Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering.
Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, 100 acres of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall. Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act.
Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities; this ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White's resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy, former U. S. President Benjamin Harrison was serving on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time.
The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.
In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.
After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened
Jay Christopher Cutler is a retired American football quarterback who played in the National Football League for 12 seasons with the Chicago Bears. He played college football at Vanderbilt and was drafted by the Denver Broncos in the first round of the 2006 NFL Draft, for whom he played for three seasons. In 2009, he was traded to the Bears. After being released by Chicago in 2017, Cutler retired to become a sportscaster for NFL on Fox's television broadcasts, but returned for one more season with the Miami Dolphins when quarterback Ryan Tannehill suffered a season-ending injury, he retired a second time following the 2017 season. Jay Cutler was born in Santa Claus, Indiana, in 1983. Cutler attended Heritage Hills High School in Indiana, he started three years at quarterback for the Patriots football team, amassing a combined 26–1 record in his junior and senior years, including a perfect 15–0 during his senior year. Cutler and his team outscored opponents 746–85, including a 90–0 shutout at Pike Central.
During his senior year, Cutler connected on 122 of 202 passes for 2,252 yards with 31 touchdowns, while rushing 65 times for 493 yards with 11 touchdowns. He started at safety for three years, intercepting nine passes as a senior, 12th overall in the state, his team's perfect record during his senior year included the school's first 3A state championship, where Heritage Hills beat Zionsville in overtime, 27–24. The most notable play of the game occurred when Cutler lateraled the ball to the halfback, Cole Seifrig, who passed it to Cutler who ran it into the end zone. Cutler played strong safety in the state championship and made 19 tackles. Cutler was named a first-team All-State selection by the Associated Press as a senior. In addition to playing football in high school, he was a first-team all-state selection in basketball and garnered honorable mention all-state accolades as a shortstop in baseball. Cutler grew up as a Chicago Bears fan during his youth in Indiana. Cutler attended Vanderbilt University in Tennessee.
He started all 45 career games that he played for the Vanderbilt Commodores football team, the most starts by a quarterback in school history. He did not miss a game in college due to injury; the Commodores were 11–35 during his tenure, including going 5–27 versus the SEC. In 2002, Cutler set the school record for touchdowns and rushing yards by a freshman and rushed for more yards than any other Southeastern Conference quarterback that year; the Associated Press honored him with a first-team freshman All-SEC selection. In 2004, as a junior, Cutler completed 61.0 percent of his passes, setting a school record, while throwing for 1,844 yards with 10 touchdowns and a career-low five interceptions. The 2005 season, Cutler's final year of play at Vanderbilt, was his most successful; as an 11-game starter, he completed 273 of 462 passes for 3,073 yards, 21 touchdowns and nine interceptions, as he became the first Commodore to win the SEC Offensive Player of the Year since 1967. With his senior-season performance, Cutler became the second Commodore to throw for more than 3,000 yards in a season, while his 273 completions and 21 touchdowns ranked second on the school’s single-season list.
He led the Commodores to victories over Wake Forest, Ole Miss and Tennessee. The Commodores scored the second most points laid upon the Florida Gators at their current home field at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium. Vanderbilt nearly upset the 13th-ranked Gators before falling 49–42 in the second overtime after a controversial excessive celebration call prevented the Commodores from going for 2 at the end of regulation. Reflecting on Cutler's college career, former Denver Broncos safety John Lynch said, "If this guy can take a bunch of future doctors and lawyers and have them competing against the Florida Gators, this guy is a stud."Cutler ended his career by leading Vanderbilt past Tennessee 28–24, their first over the Volunteers since 1982, the first in Knoxville since 1975. Cutler passed for three touchdowns and 315 yards, becoming the first quarterback in school history to record four consecutive 300-yard passing performances. Cutler's final play in college was the game-winning touchdown pass to teammate Earl Bennett against Tennessee.
A finalist for the Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award, Cutler was a first-team All-SEC pick by the league’s coaches and led the conference with a school-record 3,288 yards of total offense. While at Vanderbilt, Cutler was a three-year captain and four-year starter, setting school career records for total offense, touchdown passes, passing yards, pass completions, pass attempts, combined touchdowns. Cutler graduated from Vanderbilt in 2005 with a bachelor's degree in human and organizational development; the Sporting News third-team freshman All-American Associated Press first-team freshman All-SEC First-team All-SEC SEC Offensive Player of the Year Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award finalist Maxwell Award Semifinalist Davey O'Brien Award Finalist Manning Award Finalist Sammy Baugh Trophy Finalist Vanderbilt University school career records: Total offense: 9,953 Combined touchdowns: 76 Cutler was ranked by many experts as the third-best quarterback prospect in the 2006 NFL Draft, after Matt Leinart of USC and Vince Young of Texas.
