Field hockey at the Summer Olympics
Field hockey, was introduced at the Olympic Games as a men's competition at the 1908 Games in London, with six teams, including four from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Field hockey was removed from the Summer Olympic Games at the 1924 Paris Games because of the lack of an international sporting structure; the International Hockey Federation was founded in Paris that year as a response to field hockey's omission. Men's field hockey became a permanent feature at the 1928 Gamesin Amsterdam. For a long time, India dominated the Olympics, winning the men's gold medal in seven out of eight Olympics from 1928 to 1964. Pakistan was dominant, winning three gold and three silver medals between 1956 and 1984. India lost their dominance after Pakistan after the 1990s. India won their last gold medal in Pakistan in 1984 Games. Since 1968, various teams from around the world have seen gold-medal success at the Olympics. Since 1968, several countries in the Southern Hemisphere have won various medals in men's and women's field hockey, including Australia, New Zealand and Zimbabwe.
A leading group of teams from the Northern Hemisphere has come from the Netherlands and from Germany. Spain has appeared in the most Olympic men's competitions without winning the men's gold medal, having won silver three times in 1980, 1996, 2008 and bronze once in 1960. Australia had competed in 11 Olympics without winning gold before breaking their streak in 2004; the first women's Olympic field hockey competition was held at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Olympic field hockey games were first played on artificial turf at the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games; until the 1988 Olympics the tournament was invitational but FIH introduced a qualification system since the 1992 games. India is the leading team in overall medal tally with 11 medals. India lead in most number of gold medals. # = states or teams that have since split into two or more independent nations45 teams have competed in at least one Olympic Games. # = states that have since split into two or more independent nationsAustralia and the Netherlands are the only teams to have competed at every Olympic Games, except for only one edition.
List of Olympic venues in field hockey
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Nestlé S. A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world, measured by revenues and other metrics, since 2014, it ranked No. 64 on the Fortune Global 500 in 2017 and No. 33 on the 2016 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list of largest public companies. Nestlé's products include baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals and tea, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, snacks. Twenty-nine of Nestlé's brands have annual sales of over CHF1 billion, including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Nesquik, Stouffer's, Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 189 countries, employs around 339,000 people, it is one of the main shareholders of the world's largest cosmetics company. Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George and Charles Page, Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé; the company grew during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products.
The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby's in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, Klim in 1998, Gerber in 2007. Nestlé has a primary listing on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the Swiss Market Index, it has a secondary listing on Euronext. Nestlé's origins date back to the 1860s, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would form the core of Nestlé. In the succeeding decades, the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In 1866, Charles Page and George Page, brothers from Lee County, Illinois, USA, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland, their first British operation was opened at Chippenham, Wiltshire, in 1873. In 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestlé soon began marketing it; the following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process.
Nestlé was the crucial co-operation that Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestlé retired in 1875 but the company, under new ownership, retained his name as Société Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé. In 1877, Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to their products. In 1879, Nestlé merged with milk chocolate inventor Daniel Peter. In 1904, François-Louis Cailler, Charles Amédée Kohler, Daniel Peter, Henri Nestlé participated in the creation and development of Swiss chocolate, marketing the first chocolate – milk Nestlé. In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947 when the name'Nestlé Alimentana SA' was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA and its holding company, Alimentana SA, of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of related foodstuffs; the company's current name was adopted in 1977.
By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain. The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestlé's production had more than doubled. In January 1919, Nestlé bought two condensed milk plants in Oregon from the company Geibisch and Joplin for $250,000. One was in Bandon, they expanded them processing 250,000 pounds of condensed milk daily in the Bandon plant. Nestlé felt the effects of the Second World War immediately. Profits dropped from US$20 million in 1938 to US$6 million in 1939. Factories were established in developing countries in Latin America; the war helped with the introduction of the company's newest product, Nescafé, which became a staple drink of the US military. Nestlé's production and sales rose in the wartime economy. After the war, government contracts dried up, consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestlé's management responded streamlining operations and reducing debt.
The 1920s saw Nestlé's first expansion into new products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the company's second most important activity. Louis Dapples was CEO till 1937 when succeeded by Édouard Muller till his death in 1948; the end of World War II was the beginning of a dynamic phase for Nestlé. Growth accelerated and numerous companies were acquired. In 1947 Nestlé merged with a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus, Libby's, Stouffer's. Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oreal in 1974. In 1977, Nestlé made its second venture outside the food industry, by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. In the 1980s, Nestlé's improved bottom line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions. Carnation was acquired for $3 billion in 1984 and brought the evaporated milk brand, as well as Coffee-Mate and Friskies to Nestlé. In 1986 Nestlé Nespresso S. A. was founded. The confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh was acquired in 1988 for $4.5 billion, which brought brands such as Kit Kat and Aero.
The first half of the 1990s proved to be favourable for Nestlé. Trade barriers crumbled, world markets developed into more or less integrat
University of Southampton
The University of Southampton is a research university located in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University College, awarding degrees from the University of London. On 29 April 1952, the institution was granted full university status, allowing it to award its own degrees. Southampton is a founding member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities in Britain. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework the university was ranked 18th in the United Kingdom for average quality of research submitted, 11th for research power and 8th for research intensity; the university has seven teaching campuses. The main campus is located in the Highfield area of Southampton and is supplemented by four other campuses within the city: Avenue Campus housing the Faculty of Humanities, the National Oceanography Centre housing courses in Ocean and Earth Sciences, Southampton General Hospital offering courses in Medicine and Health Sciences, Boldrewood Campus an engineering and maritime technology campus housing the university's strategic ally Lloyd's Register.
In addition, the university operates a School of Art based in nearby Winchester and an international branch in Malaysia offering courses in Engineering. Each campus is equipped with its own library facilities; the University of Southampton has 17,535 undergraduate and 7,650 postgraduate students, making it the largest university by higher education students in the South East region. The University of Southampton Students' Union, provides support and social activities for the students ranging from involvement in the Union's four media outlets to any of the 200 affiliated societies and 80 sports; the university owns and operates a sports ground at nearby Wide Lane for use by students and operates a sports centre on the main campus. The University of Southampton has its origin as the Hartley Institution, formed in 1862 from a benefaction by Henry Robinson Hartley. Hartley had inherited a fortune from two generations of successful wine merchants. At his death in 1850, he left a bequest of £103,000 to the Southampton Corporation for the study and advancement of the sciences in his property on Southampton's High Street, in the city centre.
Hartley was an eccentric straggler, who had little liking of the new age docks and railways in Southampton. He did not desire to create a college for many but a cultural centre for Southampton's intellectual elite. After lengthy legal challenges to the Bequest, a public debate as to how best interpret the language of his Will, the Southampton Corporation choose to create the Institute. On 15 October 1862, the Hartley Institute was opened by the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston in a major civic occasion which exceeded in splendor anything that anyone in the town could remember. After initial years of financial struggle, the Hartley Institute became the Hartley College in 1883; this move was followed by increasing numbers of students, teaching staff, an expansion of the facilities and registered lodgings for students. In 1902, the Hartley College became the Hartley University college, a degree awarding branch of the University of London; this was after inspection of the teaching and finances by the University College Grants Committee, donations from Council members.
An increase in student numbers in the following years motivated fund raising efforts to move the college to greenfield land around Back Lane in the Highfield area of Southampton. On 20 June 1914, Viscount Haldane opened the new site of the renamed Southampton University College. However, the outbreak of the First World War six weeks meant no lectures could take place there, as the buildings were handed over by the college authorities for use as a military hospital. To cope with the volume of casualties, wooden huts were erected at the rear of the building; these were donated to university by the War Office after the end of fighting, in time for the transfer from the high street premises in 1920. At this time, Highfield Hall, a former country house and overlooking Southampton Common, for which a lease had earlier been secured, commenced use as a halls of residence for female students. South Hill, on what is now the Glen Eyre Halls Complex was acquired, along with South Stoneham House to house male students.
Further expansion through the 1920s and 1930s was made possible through private donors, such as the two daughters of Edward Turner Sims for the construction of the university library, from the people of Southampton, enabling new buildings on both sides of University Road. During World War II the university suffered damage in the Southampton Blitz with bombs landing on the campus and its halls of residence; the college decided against evacuation, instead expanding its Engineering Department, School of Navigation and developing a new School of Radio Telegraphy. Halls of residence were used to house Polish and American troops. After the war, departments such as Electronics grew under the influence of Erich Zepler and the Institute of Sound and Vibration was established. On 29 April 1952, Queen Elizabeth II granted the University of Southampton a Royal Charter, the first to be given to a university during her reign, which enabled it to award degrees. Six faculties were created: Arts, Engineering, Economics and Law.
The first University of Southampton degrees were awarded on 4 July 1953, following the appointment of the Duke of We
Diageo plc is a British multinational alcoholic beverages company, with its headquarters in London and offices on six continents. It was the world's largest distiller until being overtaken by China's Kweichow Moutai on 9 April 2017. Diageo's brands include Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker and Guinness, it owns 37% of Moët Hennessy, which owns brands including Moët & Chandon, Veuve Clicquot and Hennessy. It has offices in around 80 countries. Diageo has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Diageo is an invented name, created by the branding consultancy Wolff Olins in 1997; the name is composed of the Latin word diēs, meaning "day", the Greek root geo-, meaning "world". Diageo was formed in 1997 from the merger of Grand Metropolitan, its creation was driven by Guinness executives Anthony Greener and Philip Yea along with George Bull and John McGrath of Grand Metropolitan. Anthony Greener was the first executive chairman.
Shares in Diageo began trading on the London Stock Exchange on 17 December 1997. Diageo owned Pillsbury until 2000. In 2002, Diageo sold the Burger King fast food restaurant chain to a consortium led by US firm Texas Pacific for $1.5 billion. In February 2011, Diageo agreed to acquire the Turkish liquor company Mey Icki for $2.1 billion. In May 2012, Diageo agreed to acquire Ypioca, the largest-selling brand of premium cachaça in Brazil, for £300 million. In June 2012, Diageo announced a £1 billion investment in Scotch whisky production over the following five years, with at least one new distillery to be constructed, several existing facilities to be expanded, overall production capacity to be increased by 30 to 40 percent; this did not, involve retaining the original Johnnie Walker plant in Kilmarnock, which had closed its doors in March the same year. In November 2012, Diageo agreed to acquire a 53.4% stake in the Indian spirits company United Spirits for £1.28 billion. In 2013, Diageo joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
In November 2014, Diageo agreed to sell Bushmills Irish whiskey in exchange for $408 million and full ownership of tequila brand Don Julio. In October 2015, Diageo announced the sale of most of its wine business to Treasury Wine Estates. Other brands, such as Navarro Correas and Chalone Vineyard, were sold separately. In December 2015, Diageo announced a $10 million investment in Danish whisky brand Stauning, to facilitate expansion of production. In March 2016, the company sold Grand Marnier, a cognac and bitter orange-based liqueur, to the Italian beverage company Campari Group. In February 2017, Diageo announced plans to open a Guinness brewery and tourist attraction in Baltimore County, Maryland; the brewery could create 70 new jobs and host as many as 300,000 visitors per year. In June 2017, Diageo agreed to buy George Clooney's high-end tequila brand, for up to $1 billion. In February 2018, Diageo announced plans for limited edition bottles of its 12-year-old Black Label blended whisky named Jane Walker, as opposed to Johnnie Walker, to be sold.
The label will feature a striding woman on the label rather than the top-hatted man associated with the brand. In November 2018, Diageo agreed to sell Seagram's VO, Seagram's 83, Myers's Rum, Popov vodka, Booth's Gin, Goldschläger, Yukon Jack, 11 other brands to the Sazerac Company for $550 million. In 2016, Diageo was ranked 11th out of 4,255 companies worldwide for diversity and inclusiveness in the Thomson Reuters Diversity and Inclusion Index. Diageo's beverage brands include: Beer: Guinness, Smithwick's, Harp Lager, Meta Scotch whisky: Johnnie Walker, Buchanan's, Justerini & Brooks, Bell's, Black & White, White Horse, Caol Ila, Vat 69, Talisker, Black Dog, Glen Ord, Dalwhinnie, Clynelish, Haig, Royal Lochnagar, Glen Elgin, The Dimple Pinch, King George IV, Inchgower Vodka: Smirnoff, Cîroc, Silent Sam, Ketel One Gin: Gordon's, Nolet's Rum: Captain Morgan, Pampero, Zacapa Bourbon: Bulleit, I. W. Harper, Orphan Barrel American whiskey: Seagram's Seven Crown Canadian whisky: Crown Royal Tennessee whiskey: George Dickel Irish whiskey: Roe & Co Tequila: Don Julio, DeLeón, Casamigos Schnapps:Rumple Minze Baijiu: Shui Jing Fang, Nếp Mới Mixed drinks: Archers, Pimm's, Jeremiah Weed, Smirnoff Cocktails Liqueur: Baileys, Godiva Rakı: Yeni Rakı, Tekirdağ Rakısı, Kulüp Rakı, AltınbaşDiageo distributes Unicum, its lighter-bodied variant Zwack.
Diageo is the world's biggest whisky producer with malt distilleries in Blair Athol, Dalwhinnie, Royal Lochnagar, Cardhu, Glen Ord, Talisker, Caol Ila and Lagavulin. Other distilleries include Linkwood, Auchroisk, Cameron Bridge, Dufftown, Cascade Hollow, Glen Elgin, Teaninich, Mortlach and Glenlossie, it has the large Roseisle distillery in Speyside. Diageo owns a 34% stake in the Moet Hennessy drinks division of French luxury goods company LVMH. In 2017, the company was awarded top place in the Institute of Directors' and Chartered Quality Institute's Good Governance Index. Diageo's head office is in Park Royal, London Borough of Brent, on a former Guinness brewery property; the brewery was closed in 2004. In 1996, Diageo moved to a head office
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the game date back to the Middle Ages in Pakistan; the game can be played on grass, water turf, artificial turf or synthetic field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball; the length of the stick depends on the player's individual height. Only one face of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick; the specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States.
Known as "hockey" in many territories, the term "field hockey" is used in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term "landhockey" is used and to some degree in Norway where it is governed by Norway's Bandy Association. During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick. Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team.
If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds; the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires. If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored; the governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior and masters club competitions. The FIH is responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field, reduced to 40 m × 20 m.
With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball, the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick. There is a depiction of a field hockey-like game in Ancient Greece, dating to c. 510 BC, when the game may have been called Κερητίζειν because it was played with a horn and a ball. Researchers disagree over, it could have been one-on-one activity. Billiards historians Stein and Rubino believe it was among the games ancestral to lawn-and-field games like hockey and ground billiards, near-identical depictions appear both in the Beni Hasan tomb of Ancient Egyptian administrator Khety of the 11th Dynasty, in European illuminated manuscripts and other works of the 14th through 17th centuries, showing contemporary courtly and clerical life.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior, to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have for about 1,000 years been playing beikou, a game with some similarities to field hockey. A similar field hockey or ground billiards variant, called suigan, was played in China during the Ming dynasty. A game similar to field hockey was played in the 17th century in Punjab state in India under name khido khundi. In South America, most in Chile, the local natives of the 16th century used to play a game called chueca, which shares common elements with hockey. In Northern Europe, the games of hurling and Knattleikr, both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule, akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert