooperation with the Bahamas and Mexico; because Fort Sam Houston is part of Joint Base San Antonio, the installation commander is the commander of the 502d Air Base Wing.
Fort Sam Houston is known as the "Home of Army Medicine" and "Home of the Combat Medic." At the end of World War II, the Army decided to make Fort Sam Houston the principal medical training facility. In conjunction with this decision came the determination to develop Brooke General Hospital into one of the Army's premier medical centers; this combined the capabilities of Wilford Hall Medical Center located at nearby Lackland Air Force Base to create the largest medical treatment facility and teaching hospital in the Department of Defense. Construction associated with this transition increased the square footage of the hospital by 50%, including a much larger, variable capacity emergency department, additional surgical suites and recovery facilities, as well as teaching facilities and bed space. Despite the installation transitioning to Air Force control, the command and control of the facility will remain with the Army; the command and other key positions will rotate between the Air Force. Staffing consist of members of both services, as well as a large number of civilians.
As of 2011, Fort Sam Houston is the largest and most important military medical training facility in the world. Military Medical Training is provided by numerous elements, including METC, AMEDD Center and School, Brooke Army Medical Center, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, The Center for Battlefield Health and Trauma, Defense Medical Readiness Training Institute, as well as many smaller organizations. Known as the brain trust for the Army Medical Department, the Army Medical Department Center and School annually trains more than 25,000 students attending 170 officer, NCO and enlisted courses in 14 medical specialties; the command maintains several academic affiliations for bachelor's and master's degree programs with major universities such as Baylor University, University of Texas Health Science Centers at Houston and San Antonio, University of Nebraska. As a result of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission 2005 recommendations, all military medical training has been consolidated at Fort Sam Houston.
This consolidation concluded with the opening of the Military Education and Training Campus in 2011. The Navy moved its medical training from California; the Air Force moved its