ESPN's Chris Mortensen and Ron Jaworski tabbed him as the best quarterback available in the draft, some scouts believed he had better arm strength than Young and Leinart, compared him to Brett Favre for his gunslinger attitude. At the 2006 NFL Scouting Comb
Santa Claus, Indiana
Santa Claus is a town in Spencer County, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. Located in Carter and Harrison Townships, it sits between Interstate 64 and the Ohio River; the population was 2,481 at the 2010 census. The town was known as Santa Fe. In 1856, when the town was working to establish a post office, the United States Postal Service refused their first application as there was a Santa Fe, Indiana established with the USPS. Several town meetings were held, during; the town has the world's only post office to bear the name of the eponymous Christmas figure. Because of this popular name, the post office receives thousands of letters to Santa from all over the world each year. A group of volunteers known as Santa's Elves ensures; every year, the post office creates a special Christmas hand-cancellation pictorial postmark for use during December, which attracts mail from all over the world. The pictorial postmark is chosen each year from submissions from art students at nearby Heritage Hills and South Spencer High Schools.
Santa Claus has grown since the 1990 census, which recorded 927 residents. A majority of Santa Claus residents live within the gated community of Christmas Lake Village, developed in the late 1960s by Bill Koch, it consists of 2,500 acres developed around three lakes: Christmas Lake, Lake Holly, Lake Noel. The street names in Christmas Lake Village are all named after the Christmas season. Many residents live in Holiday Village, a subdivision on the north side of town. Santa Claus is the home to numerous themed attractions including: Santa's Candy Castle, Santa Claus Museum, Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, Frosty's Fun Center, Christmas Lake Golf Course, Santa's Stables, it is home to Santa's Lodge and Lake Rudolph Campground & RV Resort. The community of Santa Claus was designed in 1849; the story of how it received the name of Santa Claus has roots both in legend. In January 1856 the town applied for a post office to be installed, they submitted their application under the name of Santa Fe. The application was returned to them with the message, "Choose some name other than Santa Fe."
The process of settling upon the name of Santa Claus has been lost to legend. There are many different versions of the story and there were other choices as well that the town did not settle upon. What is known is that in 1856, the name of Santa Claus was accepted by the Post Office Department. On June 25, 1895, as part of a nationwide standardization for place names, the post office name was changed to the one word Santaclaus; the town's unique name went unnoticed until the late 1920s, when Postmaster James Martin began promoting the Santa Claus postmark. The name was changed back to Santa Claus on February 17, 1928, it was that the Post Office Department decided there would never be another Santa Claus Post Office in the United States, due to the influx of holiday mail and the staffing and logistical problems this caused. The growing volume of holiday mail became so substantial that it caught the attention of Robert Ripley in 1929, who featured the town's post office in his nationally syndicated Ripley's Believe It or Not!
Cartoon strip. The town's name inspired Vincennes, Indiana entrepreneur Milt Harris to create Santa's Candy Castle, the first tourist attraction in Santa Claus, Indiana. Dedicated December 22, 1935 and sponsored by the Curtiss Candy Company, the red-brick Candy Castle is purported to be the first themed attraction in the United States. Another Santa Claus Town attraction, Toy Village, features a series of miniature fairytale buildings sponsored by prominent national toy manufacturers. Santa Claus Town led to the creation of the town's first newspaper, The Santa Claus Town News, the Santa Claus Chamber of Commerce. Harris' project caught the attention of a rival entrepreneur, Carl Barrett, the Chicago head of the Illinois Auto Club. Disliking what he called Harris' materialism, Barrett planned his own tourist attraction, Santa Claus Park. On December 25, 1935, Barrett dedicated a 22-foot tall statue of Santa Claus, erected on the highest hill in town; the statue was promoted as being solid granite, although it was subsequently revealed to be concrete when cracks formed years later.
Years of lawsuits between Harris and Barrett were costly distractions for the two entrepreneurs. The lawsuits went all the way to the Indiana Supreme Court. National news media covered the ongoing story of "Too Many Santas." Over the years, both entrepreneurs' visions neglected. On August 3, 1946, retired industrialist Louis J. Koch opened Santa Claus Land, claimed to be the world's first theme park; the park's name was changed to Holiday World in 1984. In 1993, it became Holiday World & Splashin' Safari when a water park named Splashin' Safari was added to the park. Still owned and operated by the Koch family, it attracts more than one million visitors annually, it is home to The Voyage, voted by coaster enthusiasts as the number one wooden roller coaster in the world. More the development of Christmas Lake Village as a gated community has more than doubled the population of Santa Claus. In 2005, a local development company purchased Santa's Candy Castle and other buildings that comprised Santa Claus Town and announced plans to restore and re-open them to the public, starting with Santa's Candy Castle on July 1, 2006.
The 40-ton, 22-foot concrete Santa Claus statu
Tampa Bay Buccaneers
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers are a professional American football franchise based in Tampa, Florida. The Buccaneers compete in the National Football League as a member team of the National Football Conference South division. Along with the Seattle Seahawks, the team joined the NFL in 1976 as an expansion team; the Bucs played their first season in the American Football Conference West division as part of the 1976 expansion plan, whereby each new franchise would play every other franchise over the first two years. After the season, the club switched conferences with the Seahawks and became a member of the NFC Central division. During the 2002 league realignment, the Bucs joined three former NFC West teams to form the NFC South; the club is owned by the Glazer family, plays its home games at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa. The Buccaneers are the first post-merger expansion team to win a division title, win a playoff game, to host and play in a conference championship game, they are the first team since the merger to complete a winning season when starting 10 or more rookies, which happened in the 2010 season.
In 1976 and 1977, the Buccaneers lost their first 26 games. They would not win their first game in franchise history until Week 13, of 14, in 1977. After a brief winning era in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the team suffered through 14 consecutive losing seasons. For a 10-year period, they were consistent playoff contenders and won Super Bowl XXXVII at the end of the 2002 season, but have not yet returned to the Super Bowl; as of the end of 2018 NFL season, the Buccaneers have played 43 seasons and compiled an overall record of 266–424–1, with a regular-season record of 255–404–1 and a playoff record of 6–9. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater and Sarasota. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises, such as the Buccaneers, Rays and the former Storm and Mutiny, denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa.
The Tampa Bay expansion franchise was awarded to Tom McCloskey, a construction company owner from Philadelphia. McCloskey soon entered a financial dispute with the NFL, so the league found a replacement in Hugh Culverhouse, a wealthy tax attorney from Jacksonville. Culverhouse's handshake deal to purchase the Los Angeles Rams from the estate of Dan Reeves was thwarted by Robert Irsay's purchase of the team, which he traded to Carroll Rosenbloom in exchange for the Baltimore Colts, a complete trade of teams between two owners. Culverhouse filed antitrust lawsuits in which he accused the NFL of conspiracy for preventing his purchase of the Rams, as part of his settlement with the league, he was given priority when the NFL expanded soon thereafter. A name-the-team contest resulted in the nickname "Buccaneers", a reference to José Gaspar, the mythical Florida pirate, the inspiration for Tampa's Gasparilla Pirate Festival; the team name was opposed by St. Petersburg businessmen on the grounds that it emphasized Tampa at the expense of other Bay Area cities, until NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle himself met with them to encourage their support.
Their uniforms and "Bucco Bruce" winking pirate logo were designed by Tampa Tribune artist Lamar Sparkman using colors drawn from the state's four major college teams at the time: orange from the universities of Miami and Florida, red from Florida State and the University of Tampa. They were one of the few teams to wear white home uniforms, forcing opponents to wear their warmer dark uniforms in Tampa's afternoon heat; the team's first home was Tampa Stadium, built in 1967 to attract an NFL franchise and was expanded in 1974 to seat just over 72,500 fans. John McKay, a college coach who had led the University of Southern California Trojans to four national championships in the 1960s and 1970s, was named the Buccaneers' first head coach in early 1976; the Bucs soon traded for Steve Spurrier, who had won a Heisman Trophy at the University of Florida in 1966, to be their starting quarterback for their expansion season. The Buccaneers joined the NFL as members of the AFC West in 1976; the following year, they were moved to the NFC Central, while the other 1976 expansion team, the Seattle Seahawks, switched conferences with Tampa Bay and joined the AFC West.
This realignment was dictated by the league as part of the 1976 expansion plan, so that both teams could play each other twice and every other NFL franchise once during their first two seasons. Instead of a traditional schedule of playing each division opponent twice, the Buccaneers played every conference team once, plus the Seahawks. Tampa Bay did not win their first game until the 13th week of their second season, starting with a record of 0–26; until the Detroit Lions in 2008, the 1976 Bucs were the only Super Bowl-era team to go winless in a whole season. Their losing streak caused them to become the butt of late-night television comedians' jokes, their first win came on the road against the New Orleans Saints. The Saints' head coach, Hank Stram, was fired after losing to the Buccaneers. Tampa Bay needed one more week to get their second victory, a home win over the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1977 season finale; the Cardinals fired their coach, Don Coryell, shortly
The Sun Bowl is a college football bowl game, played since 1935 in the southwestern United States at El Paso, Texas. Along with the Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl, it is the second-oldest bowl games in the country, behind the Rose Bowl. Held near the end of December, games are played at the Sun Bowl stadium on the campus of the University of Texas at El Paso. Since 2010, the game has been sponsored by Hyundai and known as the Hyundai Sun Bowl. Previous sponsors include John Hancock, Norwest Corporation, Wells Fargo and Brut; the first Sun Bowl was the 1935 edition, played on New Year's Day between Texas high school teams. In most of its early history, the game pitted the champion of the Border Conference against an at-large opponent; the first three editions were played at El Paso High School stadium switched to Kidd Field until the present stadium was ready in 1963. Through the 1957 season, the game was played on January 1 or January 2; the 1940 game set the record for fewest points scored, when the Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe Bulldogs played the Catholic University Cardinals to a scoreless tie, the only 0–0 result in Sun Bowl history.
In advance of the 1949 game, Lafayette College turned down an invitation from the Sun Bowl Committee, because the committee would not allow an African American player to participate. This bid rejection led to a large student demonstration on the Lafayette campus and in the city of Easton, against segregation. Due to a freak snowstorm before the 1974 game, followed by warming temperatures as the sun created a rising steam from the field during the first half, the game was nicknamed the "Fog Bowl"; the 1992 game was the final head coaching appearance of 2001 College Football Hall of Fame inductee Grant Teaff of Baylor. The 1994 game was voted the greatest Sun Bowl played, included four touchdowns by Priest Holmes, as Texas defeated North Carolina; the 2005 game set the record for most points scored, as UCLA defeated Northwestern 50–38. Since the NCAA started the use of overtime in Division I bowl games in 1995, the 2011 game is the only Sun Bowl to be decided in overtime, with Utah defeating Georgia Tech by a score of 30–27.
The game's current full title is the Hyundai Sun Bowl, which became the name after Hyundai Motor Company's American subsidiary bought naming rights to the bowl from Helen of Troy Limited on June 24, 2010. Hyundai signed a six-year extension, will sponsor the game through 2019. Hyundai becomes the fourth title sponsor of the Sun Bowl, after Helen of Troy, Norwest Corporation/Wells Fargo, John Hancock Insurance. Starting with the 2011 edition, the bowl has been contested between teams from the Pac-12 and ACC; the Sun Bowl is part of the ACC's pool arrrangement where the Belk, Music City, Gator bowls each share choice of the conference's eligible teams following the College Football Playoff and the Camping World Bowl. The Sun Bowl can take any team ranked fourth through eighth in the ACC; the Pac-12 employs the Sun Bowl as its fifth choice, behind the CFP and the Alamo and Redbox bowls. Italics denote a tie game. Source: The 1935 game was contested between high school teams. Named after the first Sun Bowl Association president, Dr. C. M. Hendricks.
Two players have been two-time MVPs. Source: Named after former Sun Bowl president Jimmy Rogers Jr. Source: Named after former Sun Bowl president John Folmer. Source: Only teams with at least three appearances are listed. California and Colorado are the only current Pac-12 members. Northern Arizona is the only former member of the Border Conference to have never appeared in a Sun Bowl. Updated through the December 2018 edition; the first edition of the game, played in 1935, was contested between high school teams. Records are based on teams' conferences at the time. Pac-12 records include appearances by teams when the conference was the Pac-8 and Pac-10. Source: Source: The Sun Bowl's contract with CBS Sports is the longest continuous relationship between a bowl game and one TV network, spanning since 1968 and running through at least 2019, it is one of only two college football games on CBS that does not involve the Southeastern Conference. Although every other year, CBS broadcasts the Notre Dame–Navy game when the latter is playing as the home team.
As of 2017, the game is one of only five bowls, not being carried by the ESPN family of networks - the Cure Bowl and Arizona Bowl are under contract with CBS Sports and air on CBS Sports Network, while the Holiday Bowl and Foster Farms Bowl rights are held by Fox Sports. The game traditionally kicks off at "High Noon" MST. Before 2010, Helen of Troy sponsored the halftime show, which featured such artists as Los Lonely Boys, The Village People, Baby Bash, David Archuleta and Diamond Rio. Official website
A running back is an American and Canadian football position, a member of the offensive backfield. The primary roles of a running back are to receive handoffs from the quarterback for a rushing play, to catch passes from out of the backfield, to block. There are one or two running backs on the field for a given play, depending on the offensive formation. A running back may be a wingback or a fullback. A running back will sometimes be called a "feature back"; the halfback or tailback position is responsible for carrying the ball on the majority of running plays, may be used as a receiver on short passing plays. In the modern game, an effective halfback must have a blend of both quickness and agility as a runner, as well as sure hands and good vision up-field as a receiver. Quarterbacks depend on halfbacks as a safety valve receiver when primary targets downfield are covered or when they are under pressure. Halfbacks line up as additional wide receivers; when not serving either of these functions, the primary responsibility of a halfback is to aid the offensive linemen in blocking, either to protect the quarterback or another player carrying the football.
If a team uses a Wildcat formation the halfback is the one who receives the snap directly instead of the quarterback. As a trick play, running backs are used to pass the ball on a halfback option play or halfback pass; the difference between halfback and tailback is the position of the player in the team's offensive formation. In historical formations, the halfback lined up halfway between the line of scrimmage and the fullback; because the halfback is the team's main ball carrier, modern offensive formations have positioned the halfback behind the fullback, to take advantage of the fullback's blocking abilities. As a result, some systems or playbooks will call for a tailback as opposed to a halfback. In Canadian football, the term tailback is used interchangeably with running back, while the use of the term halfback is exclusively reserved for the defensive halfback, which refers to the defensive back halfway between the linebackers and the cornerbacks. In most modern college and professional football schemes, fullbacks carry the ball infrequently, instead using their stronger physiques as primary "lead blockers."
On most running plays, the fullback leads the halfback, attempting to block potential tacklers before they reach the ball carrier. When fullbacks are called upon to carry the ball, the situation calls for gaining a short amount of yardage, as the fullback can use his bulkiness to avoid being tackled early. Fullbacks are sometimes receivers for passing plays, although most plays call for the fullback to block any defensive players that make it past the offensive line, a skill referred to as "blitz pickup". Fullbacks are technically running backs, but today the term "running back" is used in referring to the halfback or tailback. Although modern fullbacks are used as ball carriers, in previous offensive schemes fullbacks would be the designated ball carriers. In high school football, where player sizes vary fullbacks are still used as ball carriers. In high school and college offenses, the triple option scheme uses the fullback as a primary ball carrier; the fullback plays a unique role by establishing an inside running threat on every play.
College teams such as Georgia Tech and Air Force have employed the triple option scheme. While in years past the fullback lined up on the field for every offensive play, teams opt to replace the fullback with an additional wide receiver or a tight end in modern football. Fullbacks in the National Football League today carry or catch the ball since they are used exclusively as blockers. Fullbacks are still used as rushers on plays when a short gain is needed for a first-down or touchdown or to surprise the defense since they are not expecting a full back to run or catch the ball. Pro Football Hall of Fame members Jim Brown, Marion Motley, Franco Harris, John Riggins, Larry Csonka were fullbacks. There is a diversity in those. At one extreme are smaller, shiftier players; these quick and elusive running backs are called "scat backs" because their low center of gravity and maneuverability allow them to dodge tacklers. Running backs known for their elusiveness include Red Grange, Hugh McElhenny, Gale Sayers, Barry Sanders.
At the other extreme are "power backs:" bigger, stronger players who can break through tackles using brute strength and raw power. They are slower runners compared to other backs, run straight ahead rather than dodging to the outside edges of the playing field. Hall of Famers Earl Campbell, Bronko Nagurski, John Riggins, Larry Csonka, as well as NFL all-time leading rusher Emmitt Smith, were considered power running backs. Over the years, NFL running backs have been used as receivers out of the backfield. On passing plays, a running back will run a "safe route," such as a hook or a flat route, that gives a quarterback a target when all other receivers are covered or when the quarterback feels pressured. Hall of Famer Lenny Moore was a halfback who played as a pass receiver; some teams have a specialist "third down back,", skilled at catching passes or better at pass blocking and "picking up the blitz," and thus is
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro