The Joker is a supervillain created by Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson who first appeared in the debut issue of the comic book Batman, published by DC Comics. Credit for the Joker's creation is disputed. Although the Joker was planned to be killed off during his initial appearance, he was spared by editorial intervention, allowing the character to endure as the archenemy of the superhero Batman. In his comic book appearances, the Joker is portrayed as a criminal mastermind. Introduced as a psychopath with a warped, sadistic sense of humor; as Batman's nemesis, the Joker has been part of the superhero's defining stories, including the murder of Jason Todd—the second Robin and Batman's ward—and the paralysis of one of Batman's allies, Barbara Gordon. The Joker has had various possible origin stories during his decades of appearances; the most common story involves him falling into a tank of chemical waste that bleaches his skin white and turns his hair green and lips bright red. The antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance, the Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary.
The Joker possesses no superhuman abilities, instead using his expertise in chemical engineering to develop poisonous or lethal concoctions and thematic weaponry, including razor-tipped playing cards, deadly joy buzzers, acid-spraying lapel flowers. The Joker sometimes works with other Gotham City supervillains, such as the Penguin and Two-Face, groups like the Injustice Gang and Injustice League, but these relationships collapse due to the Joker's desire for unbridled chaos; the 1990s introduced a romantic interest for the Joker in his former psychiatrist, Harley Quinn, who becomes his villainous sidekick. Although his primary obsession is Batman, the Joker has fought other heroes, including Superman and Wonder Woman. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the Joker has been listed among the greatest comic book villains and fictional characters created; the character's popularity has seen him appear on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectible items, inspire real-world structures, be referenced in a number of media.
The Joker has been adapted to serve as Batman's adversary in live-action and video game incarnations, including the 1960s Batman television series played by Cesar Romero and in films by Jack Nicholson in Batman, Heath Ledger in The Dark Knight, Joaquin Phoenix in Joker. Mark Hamill, Troy Baker, others have provided the character's voice. Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson are credited with creating the Joker, but their accounts of the character's conception differ, each providing his own version of events. Finger's, Kane's, Robinson's versions acknowledge that Finger produced an image of actor Conrad Veidt in character as Gwynplaine in the 1928 film The Man Who Laughs as an inspiration for the Joker's appearance, Robinson produced a sketch of a joker playing card. Robinson claimed that it was his 1940 card sketch that served as the character's concept, that Finger associated with Veidt's portrayal. Kane hired the 17-year-old Robinson as an assistant in 1939, after he saw Robinson in a white jacket decorated with his own illustrations.
Beginning as a letterer and background inker, Robinson became primary artist for the newly created Batman comic book series. In a 1975 interview in The Amazing World of DC Comics, Robinson said he wanted a supreme arch-villain who could test Batman, not a typical crime lord or gangster designed to be disposed of, he wanted an exotic, enduring character as an ongoing source of conflict for Batman, designing a diabolically sinister-but-clownish villain. Robinson was intrigued by villains, he said that the name came first, followed by an image of a playing card from a deck he had at hand: "I wanted somebody visually exciting. I wanted somebody that would make an indelible impression, would be bizarre, would be memorable like the Hunchback of Notre Dame or any other villains that had unique physical characters." He told Finger about his concept by telephone providing sketches of the character and images of what would become his iconic Joker playing-card design. Finger thought the concept was incomplete, providing the image of Veidt with a ghastly, permanent rictus grin.
Kane countered that Robinson's sketch was produced only after Finger had shown the Gwynplaine image to Kane, that it was only used as a card design belonging to the Joker in his early appearances. Finger said that he was inspired by an image in Steeplechase Park at Coney Island that resembled a Joker's head, which he sketched and shared with future editorial director Carmine Infantino. In a 1994 interview with journalist Frank Lovece, Kane stated his position: Bill Finger and I created the Joker. Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way. Looks like Conrad Veidt – you know, the actor in The Man Who Laughs, by Victor Hugo.... Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and said,'Here's the
Gitte Moos Knudsen is a Danish translational neurobiologist and clinical neurologist, Clinical Professor and Chief Physician at the Department of Clinical Medicine, Neurology and Sensory Sciences, at Copenhagen University Hospital. She graduated from Lyngby Statsskole, just north of Copenhagen, before gaining entrance to medicine, where she received her MD from University of Copenhagen in 1984, became a Board certified user of radioisotopes in 1986, she sat the FMGEMS exam in 1989. She became Board certified in neurology in 1994 and received her DMSc from University of Copenhagen in 1994, she resides in Copenhagen, is married to Tore Vulpius. She has 3 children. Knudsen is one of the leading figures in the neurosciences, assisting various European Union nations to prioritize research and grants. In addition, her research into the brain and its chemistry during depression, Alzheimer's Disease, states induced by drugs such as GHB and ecstasy is at the forefront of world knowledge, she is a noted scholar in these areas, publishing many papers on each topic.
Her interest in brain imaging has led to a deeper understanding of how many receptors act within the brain, she has produced studies using SPECT, PET, MRI results to interpret these. A key issue is that the latest brain research not only contributes to increased understanding of brain functions, but is used to attempt to explain what it means to be human; the Lundbeck Foundation, created in 1954, donated one of the largest amounts given toward the development of medical knowledge, listing a total of DKK 504 million to various institutions in 2011. With a 40 million grant from this program, together with a team of researchers from the Center for Integrated Molecular Imaging of the Brain, University of Copenhagen, are concentrating on investigating the neural bases of personality that predispose individuals to various disorders, using PET and MRI technology, she is the Center Director of The Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging. Regarding her research, Knudsen states: I am a translational neurobiologist and clinical neurologist with interest in advanced methodological developments that I subsequently apply in my research to address pertinent neurobiological and clinical issues.
My scientific interests have fallen in three sequentially separated categories: blood-brain barrier transport –, the basis for my DMSc thesis, neurobiology of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neurobiology of the neurotransmission with particular emphasis on molecular brain imaging. CIMBI focuses on the neural bases of personality dimensions that predispose individuals to e.g. affective and substance use disorders, with special emphasis on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system. Member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters since 2004. Prize 1994 of the Société de Circulation et Métabolism du Cerveau, France. Clinical education has predominantly taken place at Rigshospitalet and has been interspersed by a three years appointment as research fellow at the Dept. of Neurology, by maternal leave in 1989, 1992, 1995. Appointed as research professor in Neurobiology and Chief Neurologist at University of Copenhagen in 1999. Professor of Neurology at University of Copenhagen 2005–2006 and of Neurobiology from 2004.
Chief neurologist at Dept Neurology and Chairperson at the Neurobiology ResearchUnit and Director of the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging. Professor in Clinical Neurobiology at the University of Copenhagen. President-elect of the ECNP Member of the Board of Directors 1995–1999 and Scientific Secretary 2001–2005 of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Examiner at PhD and DMSc theses in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Member of EU’s Fifth Framework Expert Panel for evaluation of research applications, Brussels, in 1999, 2000, 2005 Member of EU’s Fifth Framework Expert Panel for evaluation of research applications for the Norwegian Research Council 2006-7, Member of EU’s Fifth Framework Expert Panel for evaluation of research applications for Danish Multiple Sclerosis Foundation Research Committee 2007-9, Member of EU’s Fifth Framework Expert Panel for evaluation of research applications for the Swedish Research Council and VINNOVA 2005–2008.
Member of the Danish Health Advisory Group for the EU 7th Framework Program 2009–. Member of the program committee of the Danish Council for Strategic Research 2009–. Executive Committee of European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2010–. Editorial Board member on Journals Cerebral Bloodflow and Metabolism, CurrentRadiopharmaceuticals, Membrane Transport and Signaling and Biology of Mood and Anxiety Diso
Sonia Ben Ammar is a French fashion model and singer known mononymously as SONIA. Her first music video for the single "Joyride" premiered on Billboard on 26 September 2019, hinting at an upcoming EP release. PAPER Magazine revealed another track, "Games," on 29 October 2019, announcing that her four-track debut EP will be released on 8 November 2019. Ben Ammar was born to film producer Tarak Ben Ammar and actress Beata Ben Ammar, her father is half French and half Tunisian and her mother is from Poland. Ben Ammar played minor roles in the film Jappeloup and the stage musical 1789: Les Amants de la Bastille, she graduated from the American School of Paris and started attending the University of Southern California in fall 2017. In 2016, Ben Ammar signed with IMG Models and has since modeled for Dolce & Gabbana, Miu Miu, Carolina Herrera, Nina Ricci and Chanel, she has appeared in magazines such as Vanity Fair, Harper's Bazaar Arabia, L'Officiel. Media related to Sonia Ben Ammar at Wikimedia Commons