The Freud Museum in London is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, located in the house where Freud lived with his family during the last year of his life. In 1938, after escaping Nazi annexation of Austria he came to London via Paris and stayed for a short while at 39 Elsworthy Road before moving to 20 Maresfield Gardens, where the museum is situated. Although he died a year in the same house, his daughter Anna Freud continued to stay there until her death in 1982, it was her wish. It was opened to the public in July 1986. Freud continued to work in London and it was here that he completed his book Moses and Monotheism, he maintained his practice in this home and saw a number of his patients for analysis. The centrepiece of the museum is the couch brought from Berggasse 19, Vienna on which his patients were asked to say whatever came to their mind without consciously selecting information, named the free association technique by him. There are two other Freud Museums, one in Vienna, another in Příbor, the Czech Republic, in the house where Sigmund Freud was born.
The latter was opened by four of Freud's great-grandsons. The museum is located at 20 Maresfield Gardens in one of London's suburbs; the ground floor of the museum houses Freud's study, library and the dining room. The museum shop is on ground floor as well; the first floor has a video room, Anna Freud's room and there is a temporary exhibitions room which hosts alternate contemporary art and Freud-themed exhibitions. Art installations use several rooms within the museum, such as the 2001/02 exhibition "A Visit to Freud’s" by Austrian photographer Uli Aigner. Many areas such as the kitchen and Anna Freud's consulting room are out of public view and have been converted into offices; the house had only finished being built in 1920 in the Queen Anne Style. A small sun room in a modern style was added at the rear by Ernst Ludwig Freud that same year. Freud was over eighty at this time, he died the following year, but the house remained in his family until his youngest daughter Anna Freud, a pioneer of child therapy, died in 1982.
The house has a well maintained garden, still much as Freud would have known it. The Freuds moved all household effects to London. There are Biedermeier chests and cupboards, a collection of 18th century and 19th century Austrian painted country furniture; the museum owns Freud's collection of Egyptian, Greek and Oriental antiquities, his personal library. The star exhibit in the museum is Freud's psychoanalytic couch, given to him by one of his patients, Madame Benvenisti, in 1890; this was restored at a cost of £5000 in 2013. The study and library were preserved by Anna Freud after her father's death; the bookshelf behind Freud's desk contains some of his favourite authors: not only Goethe and Shakespeare but Heine and Anatole France. Freud acknowledged that poets and philosophers had gained insights into the unconscious which psychoanalysis sought to explain systematically. In addition to the books, the library contains; the collection includes a portrait of Freud by Salvador Dalí. The museum organizes research and publication programmes and it has an education service which organises seminars and educational visits to the museum.
The museum is a member of the London Museums of Medicine. Sigmund Freud Museum A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière David Morgan Official website of the Freud Museum
Sigmund Freud Museum (Vienna)
The Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna is a museum founded in 1971 covering Sigmund Freud's life story. It is located in the Alsergrund district, at Berggasse 19. In 2003 the museum was put in the hands of the newly established Sigmund Freud Foundation, which has since received the entire building as an endowment, it covers the history of psychoanalysis. The building was newly built in 1891; the previous building on the site, once the home of Victor Adler, had been torn down. His old rooms, where he lived for 47 years and produced the majority of his writings, now house a documentary centre to his life and works; the influence of psychoanalysis on art and society is displayed through a program of special exhibitions and a modern art collection. The museum consists of a part of his old private quarters. Attached to the museum are Europe's largest psychoanalytic research library, with 35,000 volumes, the research institute of the Sigmund Freud Foundation; the display includes original items owned by Freud, the practice's waiting room, parts of Freud's extensive antique collection.
However his famous couch is now in the Freud Museum in London, along with most of the original furnishings, as Freud was able to take his furniture with him when he emigrated. A third Freud Museum, after London and Vienna, was started in the Czech town of Příbor in 2006 when the house of his birth was opened to the public; the museum contains an archive of images containing around two thousand documents photographs, but paintings and sculptures. The collection consists of all of the existing photos of Sigmund Freud and his family, a large number of photos of Anna Freud and photos from psychoanalytic congresses etc. In 1938 Freud was forced to leave German-annexed Austria due to his Jewish ancestry, fled to London; the museum was opened in 1971 by the Sigmund Freud Society in the presence of Anna Freud. In 1996 the building was expanded with new rooms for special events; the Foundation has ongoing plans to expand the museum. Since 1970 the annual Sigmund Freud Lecture has taken place in Vienna on 6 May.
This event, at which psychoanalysts speak on a contemporary theme, was established by the Sigmund Freud Society and is now organised by the Foundation. Freud Museum Home page in English
Edward Louis Bernays was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations". Bernays was named one of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century by Life, he was the subject of a full length biography by Larry Tye called The Father of Spin and an award-winning 2002 documentary for the BBC by Adam Curtis called The Century of the Self. More Bernays is noted as the great-uncle of Netflix co-founder, Marc Randolph, his best-known campaigns include a 1929 effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist "Torches of Freedom" and his work for the United Fruit Company connected with the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected Guatemalan government in 1954. He worked for dozens of major American corporations including Procter & Gamble and General Electric, for government agencies and non-profit organizations. Of his many books, Crystallizing Public Opinion and Propaganda gained special attention as early efforts to define and theorize the field of public relations.
Citing works of writers such as Gustave Le Bon, Wilfred Trotter, Walter Lippmann, his own double uncle Sigmund Freud, he described the masses as irrational and subject to herd instinct—and outlined how skilled practitioners could use crowd psychology and psychoanalysis to control them in desirable ways. Edward Bernays was born to the son of Ely Bernays and Anna Freud Bernays, his great grandfather was chief rabbi of Hamburg. Bernays was a "double nephew" of Viennese psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud—by virtue of his mother, Freud's sister, of his father's sister, Martha Bernays Freud, who married Sigmund; the Bernays family moved from Vienna to the United States in the 1890s. Ely Bernays became a grain exporter at the Manhattan Produce Exchange sent for his wife and children. In 1892, his family moved to New York City. In 1912 he graduated from Cornell University with a degree in agriculture, but chose journalism as his first career, he married Doris E. Fleischman in 1922. Fleischman, a member of the Lucy Stone League, was public about keeping her last name, her husband not only sanctioned but touted this fact.
She was the first married woman to be issued a US passport without her husband's last name. However, she changed her mind and her name, becoming Doris Bernays. By all accounts, Fleischman played a major though quiet role in the Bernays public relations business—including ghost-writing numerous memos and speeches, publishing a newsletter. After graduating from Cornell, Bernays wrote for the National Nurseryman journal, he worked at the New York City Produce Exchange, where his father was a grain exporter. He worked for Louis Dreyfus and Company reading grain cables. By December of the same year he had returned to New York. Following a meeting in New York with school friend Fred Robinson, Bernays became coeditor of Medical Review of Reviews and Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette in 1912, they took editorial positions in favor of showers and against corsets and distributed free copies to thousands of physicians across the country. Two months they took up the cause of Damaged Goods, an English translation of Les Avariés by Eugène Brieux.
After publishing a positive review of the play and Robinson wrote to its lead actor, Richard Bennett: "The editors of the Medical Review of Reviews support your praiseworthy intention to fight sex-pruriency in the United States by producing Brieux's play Damaged Goods. You can count on our help; the play controversially dealt with venereal disease and prostitution—Bernays called it "a propaganda play that fought for sex education." He created the "Medical Review of Reviews Sociological Fund Committee" and solicited the support of such elite figures as John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt, Reverend John Haynes Holmes, Anne Harriman Sands Rutherford Vanderbilt, wife of William Kissam Vanderbilt. After his foray into the world of theater, Bernays worked as a creative press agent for various performers and performances, he was using a variety of techniques which would become hallmarks of his practice. He promoted the Daddy Long Legs stage play by tying it in with the cause of charity for orphans.
To create interest in Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, he educated Americans about the subtleties of ballet—and publicized a picture of Flore Revalles, wearing a tight-fitting dress, at the Bronx Zoo, posed with a large snake. He built up Enrico Caruso as an idol whose voice was so sensitive that comically extreme measures were taken to protect it. After the US entered the war, the Committee on Public Information hired Bernays to work for its Bureau of Latin-American Affairs, based in an office in New York. Bernays, along with Lieutenant F. E. Ackerman, focused on building support for war and abroad, focusing on businesses operating in Latin America. Bernays referred to this work as "psychological warfare". After fighting ended, Bernays was part of a sixteen-person publicity group working for the CPI at the Paris Peace Conference. A scandal arose from his reference to propaganda in a press release; as reported by the New York World, the "announced object of the expedition is'to interpret the work of the Peace Conference by keeping up a worldwide propaganda to disseminate American accomplishments and ideals.'"Bernays described a realization that his work for the CPI could be be used in peacetime: There was one basic lesson I learned in the CPI—that efforts comparable to those applied by the CPI to affect the attitudes of the enemy, o
Statue of Sigmund Freud, Hampstead
A seated bronze statue of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, is situated on a limestone plinth at the junction of Fitzjohn's Avenue and Belsize Lane in Hampstead, North London. Freud lived for the last months of his life, his house is now the Freud Museum. The sculptor Oscar Nemon was born and educated in Osijek before moving to work in Vienna in the 1920s, he had read Freud in his teens approached Freud as a young sculptor and was rejected by him. After Nemon had gained his reputation in Brussels, he was approached by Freud's assistant Paul Federn in 1931 to sculpt Freud for his 75th birthday. Nemon finished busts of Freud in wood and plaster, Freud chose to keep the wooden portrait for himself; the wooden bust is on display at the Freud Museum in Hampstead. Nemon visited Freud for a final time in London in 1938, his last sittings with Freud would create a "...harsher more abstracted portrait" which would become the head for the seated bronze in Hampstead. Freud wrote in his diary in July 1931 of Nemon's portrait that "The head, which the gaunt, goatee-bearded artist has fashioned from the dirt like the good Lord is good and an astonishingly life-like impression of me."
On seeing the head of Freud, his housekeeper Paula Fichtl said that Nemon had made Freud look "too angry", to which Freud responded that "... But I am angry. I am angry with humanity."The bronze larger than life size, was commissioned in the 1960s, with funds raised by a committee chaired by Donald Winnicott. The sculpture depicts Freud with his head turn to one side as if in thought, with his hands in his waistcoat pockets. Freud's daughter, Anna Freud, attended the unveiling of the statue in October 1970, accompanied by children from her Hampstead Clinic; the statue was located in "an alcove behind Swiss Cottage Library, where it was hidden away from the public." The Freud Museum arranged for the statue to be moved to its present location in 1998. It became a Grade II listed building in January 2016. Media related to Statue of Sigmund Freud, London at Wikimedia Commons
Introduction to Psychoanalysis
Introduction to Psychoanalysis or Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis is a set of lectures given by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in 1915-17. The 28 lectures offer an elementary stock-taking of his views of the unconscious and the theory of neuroses at the time of writing, as well as offering some new technical material to the more advanced reader; the lectures became the most popular and translated of his works. However, some of the positions outlined in Introduction to Psychoanalysis would subsequently be altered or revised in Freud's work. Making full use of the lecture-form, Freud was able to engage in a lively polemic with his audience engaging the reader/listener in a discussion, so as to take on their views and deal with their possible objections; the work allows the reader acquainted with the concepts of Freud to trace the logic of his arguments afresh and follow his conclusions, backed as they were with examples from life and from clinical practice. But Freud identified elements of his theory requiring further elaboration, as well as bringing in new material, for example on symbolism and primal fantasies, taking up with the latter a train of thought he would continue in his re-working of The Wolfman.
In the New Introductory Lectures, those on dreams and anxiety/instinctual life offered clear accounts of Freud's latest thinking, while the role of the Superego received an update in lecture 31. More popular treatments of occultism, psychoanalytic applications and its status as a science helped complete the volume. Karl Abraham considered the lectures elementary in the best sense, for presenting the core elements of psychoanalysis in an accessible way. G. Stanley Hall in his preface to the 1920 American translation wrote:These twenty-eight lectures to laymen are elementary and conversational. Freud sets forth with a frankness startling the difficulties and limitations of psychoanalysis, describes its main methods and results as only a master and originator of a new school of thought can do; these discourses are at the same time simple and confidential, they trace and sum up the results of thirty years of devoted and painstaking research. While they are not at all controversial, we incidentally see in a clearer light the distinctions between the master and some of his distinguished pupils.
Freud himself was self-deprecating about the finished work, describing it as "coarse work, intended for the multitude". Max Schur, who became Freud's personal physician, was present at the original 1915 lectures, drew a lifelong interest in psychoanalysis from them. Karl Jaspers turned from a supporter to opponent of psychoanalysis, after being struck in the Introductory Lectures by Freud's claim that his technique could be applied to mythology and to cultural study, as much as to the neuroses. Full text
Lucian Michael Freud, OM was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists. He was born in the son of Jewish architect Ernst L. Freud and the grandson of Sigmund Freud, his family moved to Britain in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. From 1942 -- 43 he attended London, he enlisted in the Merchant Navy during the Second World War. His early career as a painter was influenced by surrealism, but by the early 1950s his stark and alienated paintings tended towards realism. Freud was an intensely private and guarded man, his paintings, completed over a 60-year career, are of friends and family, they are sombre and thickly impastoed set in unsettling interiors and urban landscapes. The works are noted for their psychological penetration and discomforting examination of the relationship between artist and model. Freud worked from life studies, was known for asking for extended and punishing sittings from his models. Born in Berlin, Freud was the son of a German Jewish mother, an Austrian Jewish father, Ernst L. Freud, an architect.
He was a grandson of Sigmund Freud, elder brother of the broadcaster and politician Clement Freud and the younger brother of Stephan Gabriel Freud. The family emigrated to London, in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. Lucian became a British subject in 1939, having attended Dartington Hall School in Totnes and Bryanston School, for a year before being expelled due to disruptive behaviour. Freud studied at the Central School of Art in London, from 1939 to 1942 with greater success at Cedric Morris' East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing in Dedham, relocated in 1940 to Benton End, a house near Hadleigh, Suffolk, he attended Goldsmiths' College, part of the University of London, in 1942–43. He served as a merchant seaman in an Atlantic convoy in 1941 before being invalided out of service in 1942. In 1943, the poet and editor Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu commissioned the young artist to illustrate a book of poems by Nicholas Moore entitled The Glass Tower, it was published the following year by Editions Poetry London and comprised, among other drawings, a stuffed zebra and a palm tree.
Both subjects reappeared in The Painter's Room on display at Freud's first solo exhibition in 1944 at the Lefevre Gallery. In the summer of 1946, he travelled to Paris before continuing to Greece for several months to visit John Craxton. In the early fifties he was a frequent visitor to Dublin where he would share Patrick Swift's studio, he remained a Londoner for the rest of his life. Freud was part of a group of figurative artists named "The School of London"; this was more a loose collection of individual artists who knew each other, some intimately, were working in London at the same time in the figurative style. The group was led by figures such as Francis Bacon and Freud, included Frank Auerbach, Michael Andrews, Leon Kossoff, Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde, Reginald Gray and Kitaj himself, he was a visiting tutor at the Slade School of Fine Art of University College London from 1949 to 1954. Freud's early paintings, which are very small, are associated with German Expressionism and Surrealism in depicting people and animals in unusual juxtapositions.
Some early works anticipate the varied flesh tones of his mature style, for example Cedric Morris, but after the end of the war he developed a thinly painted precise linear style with muted colours, best known in his self-portrait Man with Thistle and a series of large-eyed portraits of his first wife, Kitty Garman, such as Girl with a Kitten. These were painted with tiny sable brushes and evoke Early Netherlandish painting. From the 1950s, he began to focus on portraiture nudes, to the complete exclusion of everything else, by the middle of the decade developed a much more free style using large hogs-hair brushes, concentrating on the texture and colour of flesh, much thicker paint, including impasto. Girl with a white dog, 1951–1952, is an example of a transitional work in this process, sharing many characteristics with paintings before and after it, with tight brushwork and a middling size and viewpoint, he would clean his brush after each stroke when painting flesh, so that the colour remained variable.
He started to paint standing up, which continued until old age, when he switched to a high chair. The colours of non-flesh areas in these paintings are muted, while the flesh becomes highly and variably coloured. By about 1960, Freud had established the style that he would use, with some changes, for the rest of his career; the portraits use an over life-size scale, but are of relatively small heads or in half-lengths. Portraits are much larger. In his late career he followed a portrait by producing an etching of the subject in a different pose, drawing directly onto the plate, with the sitter in his view. Freud's portraits depict only the sitter, sometimes sprawled naked on the floor or on a bed or alternatively juxtaposed with something else, as in Girl With a White Dog and Naked Man With Rat. According to Edward Chaney, "The distinctive, recumbent manner in which Freud poses so many of his sitters suggests the conscious or unconscious influence both of his grandfather's psychoanalytical couch and of the Egyptian mummy, his dream
Totem and Taboo
Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, or Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, is a 1913 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author applies his work to the fields of archaeology and the study of religion. It is a collection of four essays inspired by the work of Wilhelm Wundt and Carl Jung and first published in the journal Imago: "The Horror of Incest", "Taboo and Emotional Ambivalence", "Animism and the Omnipotence of Thoughts", "The Return of Totemism in Childhood". Though Totem and Taboo has been seen as one of the classics of anthropology, comparable to Edward Burnett Tylor's Primitive Culture and Sir James George Frazer's The Golden Bough, the work is now considered discredited by anthropologists; the cultural anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber was an early critic of Totem and Taboo, publishing a critique of the work in 1920; some authors have seen redeeming value in the work.
Freud, who had a longstanding interest in social anthropology and was devoted to the study of archaeology and prehistory, wrote that the work of Wilhelm Wundt and Carl Jung provided him with his "first stimulus" to write the essays included in Totem and Taboo. The work was translated twice into English, first by Abraham Brill and by James Strachey. Freud was influenced by the work including The Golden Bough. "The Horror of Incest" concerns incest taboos adopted by societies believing in totemism. Freud examines the system of Totemism among the Australian Aborigines; every clan has a totem and people are not allowed to marry those with the same totem as themselves. Freud examines this practice as preventing against incest; the totem is passed down hereditarily, either through the mother. The relationship of father is not just his father, but every man in the clan that, could have been his father, he relates this to the idea of young children calling all of their parents' friends as aunts and uncles.
There are further marriage classes, sometimes as many as eight, that group the totems together, therefore limit a man's choice of partners. He talks about the widespread practices amongst the cultures of the Pacific Islands and Africa of avoidance. Many cultures do not allow brothers and sisters to interact in any way after puberty. Men are not allowed to say each other's names, he explains this by saying that after a certain age parents live through their children to endure their marriage and that mothers-in-law may become overly attached to their son-in-law. Similar restrictions exist between a father and daughter, but they only exist from puberty until engagement. In "Taboo and emotional ambivalence," Freud considers the relationship of taboos to totemism. Freud uses his concepts projection and ambivalence he developed during his work with neurotic patients in Vienna to discuss the relationship between taboo and totemism. Like neurotics,'primitive' people feel ambivalent about most people in their lives, but will not admit this consciously to themselves.
They will not admit. The suppressed part of this ambivalence are projected onto others. In the case of natives, the hateful parts are projected onto the totem, as in:'I did not want my mother to die. Freud expands this idea of ambivalence to include the relationship of citizens to their ruler. In ceremonies surrounding kings, which are quite violent, – such as the king starving himself in the woods for a few weeks – he considers two levels that are functioning to be the "ostensible" and the "actual", he uses examples to illustrate the taboos on rulers. He says the kings of Ireland were subject to restrictions such as not being able to go to certain towns or on certain days of the week. In "Animism and the Omnipotence of Thought," Freud examines the animism and narcissistic phase associated with a primitive understanding of the universe and early libidinal development. A belief in magic and sorcery derives from an overvaluation of psychical acts whereby the structural conditions of mind are transposed onto the world: this overvaluation survives in both primitive men and neurotics.
The animistic mode of thinking is governed by an "omnipotence of thoughts", a projection of inner mental life onto the external world. This imaginary construction of reality is discernible in obsessive thinking, delusional disorders and phobias. Freud comments; the last part of the essay concludes the relationship between magic and taboo, arguing that the practices of animism are a cover up of instinctual repression. In "The Return of Totemism in Childhood," Freud combines one of Charles Darwin's more speculative theories about the arrangements of early human societies with the theory of the sacrifice ritual taken from William Robertson Smith to conclude that the origins of totemism lie in a singular event, when a band of prehistoric brothers expelled from the alpha-male group returned to kill their father, whom they both feared and respected. In this respect, Freud located the beginnings of the Oedipus complex at the origins of human society, postulated that all religion was in effect an