Edmund Rice (colonist)
Edmund Rice, was an early immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony born in Suffolk, England. He lived in Stanstead and Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire before sailing with his family to America, he landed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in summer or fall of 1638, thought to be first living in the town of Watertown, Massachusetts. Shortly thereafter he was a founder of Sudbury in 1638, in life was one of the thirteen petitioners for the founding of Marlborough in 1656, he was a deacon in the Puritan Church, served in town politics as a selectman and judge. He served five years as a member of the Great and General Court, the combined colonial legislature and judicial court of Massachusetts. Edmund Rice's rough birth date of 1594 is reckoned from a 3 April 1656 court deposition in Massachusetts in which he stated that he was 62 years old, his birthplace, somewhere in Suffolk in East Anglia, is found through the town of his marriage and of his earliest children's births. Many of the church records from 1594 in Suffolk are lost, so any record of his birth or the names of his parents or any of his forebears is unknown.
Edmund Rice had a presumed brother, who married Elizabeth Frost on 12 November 1605 at St. James Church, Suffolk 52.111652°N 0.690641°E / 52.111652. Repeated attempts to find record of Edmund Rice's birth or the birth of his presumed brother Henry in church or civil records of the Stanstead, Sudbury and Bury St. Edmunds region of Suffolk have not been successful and the records are presumed to be lost. Considerable information about the early life of Edmund Rice in England can be gleaned from his children's baptismal records, as well as land ownership and other public records in Stanstead and Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, he moved from Stanstead to Berkhamsted sometime in 1626, based upon the baptismal dates of his children Thomas and Lydia. That same year as a newcomer in town, Rice was named as a joint trustee along with Rev. Thomas Newman of a £50 grant for the benefit of the poor from King Charles I given on the occasion of his coronation. Under the incumbency of Rev. Newman, Rice served as a churchwarden at St. Peter's Church and acted as overseer of the poor for eight years.
As a result of a royal inquisition held on 1 April 1634, funds remaining in the custody of Rice and Newman were to be transferred to the bailiff and burgesses of Berkhamsted as part of an effort to transfer and consolidate several royal charity grants for administration under civil authority. While living in Berkhamsted, Rice acquired and was taxed on 3 acres of land in 1627, on 15 acres from 1633 to 1637. There is no record in Berkhamsted of Rice paying taxes on his land in 1638 due to its sale to finance his trip to America. There is no surviving record of Edmund Rice's voyage to America with his family, but it was speculated to have occurred between the 13 March 1638 baptism of his son Joseph in Berkhamsted and the petition to the Great and General Court to found Sudbury, Massachusetts 6 September 1638, showing all the Sudbury petitioners residing in Watertown, MA. However, the 1638 petition to the General Court to found Sudbury did not explicitly mention Rice's name, so documentation of Rice's presumed short-term residence in Watertown is poor.
The first documented record of his presence in Massachusetts is in the Township Book of Sudbury prior to 4 April 1639 in which he was serving as a selectman. Between 1638 and 1657, Rice resided in Sudbury. Sumner Chilton Powell wrote in his 1964 Pulitzer Prize-winning Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, "Not only did Rice become the largest individual landholder in Sudbury, but he represented his new town in the Massachusetts legislature for five years and devoted at least eleven of his last fifteen years to serving as selectman and judge of small causes." He was appointed on 4 September 1639 by the General Court to lay out the roads and lots of Sudbury, he was granted 4 acres of land near the original Sudbury meetinghouse 42.373835°N 71.372609°W / 42.373835. On 3 April 1640, Rice was granted 20 acres in southeastern Sudbury near the Old Connecticut Path, he served as a selectman in Sudbury in 1639 and 1640, subsequently for several years between 1644 and 1656. He was designated a freeman on 13 May 1640, was first elected as a deputy of the Great and General Court in October 1640.
He was appointed by the General Court on 2 June 1641 as a Judge of Small Causes for Sudbury, serving until 1648 in the appointed position. From 1648 until 1654 he was elected and reelected locally in Sudbury as one of the municipal judges, he was reelected for another year term as a deputy of the General Court in 1643. In 1644 Rice and two other Sudbury residents were appointed to survey the farm properties of the estate of the deceased Joseph Glover near the southeastern boundary of Sudbury to be transferred to Harvard College President Henry Dunster who had married Glover's widow Elizabeth and assumed responsibility for the Glover children. On 18 June 1645, his colleagues reported to the General Court on their survey. In 1648, Rice was ordained as a Deacon in the Puritan Church at Sudbury, he was appointed by the General Court on 22 May 1651 as a member of a commission to settle a boundary dispute between Watertown and Sudbury, he was reelected as a deputy of the General Court in each of the three years from 1652 through 1654.
Again in May 1656, Rice and Peter Noyes were called upon by the General Court for their expertise to survey 11 acres of land purchased by John Stone of
Massachusetts General Court
The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when the colonial assembly, in addition to making laws, sat as a judicial court of appeals. Before the adoption of the state constitution in 1780, it was called the Great and General Court, but the official title was shortened by John Adams, author of the state constitution, it is a bicameral body. The upper house is the Massachusetts Senate, composed of 40 members; the lower body, the Massachusetts House of Representatives, has 160 members. It meets in the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill in Boston; the current President of the Senate is Karen Spilka, the Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo. Since 1959, Democrats have controlled both houses of the Massachusetts General Court by large majorities; the Democrats enjoyed veto-proof super-majorities in both chambers for part of the 1990s and presently hold supermajorities in both chambers.
State Senators and Representatives both serve two-year terms. There are no term limits; the legislature is a full-time legislature, although not to the extent of neighboring New York or some other states. As of 2018, the General Court was composed of 25 percent female representation; each Representative represents about 41,000 residents. The speaker of the House has been quite powerful, exerting significant influence over all aspects of state government. Representative districts are named for the primary county in which they are located, tend to stay within one county, although some districts contain portions of adjacent counties; the current composition of the House is 32 Republicans and 1 Independent. There are 40 senatorial districts in Massachusetts, named for the counties in which they are located; each state Senate district contains about 164,000 constituents. The current composition of the Senate is 6 Republicans; the General Court is responsible for enacting laws in the state. The two legislative branches work concurrently on pending laws brought before them.
Lawmaking begins when legislators, or their delegates, file petitions accompanied by bills, resolves or other types of legislation electronically, using the Legislative Automated Workflow System. The electronically submitted legislation is received in the House or Senate Clerk's office where the petitions and resolves are recorded in an electronic docket book; the clerks assign them to appropriate joint committees. There are 26 of these committees, each responsible for studying the bills which pertain to a specific area; each committee is composed of six senators and eleven representatives. The standing committees schedule public hearings for the individual bills, which afford citizens and lobbyists the opportunity to express their views. Committee members meet at a time in executive session to review the public testimony and discuss the merits of each bill before making their recommendations to the full membership of the House or Senate. Note that the public may still observe "executive" sessions, but may not participate in these meetings.
The committee issues its report, recommending that a bill "ought to pass" or "ought not to pass" and the report is submitted to the Clerk's office. The first reading of a favorably reported bill is automatic and occurs when the committee's report appears in the Journal of the House or Senate. Matters not requiring reference to another Joint, House or Senate committee are, following the first reading, referred without debate to the Committee on Senate Rules if reported in the Senate, except certain special laws are placed directly on the Senate Calendar, or, without debate to the House Steering and Scheduling committee if reported into the House. Reports from Senate Rules or House Steering and Scheduling are placed on the Calendar of the Chamber receiving the report for a second reading. If a bill reported favorably by a joint committee affects health care it is referred by the House or Senate Clerk to the joint committee on Health Care Financing; the Health Care Financing Committee is required to provide an estimated cost of the bill, when making their report.
If the estimated cost is less than $100,000, the bill bypasses having to be referred to Ways and Means. If a bill is not related to health care, but affects the finances of the Commonwealth, or, if it is reported by the Health Care Financing Committee with an estimated cost greater than $100,000, it is referred to the Senate or House Committee on Ways and Means after the first reading. Adverse reports are referred to the Committee on Steering and Policy in the Senate or placed without debate in the Orders of the Day for the next session of the House. Acceptance by either branch of an adverse report is considered the final rejection and the matter of the matter. However, an adverse report can be overturned. A member may move to substitute the bill for the report, and, if the motion to substitute carries, the matter is then
Thomas Rice (1654)
Thomas Rice was a member of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts representing Marlborough in 1715 and 1716 and was a founder of Westborough, Massachusetts on 18 November 1717, a selectman for the town in 1718 and 1727. Thomas Rice was born on June 1654 to Thomas Rice and Mary Rice in Sudbury, Massachusetts, he was a 1638 immigrant from England and founder of Sudbury. Rice married Anna Rice, daughter of Deacon Edward Rice and Agnes Bent, on January 10, 1681 at Marlborough and they had 14 children. Rice's brother Jonas was an early founder of Worcester. Rice was among the first to settle prior to 1675 in the southwestern portion of Marlborough known as Chauncey, the portion of Marlborough that became Westborough. Rice's home was a fortified garrison house, used by area settlers for refuge from Indian raids during King Philip's War 1675-1676. During Queen Anne's War in 1704, two of Rice's sons and Ashur, were abducted from a flax field in Marlborough by Mohawk raiders from Canada, he was one of the founding members of the town on 18 November 1717, one of the original members of the Congregational Church at Westborough begun by Ebenezer Parkman in 1724.
He represented the Town of Marlborough in the Great and General Court of Massachusetts, the colonial legislature in Boston in 1715 and 1716. And he served as a selectman in Westborough in the years 1718 and 1727. Thomas Rice died in 1747, with the Boston Gazette claiming he died at age 94. Thomas Rice at Find a Grave
Marlborough is a city in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 38,499 at the 2010 census. Marlborough became a prosperous industrial town in the 19th century and made the transition to high technology industry in the late 20th century after the construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike. Marlborough was declared a town in 1660, it was incorporated as a city in 1890 when it changed its Municipal charter from a New England town meeting system to a Mayor–council government. John Howe in 1656 was a fur trader and built a house at the intersection of two Indian trails, Nashua Trail and Connecticut path, he could speak the language of the Algonquian Indians though the local tribe referred to themselves as the Pennacooks. The settlers were welcomed by the Indians because they protected them from other tribes they were at war with. In the 1650s, several families left the nearby town of Sudbury, 18 miles west of Boston, to start a new town; the village was named after the market town in Wiltshire, England.
It was first settled in 1657 by 14 men led by John Ruddock and John Howe. Rice was elected a selectman at Marlborough in 1657. Sumner Chilton Powell wrote, in Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, "Not only did Rice become the largest individual landholder in Sudbury, but he represented his new town in the Massachusetts legislature for five years and devoted at least eleven of his last fifteen years to serving as selectman and judge of small causes." The Reverend William Brimstead was the first minister of the Puritan church and Johnathan Johnson was the first blacksmith. Marlborough was one of the seven "Praying Indian Towns" because they were converted to Christianity by the Rev. John Eliot of Roxbury. In 1674 a deed was drawn up dividing the land between the natives; this is the only record of names of the natives. The settlement was destroyed by Native Americans in 1676 during King Philip's War. In 1711 Marlborough's territory included Northborough, Southborough and Hudson.
As population and travel grew in the colonies, Marlborough became a favored rest stop on the Boston Post Road. Many travelers stopped at its inns and taverns, including George Washington, who visited the Williams Tavern soon after his inauguration in 1789. In 1836, Samuel Boyd, known as the "father of the city," and his brother Joseph, opened the first shoe manufacturing business - an act that would change the community forever. By 1890, with a population of 14,000, Marlborough had become a major shoe manufacturing center, producing boots for Union soldiers, as well as footwear for the civilian population. Marlborough became so well known for its shoes that its official seal was decorated with a factory, a shoe box, a pair of boots when it was incorporated as a city in 1890; the Civil War resulted in the creation of one of the region's most unusual monuments. Legend has it that a company from Marlborough, assigned to Harpers Ferry, appropriated the bell from the firehouse where John Brown last battled for the emancipation of the slaves.
The company left the bell in the hands of one Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder for 30 years, returning in 1892 to bring it back to Marlborough; the bell now hangs in a tower at the corner of Main Street. Around that time, Marlborough is believed to have been the first community in the country to receive a charter for a streetcar system, edging out Baltimore by a few months; the system, designed for passenger use, provided access to Milford to the south, Concord to the north. As a growing industrialized community, Marlborough began attracting skilled craftsmen from Quebec, Ireland and Greece. Shoe manufacturing continued in Marlborough long after the industry had fled many other New England communities. Rice & Hutchins, Inc. operated several factories in Marlborough from 1875 to 1929. Famous Frye boots were manufactured here through the 1970s, The Rockport Company, founded in Marlborough in 1971, continues to maintain an outlet store in the city. In 1990, when Marlborough celebrated its centennial as a city, the festivities included the construction of a park in acknowledgment of the shoe industry, featuring statues by the sculptor David Kapenteopolous.
The construction of Interstates 495 and 290 and the Massachusetts Turnpike has enabled the growth of the high technology and specialized electronics industries. With its easy access to major highways and the pro-business, pro-development policies of the city government, the population of Marlborough has increased to over 38,000 at the time of the 2010 census. Marlborough is located at 42°21′3″N 71°32′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.2 square miles, of which, 21.1 square miles of it is land and 1.1 square miles of it is water. The Assabet River cuts across the northwest corner of the city. Within city limits are three large lakes, known as Lake Williams, Millham Reservoir and Fort Meadow Reservoir. Marlborough is crossed by Interstate 495, U. S. Route 20 and Massachusetts Route 85; the eastern terminus of Interstate 290 is in Marlborough. Marlborough is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by six municipalities: Berlin, Sudbury, Framingham and Northborough.
As of the census of 2000, there were 36,255 people, 14,501 households, 9,280 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,719.4 people per square mile. There were 14,903 housing units at an average density of 706.8 per square mi
For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Westborough, please see the article Westborough, Massachusetts. Westborough is a town in Worcester County, United States; the population was 18,272 at the 2010 Census, in nearly 6,900 households. Incorporated in 1717, the town is governed under the New England open town meeting system, headed by a five-member elected Board of Selectmen whose duties include licensing, appointing various administrative positions, calling a town meeting of citizens annually or whenever the need arises. Before recorded time, the area now known as Westborough was a well-travelled crossroads; as early as 7,000 BC, prehistoric people in dugout canoes followed the Sudbury and Assabet Rivers to their headwaters in search of quartzite for tools and weapons. From 1200 to 1600 AD, seasonal migrations brought Nipmuc Indians to hunt and fish near Cedar Swamp and Lake Hoccomocco. Using Fay Mountain as a landmark, Indians crisscrossed Westborough on well-worn paths: the old Connecticut Path leading west from Massachusetts Bay.
The early English explorer John Oldham followed these trails through Westborough in 1633, settlers in search of fertile farmlands followed not long after. By late 1675, a few families had settled in the "west borough" of Marlborough. On November 18, 1717, Westborough was incorporated as the hundredth town in Massachusetts, populated by twenty-seven families, including Thomas Rice who had represented Marlborough in the Great and General Court. Soon large farms were carved out, mills built along the Assabet River and Jackstraw Brook, taverns flourished. Westborough's first minister, Reverend Ebenezer Parkman, shepherded the growing town of colonists through the years toward independence from Great Britain. Forty-six minutemen from Westborough fought under Captain Edmund Brigham in the Revolutionary War. In 1775, Northborough split off as the "north borough" of Westborough, much as Westborough split off from Marlborough some 58 years before. However, the two towns shared a meetinghouse for some time more.
In 1810 the route from Boston to Worcester was straightened and improved into an official turnpike, along its Westborough route, the Wesson Tavern Common, Forbush Tavern and Nathan Fisher's store prospered. The center of commerce shifted downtown in 1824 with the arrival of the steam train through Westborough's center; the railroad brought a new era to the town industry: over the next century, local factories shipped boots and shoes, straw hats, textiles and abrasive products, across the nation. Westborough dairies supplied cities with milk and local greenhouses shipped out carnations, while the eight orchards found ready markets for their produce. In 1848 the State Reform School for Boys, the first publicly funded reform school in the United States, was opened on Lake Chauncy, it operated as a State reform school until 1884 at which time the newly established Westborough State Hospital took over the property. In the same year, the reform school was relocated nearby on Chauncy Street and renamed The Lyman School for Boys.
The industrial progress of the entire country is indebted to Westborough's most famous native son Eli Whitney Jr. Born in 1765, Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1795 after graduating from Yale. In 1798 he introduced mass production to the United States at his Whitney Arms Company in New Haven, Connecticut. Westborough is home to several listings on the National Register of Historic Places: Nathan Fisher House: East of Shrewsbury on MA 9 Joseph Lothrop House: On the corner of Route 9 and Park Street. Lyman School for Boys: Junction of Oak St. and Milk St. Maples Cottage: East of Shrewsbury on Oak St. Vintonville Historic District: Roughly bounded by Cottage, Pine, Beach Streets, rear of properties along the east side of South Street Jonah Warren House: 64 Warren Street West Main Street Historic District: Roughly bounded by Milk, Main and Fay streets Expanded to include 83–118 West Main Street Westborough State Hospital: Along Lyman St. North of Chauncy Lake and junction of Milk St. and MA 9 According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 21.6 square miles, of which 20.5 square miles of it is land, 1.1 square miles of it is water or 5.09 percent.
Westborough contains the headwaters of the Assabet rivers. The town contains numerous bodies of water, including Lake Chauncy, George H. Nichols Reservoir, Westboro Reservoir, Hocomonco Pond, Cedar Swamp Pond. Lake Chauncy is open to swimming and fishing, has a public beach open to residents of Westborough and Northborough during the summer months; the average elevation of the town is 300 feet. Westborough is located in east/central Massachusetts, located about 28 miles west of Boston and 12 miles east of Worcester, it is bordered by six towns. Data from the U. S. Census of 2010 shows there were 18,272 people, 6,924 households, 4,763 families residing in the town; the population density was 891.3 people per square mile. The latest 2010–2014 American Community Survey estimated the town's total population higher, at 18,481, residing in 7,551 households. According to the latest ACS estimate, the racial makeup of the town was 73.8% White, 2.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 18.3% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, 3.4%
Worcester Historical Museum
The Worcester Historical Museum, located in downtown Worcester, was founded in 1875 as the Worcester Society of Antiquity. This museum is the only institution devoted to local history and artifacts; the scope of their collection ranges from colonial to twentieth-century, encompassing manuscripts, textiles and ceramics. The museum is made up of permanent and temporary exhibits, research library, owns and operates the local Salisbury Mansion; the library maintains more than 7,000 titles. There is one permanent exhibit at the museum in the Fuller Gallery of Industrial History, entitled "In their shirt sleeves." This collection covers the Industrial history of Worcester through donated artifacts as well as items the Institution has collected over the decades. Dealing with a time period spanning over a century, the collection highlights the accomplishment of Worcester locals and the impact their inventions had on the area and beyond, they have three other exhibit areas that house temporary displays.
The research library is open to the public for Tuesday through Saturday 10-4 pm. Access to the archives material is available through appointment. Worcester Historical Museum website